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oa^-B>. "A 







.**., Part II, No. I.— 1890. 

EDITED BY 

J, Wood-Mason, P s 9^ / ■'' 






" The bounds of its investigation will be the geographical limits of Asia : and 
within these limits its inquiries will be extended to whatever is performed by 
man or produced by nature." — Sib William Jones. 

*** Communications should be sent under cover to the Secretaries, Asiat. Soc, 
to whom all orders for the work are to be addressed in India; or, in Lon- 
don, care of Messrs. Trubner and Co., 57 Sf 59, Ludgate Hill. 



CALCUTTA: 

Printed at the ^aptist /Mission f^Ess, 

AND PUBLISHED BY THE 
^SIATIC SOCIETY, 57, fARK ^TREET. 




1890, 



49 S 

ob (exclusive of postage) to Subscribers, Be. 1.— -To .Non-Subscribers, Be. 1-8 
Price in England, 2 Shillings and sixpence. 

Issued May 17th, 1890 



I. — „. . . occasional Inversion of the '±t,... s 

the Hills and Plains of Northern India. — x, 
M. A., Meteorological Reporter to the Government 

II. — Natural History Notes from H. M. Indian h. 
Steamer 'Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpen. 
D. S. O., commanding. — No. 14. Observations on the Gestation 
of some Sharks and Bays. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B., Surgeon- 
Naturalist to the Marine Survey, (With PI. I.) 

HI. — On Clebsch's Transformation of the Hydrohinetic Equations. — 

By Asutosh Mukhopadhtay, M. A., P. R. A. S., P. R. S. E., 56 

iy. — Note on Stokes's Theorem and Hydrohinetic Circulation.' — By 

Asdtosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., F. R. A. S., P. R. S. E., 59 

V. — On a Curve of Aberrancy. — By Asutosh Mukhopadhtay, M. A., 

P. R. A. S., F. R. S. E., CI 

VI. — Natural History Notes from H. M. Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., 
D. S. O., commanding — No. 15. Descriptions of seven addi- 
tional new Indian Amphipods. — By G. M. Giles, M. B., F. R. 
C. S., late Surgeon-Naturalist to the Survey, ("With PI. II.) Go 



}lf 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



Part II.— NATURAL SCIENCE. 



No. I.— 1890. 



I. — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature Relations between the' 
Hills and Plains of Northern India. — By John Eliot, M. A., Mete- 
orological Reporter, to the Government op India. 

[Received December 2nd ; — Read December 4th, 1889.] 

One of the more important features of the meteorology of the month 
of January 1889 in Northern India was the remarkable variations of the 
temperature relations between the hills and plains of Northern India 
and more especially of Upper India. Under normal conditions of de- 
crease of temperature vertically the temperature at the Punjab hill 
stations should be 15° to 20° lower than at the adjacent plain stations. 
The relation is sometimes reversed in the cold weather and the ni»ht 
temperatures are found to be several degrees higher at the hill stations 
than in the Punjab plains. Such variations or inversions of the or- 
dinary temperature relations are of occasional occurrence in all moun- 
tain and adjacent valley districts. They have been observed in pre- 
vious years in Northern India, but were larger and more prominent in 
Northern India in January 1889 than has been the case for many years.* 
The present hence appears to be a favourable period for discussing the 

* Similar large and prolonged inversions of temperature occurred in the years 
1879, 1880, and 1881 in Upper India. 
i~ 1 



2 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of tlw Temperature [No. 1, 

facts and causes of these occasional inversions of temperature in North- 
ern India. 

Before commencing with the subject proper of the paper it is de- 
sirable to give a summary of what is known generally of these occasional 
inversions of the ordinary vertical temperature relations. 

Ferrel states it is probable the diurnal temperature oscillations of 
the upper strata of the atmosphere in the open air away from the in- 
fluence of contact with the Earth's surface are extremely small. The 
effect of the Earth's temperature on that of the air above is not so 
great as it is below, so that this causes the amplitudes in the oscilla- 
tions of the air temperature near the Earth's surface, though less than 
those of the Earth's surface, to be greater than those of the air 
above. The effect of this, it is readily seen, is to cause the temperatures 
in winter and during the night to approximate more nearly to the tem- 
peratures above, and hence to diminish the rate of deci'ease of tempera- 
ture with increase of altitude at these times. But during the summer 
and the warmest part of the day, the effect is the reverse ; it causes the 
temperatures below to differ still more from the temperatures above, and 
hence to increase the rate of diminution of temperature with increase of 
altitude. In the diurnal oscillations the rate near the surface at night 
from the effect of nocturnal cooling is reversed for some distance above the 
Earth's surface, the temperature being greater above than at the surface. 
As the Earth cools, the air in contact also cools when the air- is calm 
until the surface and likewise the lower air strata are cooled very low 
and the law of decrease of temperature is reversed. It is different 
during the day. The increase of the temperature of the Earth's surface, 
and of the lower strata in contact, brings about a state of unstable equi- 
librium from which at once arises a vertical interchange of air, by means of 
ascending and descending currents, which tend to equalize, in some mea- 
sure, the temperatures above and below, so that, although the Earth's sur- 
face may be heated to a much higher temperature than the air immediately 
above, the decrease of temperature with increase of altitude never becomes 
very much greater than that of about 1° C. for 100 meters, corresponding 
to the initial state of unstable equilibrium. The effect of the heat of the 
Earth's sui'face cannot be confined to the lower strata merely, as that of 
the cooling of the surface is, but, as soon as the first stratum in contact 
with the Earth is heated, the effect is carried to those above. 

Sprung also refers in his meteorology to the same subject and states that 
the inversion of the ordi nary temperature relations takes place occasionally, 
and usually during periods of very high pressure, and when the amount 
of cloud and humidity is abnormally small. The cause of the increased 
temperature at a higher elevation is ascribed to compression of the air. 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 3 

The following extract from an article on Climate in the Encyclo- 
pcedia Britannica (written by A. Buchan, Esq.), I believe, fairly repre- 
sents the opinion of English meteorologists on this subject: — 

" These results which only affect the mean daily temperature in 
different seasons, and which are due exclusively to differences of ab- 
solute height, though of the greatest possible practical importance, yet 
leave untouched a whole field of climatological research — a field embra- 
cing the mean temperature of different hours of the day at different 
heights, for an explanation of which we must look to the physical con- 
figuration of the earth's surface and to the nature of that surface, whether 
rock, sand, black soil, or covered with vegetation. 

" Under this head by far the most important class of conditions are 
those which result in extraordinary modifications, amounting frequently 
to subversions of the law of the decrease of temperature with the height. 
This will perhaps be best explained by supposing an extent of country 
diversified by plains, valleys, hills and table-lands to be under atmos- 
pheric conditions favourable to rapid cooling by nocturnal radiation. 
Each part being under the same meteorological conditions, it is evident 
that terrestrial radiation will proceed over all at the same rate, but the 
effects of radiation will be felt in different degrees and intensities in 
different places. As the air in contact with the declivities of hills and 
rising grounds becomes cooled by contact with the cooled surface, it ac- 
quires greater density and consequently flows down the slopes and ac- 
cumulates on the low-lying ground at their base. It follows, therefore, 
that places on rising ground are never exposed to the full intensity of 
frosts at night ; and the higher they are situated relatively to the im- 
mediately surrounding district the less are they exposed, since their re- 
lative elevation provides a ready escape downwards for the cold air 
almost as speedily as it is produced. On the other hand, valleys sur- 
rounded by hills and high grounds not only retain their own cold of 
radiation, but also serve as reservoirs for the cold heavy air which pours 
down upon them from the neighbouring heights. Hence mist is fre- 
quently formed in low situations whilst adjoining eminences are clear. 
Along low-lying situations in the valleys of the Tweed and other rivers 
of Great Britain, laurels, araucarias, and other trees and shrubs were 
destroyed during the great frost of Christmas I860, whereas the same 
species growing on relatively higher grounds escaped, thus shewing by 
incontestible proof the g'reat and rapid increase of tempei^ature with 
height at places rising above the lower parts of the valleys. 

" This highly interesting subject has been admirably elucidated by 
the numerous meteorological stations of Switzerland. It is there ob- 
served in calm weather in winter, when the ground becomes colder 



John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

than the air above it, that systems of descending currents of air set in 
over the whole face of the country. The direction and force of these 
descending currents follow the irregularities of the surface and, like 
currents of water, they tend to converge and unite in the valleys and 
gorges, down which they flow like rivers in their beds. Since the place 
of these air-currents must be taken by others, it follows that on such 
occasions the temperature of the tops of mountains and high grounds is 
relatively high, because the counter-currents come from a great height 
and are therefore warmer. Swiss villages are generally built on emi- 
nences rising out of the sides of the mountains with ravines on both 
sides. They are thus admirably protected from the extremes of cold in 
winter, because the descending cold air-currents are diverted aside into 
the ravines and the counter-currents are constantly supplying warmer 
air from the higher regions of the atmosphere. 

" Though the space filled by the down-flowing current of cold air 
in the bottom of a valley is of greater extent than the bed of a river, it 
is yet only a difference of degree, the space being in all cases limited 
and well defined, so that in rising above it in ascending the slope the 
increased warmth is readily felt, and, as we have seen, in extreme frosts 
the destruction to trees and shrubs is seen rapidly to diminish. The 
gradual narrowing of a valley tends to a more rapid lowering of the 
temperature for the obvious reason that the valley thereby i^esembles a 
basin almost closed, being thus a receptacle for the cold air-currents 
which descend from all sides. The bitterly cold furious gusts of wind 
which are often encountered in mountainous regions during night are 
simply the outrush of cold air from such basins." 

The most important recent contribution to the subject is a memoir on 
"Mountain Meteorology" by Professor William Morris Davis, Harvard 
College, Cambridge, U. S., in which he gives a summary of the 
facts up to date. In this he points out that examples of inversion 
of temperature relations are by no means rare in mountain districts 
in Europe and America, and that they are most common in winter. 
He quotes a monograph of Professor Hann's which states that the 
inversion is best shewn in hill-enclosed valleys where the air stagnates 
and is not replaced by air from above. Such inversions, it is there 
pointed out, are most frequent during the passage of areas of high 
pressure or the prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions. The unusual 
warmth in the hill regions is shewn to be an effect of the compres- 
sion of the descending air, whilst the cold in the valleys and low 
ground is due to other causes, and takes place in spite of the descent of 
air into it. A remarkable example in Europe of the inversion due to 
the prevalence of anti-cyclonic conditions occurred in December 1879 



1890.] Relations lehveen the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 5 

and was the subject of numerous investigations. Hann, in his paper on 
Die Temperatur Verhaltnisse des Decembers 1879, investigated the 
matter very thoroughly. He made in that paper a comparison between 
the temperature of Klagenfurth (in the valley) and Hochober (at an 
elevation of 5215 ft. above Klagenfurth), and states that from December 
6th to 18th it was continually warmer on the mountain than in the 
valley. The mean difference of the 7 A. M. temperatures for these thirteen 
days was 23'4° in favour of the mountain, at 2 p. m. 212°, and at 9 P. M. 
19'6° F. Other examples are given in the same memoir of the abnormal 
vertical temperature conditions which occasionally obtain in Europe and 
America. Buchan, in a paper published in the Journal of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society, states that on the 31st December 1883 the tem- 
perature at the top of Ben Nevis was 4'5° higher than at Fort "William. 
In this case too pressure was abnormally high. Woeikoff, the Director 
of the Russian Meteorological Department, on the strength of certain 
evidence, believes there is a persistent inversion of temperature during 
the winter in Siberia. Inversion of temperature is also said to be of 
common occurrence on Mount Washington (in Massachusetts). It is 
also occasionally shewn by the Pikes' Peak Observations. That moun- 
tain has an elevation of 14134 feet and is 8,840 feet higher than Denver. 
Professor Loomis gives 39 examples of higher temperature at the top 
of Pikes' Peak than at Denver from four years' observations. In the 
most extreme cases the differences of temperature amounted to 15° and 
16°. It may be noted that these inversions all occux-red during the 
winter. 

It is not necessary to quote from the earlier meteorological works 
of Herschel, Buchan, &c, as they only recognize the occasional oc- 
currence of lower temperature at night in valleys than on the adjacent 
hills, and ascribe the effect chiefly to the flow of cold air down the sides 
of the hills. 

Recent meteorological writings in some cases continue to ascribe the 
cooling almost entirely to the descent of the air from the mountain sides 
into the valleys, and state that the inversion of the vertical temperature 
relations is of comparatively frequent occurrence in mountanous districts. 
The facts about to be given, however, appear to indicate the probabi- 
lity that these inverse relations which are exhibited by the mountain 
observations are due to general conditions that prevail in plains 
as well as in mountain districts, and hence that similar relations may 
obtain much more generally and widely than is usually supposed. No 
distinct statement, however, occurs to this effect, so far as I am aware, 
and the evidence of inversion of the vertical temperature relations is, in 
the absence of suitable balloon observations, confined to differences be- 



6 John Eliot— On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

tween mountain stations and the neighbouring valley or other low-lyino- 
stations. They are hence assumed to be phenomena restricted to 
hills and the neighbouring confined valleys and hence of limited extent. 
The explanation generally given, whilst making the inversion a pheno- 
menon of terrestrial radiation, attaches much weight to the flow of cool 
air down the mountain sides into the valleys, and hence suggests that it 
is peculiar to mountain districts. 

The present paper will, I believe, prove that inversion may occur 
over very large plain areas, and that it has, in some cases at least, little 
or nothing whatever to do with air motion between hills and valleys. 
It will also shew that the vertical temperature relations during the cold 
weather in Northern India are much more variable and complicated 
than they have been hitherto supposed to be, and that the descensional 
motion which accompanies cooling of the air during the night in fine clear 
weather is almost entirely one of slow compression, and is not the 
opposite of the ascensional and convective movement which takes place 
largely during the day, or, in Professor Ferrel's suggestive words, " the 
effect of the heating of the earth's surface is not confined to the lower 
strata merely, as that of the cooling of the surface is, but as soon as the 
first stratum in contact with the earth is heated, the effect is carried to 
these above." The principle is, I believe, of great importance generally, 
and more especially in India, in connection with the production of the dry 
winds of the Gangetic plain during the hot weather months of , March, 
April, and May. 

The paper consists of three parts ; — 1st, a statement of the normal 
meteorological temperature conditions of the plain and hill districts of 
Upper India in the month of January and of certain meteorological 
conditions and actions upon which temperature mainly depends ; 2nd, 
a statement of the more striking abnormal temperature relations of the 
month of January 1889 and of the cold weather period generally in 
Upper India ; and 3rd, a discussion of the causes which produce these 
unusual temperature conditions and variations. 

It may be premised that one or two of the actual observations 
quoted for the month of January 1889 appear to me to be somewhat 
doubtful. I have, however, thought it best to include them, as it is on the 
whole more probable that they are exaggerated examples of the peculiar 
temperature relations about to be discussed than that they represent 
instrumental or observational errors. 

The following table gives the average maximum temperatures of 
the month of January of certain selected pairs of stations in Upper 
India, each pair consisting of a hill station and the nearest plain 
station at which there is an observatory : — 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



Names of pairs of 
stations. 



a 


CQ 


o 


£3 


=H . 


a 


o a 


d 


<*> .2 




g -3 




a c« 






a 

CQ 


o 


a 



Mean maximum tem- 
perature for January. 



Hill 
station. 



Plain 
station. 



g 5 

a & 



cS 9 



° 0) 

g ■» . 

M ^ - 

o 
a 

?„ M 

bo c 



c^ c © 






" O J3 * 
grid JO 

3 ® 2 

c3 -^ o i— i 



Quetta 

Jacobabad 

Murree 

Rawalpindi 

Simla 

Ludhiana 

Chakrata 

Roorkee 

Ranikhet 

Bareilly 

Dhubri 

Darjeeling 

Deesa 

Mount Abu 

Paohmarhi 

Hoshangabad 



5300 


163 


4700 


30 


6200 


80 


6200 


58 


5500 


90 


7300 


116 


3500 


40 


2500 


48 



51-6° 
47-8° 
51-2° 
501° 
540° 
44-3° 
671° 
70-6° 



73-3° 
63'3° 
67-6° 
69 4° 
701° 
73-4° 
82'2° 
80-1° 



21-7° 


155° 


164° 


193° 


161° 


291° 


151° 


9 5° 



41° 
33° 

2-7° 
31° 
2 9° 
4-0° 
4 3° 
38° 



A full description of these observatories and of the more important 
local peculiarities of exposure will be found in Mr. Blanford's Report on 
the Meteorology of India for 1885. It will suffice here to point out 
that both Ranikhet and Simla are situated at some distance within the 
first line of hills, whereas Murree and Chakrata are practically on the 
crest of the first line of elevations overlooking the plains. Assuming these 
as more typical of the relations between hills and plains, the preceding 
data shew that in Upper India the temperature near the hills decreases 
vertically with elevation at the hottest time of the day in the month of 
January very nearly 3° in 1000 feet up to a height of 7000 feet^at least. 
The remarkably low day temperature at Darjeeling during this period as 
shewn by the table appears to be due to the following causes, of which 
the first is probably the most influential. 

1st. — The great humidity and large amount of fog at that station 
(as in the Eastern Himalayan districts generally) in January, in 
which respects it contrasts strikingly with the hill stations of 
Upper India, where the air is, except in stormy weather, very 
dry and clear. 
2nd. — The contiguity of the immense snow mass of Kanchinjunga 
and neighbouring mountains, which include some of the highest 
peaks in the Himalayas. This area embraces an enormous ex- 
tent of snow covered ground, the southern edge of which (in 
summer) is at a distance as the crow flies of not more than 30 



John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

or 35 miles from Darjeeling. The first line of snows is at a 
distance of at least 45 or 50 miles from Simla and Murree and at 
a distance of about 40 miles from Chakrata. The neighbouring 
areas of perpetual snow are of greater elevation and of con- 
siderably less extent in the case of all these stations than of 
Darjeeling and hence exercise a much smaller influence. 
As the meteorological conditions of Darjeeling are thus essentially 
different from those of the hill stations of Upper India, it will be ex- 
cluded from the final discussion, although data for it are given in the 
tables for the preliminary comparisons. 

The following table gives the average minimum temperature data 
for the same pair of stations for the month of January. 







s> 




Mean minimum tem- 


Difference of mini- 
mum tempera- 
ture of plain and 
hill stations. 


fde- 
per- 

!0ld- 

the 
Oft. 


Names of pairs 


of 


CM 
CD O 

I'-i 

a 

5 


1 

,g 

<r> 
o 

a 

CO 

-^ 

m 

s 


perature for January. 


rate o: 
of tem 
t the c 
iod of 
er 100 


stations. 


Hill 
station. 


Plain 

station. 


Average 
crease 
ature a 
est per 
night p 


Quetta 
Jacobabad 


:::} 


5300 


163 


29-2° 


42-8° 


136° 


2-6° 


Murree 
Rawalpindi 


:::! 


4700 


30 


355° 


379° 


2'4° 


0-5° 


Simla 
Ludhiana 


:::! 


6200 


80 


36-4° 


43-5° 


7-1° 


1-1° 


Chakrata 
Hoorkee 


:::} 


6200 


58 


35-7° 


44-2° 


8-5° 


1-4° 


Eanikhet 
Bareilly 


:::} 


5500 


90 


395° 


459° 


6'4° 


1-2° 


Dhubri 
Darjeeling 


:::} 


7300 


116 


34-6° 


535° 


189° 


26° 


Deesa 
Mount Abu 


:::! 


3500 


40 


509° 


51-1° 


02° 





Pachmarhi 
Hoshangabad 


:::} 


2500 


48 


47'2° 


52-5° 


53° 


21° 



This table shews that at all these stations the average difference 
of temperature at night is much smaller than by day. The rate of 
difference is greatest in the cases of Quetta and Jacobabad, Pach- 
marhi, and Hoshangabad, and Darjeeling and Dhubri, for which it 
averages about 2° or less than half of the rate of difference for the 
maximum temperature. The result for Deesa and Mount Abu is so 
anomalous as to point to peculiar local conditions, the nature of which 
have, however, not yet been determined.* In the case of the pairs of 
stations in Upper India the average rate of change of temperature with 

* I have recently (January 1890) visited these two stations : the temperature 
observations are carefully recorded, and are taken under the same conditions of ex- 



1890.] Relations between the Sills and Plains of Northern India, 9 

elevation at night in January varies from 0'5° for Murree and Rawal- 
pindi to l - 4° for Chakrata and Roorkee, and averages 1°, that is, little more 
than one third of the day rate of decrease of temperature vertically. 

These two tables may hence be summarized as follows : — 

(a). The rate of decrease of temperature with elevation at the 
time of maximum day temperature in the month of January averages 
3° per 1,000 feet in the Western Himalayas and 4° per 1,000 feet in the 
Eastern Himalayas up to 7,000 feet and in the Aravalli and Vindliya 
Hills and perhaps also in Beluchistan. 

(b). The rate of decrease of temperature with elevation at night 
or at the time of minimum temperature averages 1° per 1,000 feet in the 
Western Himalayas, 2° per ],000 feet in the Eastern Himalayas and 
Vindhyas, and 2|° per 1,000 feet in Beluchistan. 

An interesting point in connection with the night temperature in 
the plains of Upper India is shewn by the data of the following table. 
The first column gives the average minimum temperature of the month 
of January at stations nearest to the hills and the second that of stations 
at a greater distance than those of the first column. 





S § 




B S 


ze between 

tempera- 

f the two 

s for each 

-B. 


o "o 




s © 


Plain stations 




GO "JS 


Plain stations near 


.5 


at consider- 


'3 5 


ts a 


hills. 


"S| £ 


able distance 


S £ £» 


=5 d »; 




8 £3 

£ a a 
a & B 


from hills. 


d 5? & 

§ S g 


« ° a <j 

CD d O ^ 
J< c« <B '43 U 


zonf 
wee 
tion 




O) ra 




cd cd m 


,<B CD '■* c3 "2 


•j-* ■ 4 - 3 c3 




S~^ 




feS •+= Hs 
3 


a a^la 






(A. 




(B.) 


p 


M 


Eawalpindi 


379° 


Peshawar 


39 r 


— 1-2° 


100 miles 


Sialkot 


42 9° 


Lahore 


42-4° 


05° 


75 , 




Ludhiana 


43-5° 


Sirsa 


42-4° 


1-1° 


100 , 




Roorkee 


442° 


Meerut 
C Delhi 


44-4° 


— 0-2° 


60 , 
90 , 




Bare illy 


45-9° 


< Agra 






120 , 








(. Lucknow 


45-9° 


0° 


125 , 








I Allahabad 


47-5° 


1-1° 


125 , 




Gorakhpur 


48'6 


1 Benares 


47-9° 


07° 


100 , 




Dhubri 


535° 


Berhampore 


532° 


03° 


150 , 





The geographical relations between Rawalpindi and Peshawar are 
quite different from those of the other pairs of stations, which are all 
situated in the great plain of Northern India stretching along the foot 
of the Himalayas from the North Punjab to East Bengal. 



posure as at other stations in India. Several series of hourly observations of tem- 
perature during the night have been recently taken, and, as they confirm the con- 
clusions of the present paper, I hope to discuss them in a brief paper to be 
submitted to the Society shortly. 
2 



10 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

The differences here are small and to some extent undoubtedly depend 
upon the peculiarities of position of the observatories at the observing 
stations Their genei'al uniformity, however, appears to indicate clearly 
that the lowest minimum temperatures in January in the great Nor- 
thern or Gangetic plain of India are not found at and near the foot 
of the hills, but in the midst of the great plain at a distance of 100 to 
200 miles from the Himalayas, or, as it might be more fully expressed, 
the axis of minimum or lowest night temperature in Northern 
India in the month of January runs nearly parallel to the Himalaya 
mountains at a distance from their southern base varying from 100 to 
200 miles. This fact seems to be of great importance as it shews that, 
whatever the rapid cooling in these plains may be due to, it cannot 
be ascribed to the cause usually assigned for the greater cold in valleys 
than in hill sides, viz., the sinking of air cooled by contact with the 
sides of the hills into the valleys. For it is not possible that the 
cooled air sinking down with a motion which is imperceptible to 
the anemometer or senses should produce the greatest effects at 
distance of one or two hundred miles from the foot of the hills and 
where the temperature is higher by day, as is shewn by the following 
table : — 





a c* 




a *j 




CD 




'B t-a 




Hj 


cd q^ h 


^3 




.2 o 




a a 


a oj 


CD 




a 5 

a g 


Plain stations 


'►J 

CO -& 

a g . 


d O SH 
CD <4H O 
CD — - 

£ CD 53 «sj 


O 

-g g 


Plain stations 


3 a g 

CD CD 2 


at consider- 


§a § 

(D ffl P 


CD O 


'& '-§ 


near hills. 


able distance 


o"P'| « 


C3 OT 




3* a 


from hills. 


£~ a 


2 a °-ti 


o <" 
N » 




(A.) 




(B.) 


SH " ^ S 

«g +3 -u ft 
P 


o •* 
M 


Rawalpindi 


633° 


Peshawar 


64 0° 


7° 


100 miles 


Sialkot 


66 7° 


Lahore 


67 '6° 


0-9° 


75 „ 


Lndhiana 


67-6° 


Sirs a 


708° 


3-2° 


100 „ 


Roorkee 


694° 


Meerut 


701° 


07° 


60 „ 






C Delhi 


71-0° 


09° 


90 „ 


Bareilly 


70-1° 


] Agra 


73-4° 


3-3° 


120 „ 






(. Lncknow 


73-8° 


37° 


125 „ 


Gorakhpur 


73-4° 


f Allahabad 
( Benares 


73 6° 

74-7° 


0-2° 
1-3° 


125 „ 
100 „ 


Dhubri 


73'4° 


Berhampore 


78-2° 


4-8° 


150 „ 



The following table gives mean daily temperature (i. e., means of the 
maximum and minimum temperatures) data of the month of January for 
the same pairs of stations: — 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 11 



Pairs of stations. 



Quetta . . . 

Jacobabad 

Murree ... 

Rawalpindi 

Simla 

Ludhiana 

Chakrata 

Roorkee ... 

Ranikhet 

Bareilly ... 

Dhnbri ... 

Darjeeling 

Deesa 

Mount Abu 

Pachmarhi 

Hoshangabad 



<° o 

o .y 

c ■« 
o a 

S-i > 
<D CO 



5300 
4700 
6200 
6200 
5500 
7300 
3500 
2500 



Mean daily tempera- 
ture January. 



Hill sta- 
tion. 
(A.) 



Plain sta- 
tion. 
(B.) 



40-4° 
41'7° 
43-8° 
42-8° 
46'7° 
39-5° 
59 0° 
58'9° 



580° 
506° 
556° 
56 8° 
580° 
63-5° 
667° 
663° 



I Difference. 


IN 

o o 

05 o 
T3 o 

° ~Z 
05 5 


17-6° 


3 3° 


8-9° 


1-9° 


11-8° 


1-9° 


140° 


2-3° 


11-3° 


2-1° 


24-0° 


33° 


7-7° 


2'2° 


7-4° 


3-0° 



The data of this table are not of much importance in connection 
with the present discussion. They shew that the average decrease of 
temperature with elevation (as determined from day and night observa- 
tions) varies from l - 9° per 1000 feet in the North-West Himalayas to 3-3° 
per 1000 feet in Beluchistan and Sind, where the general climatic con- 
ditions at that time are apparently very similar to those of the Punjab. 

The following table gives the average daily range of temperature at 
the plain and hill stations of each pair of stations. 





Average daily range 






of temperature for 


Ratio of daily 




January. 


range at plain sta- 


Pairs of stations. 


Hill 


Plain 


tion to that 
at hill station. 




station. 


station. 


(B.) 




(A.) 


(B.) 


(A.) 


Quetta 




22.4° 


30-5° 


1-4° 


Jacobabad 














Murree 
Rawalpindi 








12-3° 


25-4° 


2-1° 


Simla 
Ludhiana 








14' 8° 


24.1° 


1-6° 


Chakrata 
Roorkee 








14-4° 


25-2° 


1-7° 


Ranikhet 








14 5° 


24-2° 


1-7° 


Bareilly 














Darjeeling 
Dhubri 








9-7° 


19-9° 


2-0° 


Mount Abu 








16-2° 


311° 


19° 


Deesa 














Pachmarhi 








23-4° 


276° 


1-2° 


Hoshangabad 













12 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

This shews that in Upper India the average daily range of tem- 
perature in January is very nearly twice as great in the plains as at the 
adjacent hill stations at elevations of 6000 to 7000 feet. The ratio is 
even greater in the Eastern Himalayas, the daily range of temperature 
probably varying from 2\ to 3 times as much in Assam and North 
Bengal as it is in the adjacent Himalayas at an elevation of 7000 feet. 
In the hills of Upper India this diminished range of temperature 
cannot be ascribed to any deficiency of radiating power, either of the 
sun or of the earth at this period of the year, for the air is much clearer 
(free from dust, smoke, etc.) and drier in the hills than the plains in Up- 
per India, and, as shewn in the following tables, solar heat is absorbed more 
largely by day and terrestrial heat given out more rapidly by night in the 
hills than in the adjacent plain districts. The only measure for the radi- 
ating power in either case that we at present possess is the average daily 
difference between the readings of the solar radiation thermometer 
and maximum thermometer in the one case and between the readings of 
the grass radiation thermometer and minimum thermometer in the 
other. The following two tables give these differences for the pair of 
stations selected. 







Average difference be- 
tween readings oi solar 








radiation and maximum 


Ratio of differ- 






thermometer in shade. 


ence for hill 






January. 


station to that 


Names of pairs of stations. 






for plain sta- 








tion. 






Hill 


Plain 








stations. 


station. 


A. 






A. 


B. 


B. 


Quetta 

Jacobabad ... ... 


::] 


629° 


599° 


11° 


Murree 


.J 


60-4° 


50-6° 


1-2° 


Rawalpindi ... 








Simla ... 
Ludhiana 


::) 


62-7° 


51-5° 


1-2° 


Chakrata 
Roorkee 


::} 


67-0° 


543° 


1-2° 


Ranikliet 
Bareilly 


::] 


60-7° 


480° 


1-3° 


Darjeeling ... 
Dhubri 


::) 


54'4° 


50-1° 


1-1° 


Mount Abu ... 
Deesa 


::} 


62-2° 


53-4° 


1-2° 


Pachniarhi ... ... 

Hoshangabad 


::) 


61 '8° 


55-8° 


11° 



1890.] Relations betiveen the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



13 



This table establishes conclusively that the average direct heating 
power of the sun is greater at the hill stations in January than at the 
corresponding plain stations. And, if it might be assumed that the re- 
lative intensity in the two cases is, roughly speaking, proportional to 
the ratios given in the preceding table, the heating power of the sun at 
an elevation of 7000 feet in the Himalayas is on the average about one- 
fifth greater than at the level of the adjacent plains, or, in consequence of 
the absorbing action of the lower strata, the sun is one-sixth less power- 
ful in heating the earth's surface at the level of the plains than it is at 
that of the hill stations of the Himalayas. 

The following table gives similar data for nocturnal radiation from 
the Earth's surface : — 



Names of pairs of stations. 


Average difference between 
grass radiation thermo- 
meter readings and those 
of minimum in shade ther- 
mometer for January. 


Ratio of differ- 
ence for hill 
station to that 
of corresponding 




Hill 

station. 
A. 


Plain 

station. 

B. 


plain station 
A. 
B. 


Quetta ... ... ... ) 

Jaoobabad ... ... ... ) 

Murree ... ... ... 1 

Rawalpindi ... ... ... ) 

Simla ... ... ... S 

Ludhiana ... ... ... j 

Chakrata ... ... ... S 

Roorkee ... ... ... j 

Ranikhet ... ... ,.\ 

Bareilly ... ... ... J 

Darjeeling ... ... ... l 

Dhubri ... ... ... \ 

Mount Abu ... ... ... i 

Deesa ... ... ... | 

Pachmarhi ... ... ... "i 

Hoshangabad ... ... j 


10-4° 
11-4° 
122° 
9-5° 
13'0° 
10-3° 
17-1° 
120° 


10-1° 
7-3° 
9-8° 
7-2° 
8-3° 
69° 
9-1° 
8-5° 


1-0° 
1-6° 
1-3° 
1-3° 
1-6° 
1-5° 
19° 
1-4° 



These figures show that nocturnal radiation goes on much more 
rapidly at the hill stations than at the adjacent plain stations, and that 
the ratios as measured by the differences given in the preceding table are 
much greater than the ratios in the corresponding tables for solar radia- 
tion. Taking the average of all the stations as a rough approximation, 
they appear to indicate that nocturnal radiation goes on upwards of 50 
per cent, more rapidly at the hill stations than at the adjacent plain 
stations. 



14 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

This result is undoubtedly in part due to the greater length of 
the night (or period of effective terrestrial radiation) than of the day 
in the month of January in Northern India, and perhaps also to the 
greater clearness and homogeneity of the atmosphere arising from the 
stillness of the air and absence of wind at night as compared with the 
day. It will, however, be presently seen it is probable that the mean 
monthly minimum temperature at the hill stations represent an average 
of conditions different from that at the plain stations and hence the figures 
given above are almost certainly of little value for the comparison of 
nocturnal radiation in the plains and hills of Northern India. It is, 
however, evident that the figures as a whole support the inferences based 
on the known laws of radiation from cooling bodies. It is certain there- 
fore that in clear weather in January, if there were no other action than 
mere radiation and heating and cooling of the adjacent air by contact 
with the Earth's surface, the Earth's surface and adjacent air would be 
heated to a greater extent by day and cooled to a larger amount at night 
at the hill stations than at the plain stations and hence the daily range 
of temperature might be expected on this account alone to be consider- 
ably greater (probably from 10° to 20°) at the hill stations than at 
the plains. 

The following table gives the average cloud amount during the 
month at the selected stations. 







Mean proportion of cloud 


Ratio of cloud 






in January. 


proportion of hill 
station to plain 


Names of pairs of stations. 






station. 






Hill 


Plain 








station. 


station. 


A. 






A. 


B. 


B. 


Quetta 


:::! 


4-4 


2-6 


1-7 


Jacobabad ... 








Murree 


:::} 


5-8 


4-4 


13 


Rawalpindi ... 








Simla 


:::) 


5-6 


39 


14 


Ludhiana 








Chakrata 


-\ 


4-8 


3-4 


1-4 


Roorkee 


... ) 








Ranikhet 


:::) 


41 


30 


14 


Bareilly 








Darjeeling ... 


:::} 


55 


1-7 


32 


Dhubri 








Mount Abu ... 


:::} 


2-6 


2-2 


12 


Deesa 








Pachmarhi ... 


:::} 


23 


2'2 


1-0 


Jubbulpore ... 









1890,] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. _ 15 

The following table gives the average humidity of the month of 
January at the same pairs of stations. 







Mean relative humidity 


Ratio of average 






in January. 


lumidity of hill 








station to that of 


Names of pairs of stations. 






plain station. 






Hill 


Plain 








station. 


station. 


A. 






A. 


B. 


B. 


Quetta 


::] 


67 


47 


1-4 


Jaoobabad ... 








Murree 


:.! 


59 


73 


08 


Rawalpindi ... 








Simla 
Ludhiana 


::} 


61 


68 


09 


Chakrata 
Roorkee 


::} 


63 


65 


1-0 


Ranikhet 


::! 


63 


67 


09 


Bareilly 








Darjeeling ... 
Dhnbri 


:::) 


79 


77 


10 


Monnt Abu ... 


::) 


40 


38 


10 


Deesa 








Pachmarhi ... 


:::) 


54 


60 


11 


Jubbulpore ... 









These tables show that while the amount of cloud is considerably 
greater at the hill-stations that at the plain stations in Upper India, the 
air is actually on the average drier or less humid in the former case. As 
these results are based on day observations chiefly, it is probable if night 
observations of equal weight were included the difference would be even 
more marked. 

The following is a brief general summary of the mean temperature 
conditions at the level of the hill stations in the Himalayas and on the 
adjacent plains. 

(1.) The rate of decrease with elevation of the average daily tem- 
perature of the month of January is very approximately 2-§-° per 1,000 feet 
or more exactly 1° per 470 feet. The rate of decrease is, however, very irre- 
gular, varying not only from day to day but also from hour to hour 
during the day. The rate of decrease of the average minimum or night 
temperature with elevation in Upper India is only about 1^° per 1,000 
feet and of the average maximum temperature is 3° per 1,000 feet. 

(2.) The daily range of temperature is much less at the hill 
stations than in the adjacent plain districts and is little more than half 
that at the adjacent plain stations. 

It also follows from the previous remarks that any explanation of the 



16 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

smaller average difference of the minimum temperature at the hills and 
at the adjacent plain stations (or of the small night vertical range of 
temperature compared with the day) must recognize : — 

(a.) That the air is on the average less humid at the hills than at 

the adjacent plain stations in Upper India. 
(b.) That there is on the average more cloud at the hill stations. 
(c.) That the intensity of solar radiation is considerably greater at 

the hill stations, probably at least 20 per cent, greater. 
(cZ.) And that the intensity of radiation from the earth's surface 
at night is very considerably greater at the hills than the 
adjacent plains. 

We now proceed to give data for the same pairs of stations for 
January 1889. 

The following tables give the comparative temperature data of eight 
hill stations in Northern India and of the eight nearest plain stations at 
which there are observations for that month. 

The first table gives the maximum temperature of each day of the 
month of January 1889 and the variation from the normal. The 
variations are obtained from the daily means of the past eleven years 
(1878-88) smoothed so as to give a fairly regular series. The positive 
sign affixed to a number in this table indicates that the actual tempei'a- 
ture was above the normal and a minus sign that it was below it. 

The second table gives similar date for the minimum temperature 
of the same 16 stations for the same period. 

The third table gives the daily difference of the maximum tempera- 
tures for each of eight pairs of stations consisting of a hill station 
and adjacent plain station. Iu every case the maximum temperature 
at the plain stations exceeds that at the neighbouring hill station. 

The fourth table gives the difference between the minimum tem- 
perature registered at each of the eight selected hill stations and the 
neighbouring plain stations. In the majority of cases the minimum 
temperatures at the plain stations exceed those at the plain stations in 
which case no sign is prefixed to the number. In a few cases the latter 
temperatures are the greater and this is indicated by the minus sign pre- 
fixed to the number. 



1890.] 



Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



17 



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18 



Jolm Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. I, 





ndia. 


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vercast N. India. 






t— i 
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Relations between the Sills and Plains of Northern India. 



19 



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John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 






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1890.] 



Relations "between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



21 





lis. 

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coast hills. 

Quetta. 
ns. 
in on plains. 

r India. 

b. 

N. India, 
plains, 
hills. 








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22 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversian of the Temperature [No. 1, 

The following table (Table IV) gives the differences day by day of 
the night or minimum temperature at the pairs of stations named in the 
headings, a negative sign indicating that the night temperature was higher 
at the hill than at the corresponding plain station. 

Table IV. 



1889. 


Quetta 
& Jaco- 


Mnrree 

& 
Eawal 
Pindi. 


Simla & 
Ludlii- 


Mussoo- 
ree & 


Ranikhet 
& 


Darjee- 

ling & 


Mt. Abn 

& 


Pach- 
marhi & 
Eoshan- 

gabad. 




babad. 


ana. 


Roorkee. 


Bareilly. 


Dhubri. 


Deesa. 


Jan. 1 


11-8 


-6-8 


07 


-31 


-4-7 


19-7 


09 


8 


2 


8-8 


-8-4 


-4-1 


-2-6 


-8-7 


17-8 


-30 


4-5 


3 


83 


-12-4 


-2-8 


-5 7 


-10 2 


17-1 


-90 


4-0 


4 


4-8 


-5-4 


-4-6 


-34 


-9-2 


146 


-4'5 


50 


5 


178 


37 


85 


37 


-0-2 


192 


-05 


1-5 


6 


133 


-2-8 


53 


4-1 


23 


196 


-35 


40 


7 


43 


-4-8 


03 


-05 


1-3 


188 


-1-5 


46 


8 


14-3 


-103 


2-0 


-7-0 


-8-7 


168 


09 


-79 


9 


23 


-88 


-1-9 


-7-1 


-62 


178 





5-6 


10 


93 


4-8 


7'5 


47 


-3-2 


192 





61 


11 


133 


07 


68 


179 


93 


190 





36 


12 


16 7 


108 


110 


107 


83 


163 


64 


56 


13 


11-3 


57 


19-4 


23 9 


163 


? 


29 


06 


14 


138 


4-2 


155 


15-7 


14 3 


216 


5-4 


46 


15 


168 


1-9 


93 


9-6 


11-3 


22-3 


5-4 


4 1 


16 


128 


9-2 


' 194 


132 


11-3 


20-7 


59 


51 


17 


20-8 


67 


125 


107 


11-8 


? 


1-5 


26 


18 


25-3 


12 


8-2 


126 


9-3 


168 


35 


11 


19 


15-7 


0-7 


91 


7-6 


9-3 


17-9 


3-4 


36 


20 


213 


-48 


29 


-1-1 


-2-7 


17-8 


4-4 


9-6 


21 


-1-2 


-94 


-7-1 


31 


08 


15-1 


-4-0 


56 


22 


14-2 


15-3 


-2 4 


-55 


-8-2 


168 


-5-0 


46 


23 


143 


11-2 


163 


233 


7-8 


158 


5-4 


-0-4 


24 


143 


6-2 


14 5 


182 


203 


21-3 


10'4 


71 


25 


68 


5-2 


11-5 


14-7 


33 


225 


-0-5 


100 


26 


21-2 


53 


11-3 


123 


63 


173 


-0-5 


26 


27 


206 


78 


89 


74 


43 


180 


1-0 


-1-9 


28 


15-2 


16-8 


11-2 


7-2 


4'3 


198 


49 


56 


29 


16-3 


17-8 


201 


18-4 


168 


17-2 


70 


01 


30 


11-8 


168 


25-2 


21-9 


21-8 


21-2 


11-9 


01 


31 


158 


173 


19 6 


151 


183 


21-7 


13-8 


5-1 


Mean ... 


13-3 


3-1 


82 


7-7 


4-7 


186 


2-0 


3-7 


Normal 


| 136 


2-4 


7-1 


8-5 


6-4 


18-9 


02 


53 


mean 
















Diff. from 
normal 


j-0-3 


+ 07 


+ 1-1 


-08 


-17 


-0-3 


+ 1-8 


-1-6 



An examination of the preceding data shews that there were three 
periods in Jannary 1889 during which the minimum temperature of the 
hill stations was in excess of that at the neighbouring plain stations. 
These were — 

1st, From the 1st to the 4th. 
2nd. From the 8th to the 11th. 
3rd. From the 20th to the 22nd. 
The abnormal temperature relations were most marked during the 



1890.] Relations betiveen the Hitls and Plains of Northern India. 23 

first period, and we shall therefore use chiefly the data of that pei'iod in 
the discussion. 

During the first period extending from the 1st to the 4th the mini- 
mum temperature was on every night several degrees higher at the hill 
stations than at the adjacent plain stations. The minimum temperature 
on the night of the 3rd for example was 12f° higher at Murree than at 
Rawalpindi, 3° higher at Simla than at Ludhiana, 5° higher at Mussooree 
than at Roorkee, and 10° higher at Ranikhet than at Bareilly. 

The following method of stating the facts will shew that the in- 
version of the temperature relations was not confined to the neighbour- 
hood of the hills only. On the night of the 3rd (or early morning of the 
4th) the minimum temperature at Murree, Simla, Ranikhet, and Mussoo- 
ree was higher than at all the plain stations in the Punjab, North-Western 
Provinces (except Jhansi), Rajputana, Sind, Central India, and the greater 
part of Behar and Bengal and the Central Provinces. 

The following statement gives exact data for representative stations 
in each province. 











c3 t>> 
S-i H 

0> cS 


■een 
. of 
lain 


r een | 
• of 
lain I 


'een 

. of 
and 




ft 






ft 


> ft ft 


p ft ft 


P ft 2 


Hill stations. 


§ 


Province. 


Plain stations. 


S o 
"3 u 

.3 p 


ifference bet 
minim, tem 
Murree and 
stations. 


ifference bet 
minim, tem 
Simla and 
stations. 


ifference bet 
minim tem 
Ranikhet 
plain statior 




3 






% ^ 


Q 


P 


Q 


Mnrree ... ( 


493 


1 


Rawalpindi 


369 


-124 


-11 5 


-131 


2 




Puniab 


Lahore 


372 


-121 


-11-2 


-128 


Simla ... (. 


48-4 


1 


Sirsa 


391 


-10-2 


-93 


-109 






Sind 


Jacobabad 


38-6 


-10-7 


-98 


-11-4 






Rajutana ■ 


Jeypore 
Indore 


42-2 
44-8 


-7-1 
-45 


-62 

-3-6 


-7-8 
-5 2 






Central 
Provinces 


Nagpur 


502 


+ 0-9 


+ 18 


+ 0-2 






Khandwa 


44-0 


-53 


-4-4 


-60 






Jubbulpore 


38'9 


-30-4 


-95 


-111 






Berar 


Akola 


43-2 


-61 


-52 


-68 






Bombay 


Malegaon 


44-5 


-4-8 


-39 


-55 






Poona 


49-0 


-0-3 


+ 0-6 


-10 


Chakrata ( 


53-6 


N. W. Pro- 


Agra 


43-6 


-57 


-4'8 


-64 


) 




Lucknow 


41-0 


-8-3 


-7-4 


-9 


Ranikhet (. 


50-0 


vinces 


. Allahabad 


42-7 


-6-6 


— 5 7 


-73 






Behar 


Patna 


469 


-2-4 


-1-5 


-31 






Durbhunga 


50-4 


+ 1-1 


+ 2 


+ 04 








Hazaribagh 


49 3 





+ 09 


-07 








Calcutta 


488 


-0-5 


+ 04 


-1-2 








Bnrdwan 


48-3 


-10 


- 01 


-17 






Bengal ■ 


Jessore 


469 


-2-4 


-IS 


-31 








Bnrrisal 


49- 1 


-0-2 


+ 0-7 


-09 








Dacca 


54-2 


+ 49 


+ 5'8 


+ 4-2 








Saugor Island 


512 


+ 1-9 


+ 2-8 


+ 1-2 






Assam 


Dhnbri 


53 2 


+ 39 


+ 4-8 


+ 32 



24 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

The minus sign in the preceding table indicates that the plain sta- 
tion to which it refers had a lower minimum temperature than the hill 
station with which it is compared and the plus sign that it had a higher 
temperature. 

The preceding table shews over what an extensive area in Northern 
and Central India it is possible for the minimum temperature to be consi- 
derably (from 1° to 12°) below that of the hill stations in Upper India. 

Table I. shews that the inversion of temperature obtained on at least 
eleven nights during the month. The following examples from previous 
years, which examination shews to be fairly average cases, will indicate to 
what extent the temperature variations of January 1889 were abnormal. 
In January 1888 the night temperature of Mussooree ranged from 5 - 6° 
above that of Roorkee to 2 1'8° below it (giving a total range of 27'4). The 
average difference of temperature was 8T° for the month, which is almost 
identical with the normal average (8 - 5°). The minimum temperature at 
Mussooree was in excess of that of Roorkee on only three nights of the 
month. In January 1886 the night or minimum temperature at Simla 
ranged from 28° above that at Ludhiana to 23'5° below (giving a total 
range of 26'3°) and was above that at Ludhiana on three nights only 
during the month. The difference between the minimum temperatures 
at these two stations averaged 10°. It is not necessary to multiply cases, 
as all that have been examined give similar evidence. Hence it appears 
that in ordinary seasons the minimum temperature may be on two or 
three nights in January in slight excess at the hill stations of Upper 
India as compared with the adjacent plain stations of the Punjab and 
North-Western Provinces. These figures hence establish that, although 
inversion of the normal vertical temperature relations is not infrequent 
in the month of January in Upper India, it was of abnormal frequency 
in January 1889. It was undoubtedly related to or connected with the 
holding off of the winter rains in that month. Anticyclonic conditions 
prevailed in Upper India with unusual persistency, and it was not until 
the end of the month that general rain accompanying a depression and 
cold weather storm occurred in the plains and heavy general snow in the 
hills. Hence the high temperature was undoubtedly associated with 
anticvclonic conditions of pressure, as has been found to be the case in 
Europe and the United States during similar vertical temperature re- 
lations, and also with the protracted delay in the depression of the snow 
line in the hills during winter produced by general snowfall. 

The preceding paragraphs have stated fully one important feature 
of the anomalons temperature conditions of the month of January 1889. 
Before proceeding to discuss the causes of these features, it is desirable 
to trace the varying temperature relations between the plains and the 
hills in Upper India more exactly. There are three prominent types of 



1890.] Relations "between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 25 

weather conditions and relations in the hills and plains of Upper ludia 
during the cold weather. These are as follows : — 

1st. — The prevalence of fine clear weather with light winds or calms 
in the hills and plains. These conditions accompany prolonged auti- 
cyclonic pressure conditions of moderate intensity in Upper India, and 
may he described as " ordinary anticyclonic conditions." They obtain 
frequently dnring the cold weather. 

2nd. — The prevalence of disturbed or stormy weather in the hills 
and plain districts. This type of weather is due to the formation, 
passage, or existence of cold weather depressions. Skies are heavily 
clouded, rain falls more or less generally in the plains of Upper India, 
and heavy general snow is received in the higher mountain regions 
down to a level determined chiefly by the intensity of the storm. Winds 
are weak in the plains, but their directions usually indicate feebly mark- 
ed cyclonic circulation about an ill-defined centre. The winds are on the 
other hand often strong or violent and the weather very stormy in the hill 
districts for periods varying in length from a few hours to several days. 
These periods may be described as those of " cold weather cyclonic 
storms." 

3rd. — The prevalence of unusually bright clear cool weather such as 
always obtains over the whole of Northern India, after the breaking 
up of a large and well marked cold weather storm. In this case, a strong 
and steady cool westerly current flows from Upper India and the ad- 
jacent hills over the whole of Northern India as far east as the Bengal 
coast. The air is remarkably dry and bracing. The change of condi- 
tions is most marked in Bengal, where the weather during the previous 
unsettled period is usually damp, cloudy, and warm, with light southerly 
winds. 

These are the three chief types of weather in Northern India du- 
ring the cold weather period extending from November to February or 
March. They merge into each other, more especially (3) and (1). 
Again it frequently happens that small depressions pass over Upper 
India which give a brief period of cloudy weather without rain in the 
plains, and light local rain or snow showers in the hills. The pre- 
cipitation in this case is almost entirely confined to the higher elevations. 
This type of weather gives rise to somewhat different temperature 
relations than (2). They will, however, be included in (2) a,s it is 
hardly possible to differentiate between all the numerous varieties of 
cold weather storms. 

The temperature conditions and relations in ordinary anticyclonic 
weather in Upper India will be sufficiently shewn by the following data 
given in three small tables for the two pairs of stations, Murree and 
4 



26 



John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 



Rawalpindi and Simla and Ludhiana. The first table gives the daily 
range of temperature at three pairs of stations on six days of Januaiy 
1889, when anticyclonic conditions accompanying inversion of vertical 
temperature relations obtained in Upper India. 



Day 
of month. 


Mnrree. 


Rawal- 
pindi. 


Simla. 


Ludhiana. 


Ranikhet. 


Bareilly. 


3rd 

4th 
8th 
9th 
21st 
22nd 


9 8° 
13-8° 
135° 
14-9° 
18-8 
? 


33-6° 
29-2° 
357° 
371° 
332° 
? 


133° 

20-8° 
17-6° 
169° 
130° 
15-8° 


211-0 

36-2° 

28-6° 

328° 

34-8° 

29-6° 


16-1° 
15-1° 
14-2° 
15-2° 
201° 
151° 


314° 
30 4° 
34-9° 
31-9° 
29-4° 
30-4° 


Mean daily 
range of select- 
ed periods 

Normal daily 
range of select- 
ed periods 


14-2° 
131° 


338° 
27-0° 


161° 
15-3° 


31-9° 

25-0° 


160° 
14-9° 


314° 

24-9° 


Difference 


+ 1-1° 


+ 6-8° 


+ 08° 


+ 6-9° 


+ 1-1° 


+ 65° 



This table shews a considerable amount of irregularity at the hill 
stations in the daily range of temperature during these periods of in- 
version of night temperature. On the other hand the daily range of 
temperatnre at the level of the plains is always excessive and approxi- 
mately uniform as shewn by the Rawalpindi and Ludhiana data. 

The following table gives the variations of the maximum and mini- 
mum tempei'ature on the same days at the hill stations from their normal 
values at the same stations, a plus sign indicating that temperature was 
in excess and a minus sign that it was below the normal. 





Murree. 


Simla. 


Ranikhet. 


Day of month. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. | 


Minimum. 


3rd 

4th 

8th 

9th 

21st 

22nd 


+ 97° 
+ 96° 
+ 3-8° 
+ 7-8° 
+ 16'8° 
? 


+ 126° 
+ 8-4° 
+ 35° 
+ 5-9° 
+ 10-1° 
? 


+ 95° 
+ 14-4° 
+ 5-2° 
+ 4-5° 
+ 8-5° 
+ 11-6° 


+ 11-6° 
+ 9-0° 

+ 2-8° 
+ 2-5° 
+ 10-9° 
+ 10-8° 


+ 10-7° 
+ 15-7° 
+ 7-2° 
+ 6'1° 
+ 11.2° 
+ 13'7° 


+ 10-5° 
+ 16-6° 
+ 8-0° 
+ 58° 

+ 4-9° 
+ 12-2° 


Mean variation 
from nor- 
mal during 
periods 


+ 9-5 


+ 8-1° 


+ 9-0° 


+ 79° 


+ 10-8° 


+ 9-7° 



This table shews conclusively that during these periods of inverted 
temperature relations temperature was excessive at the hill stations and 
the excess was nearly as marked in the night as in the day temperature. 



1890.] Relations betiveen the Mills and Plains of Northern India. 27 



The following gives similar data for the neighbouring plain sta- 
tions : — 





Rawalpindi. 


Ludhiana. 


Bareilly. 


Day of month. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


3rd 

4th 

8th 

9th 

21st 

22nd 


+ 6-4° 
+ 43° 
+ 23° 
+ 7-8° 
+ 5-9° 


+ 0-8° 
+ 3 1° 
-5-9° 
-2-0° 
-33° 


+ 7-0° 
+ 96° 
+ 56° 
+ 5'2° 
+ 6-4° 
4 50° 


+ 36° 
-0 6° 

+ 2'4° 
-2-8° 
-4'9° 
-0'3° 


+ 7° 
+ 1-7° 
+ 52° 

+ 2'7° 
+ 4-7° 
+ 3-6° 


-4-6° 
+ 2-1° 
-4-2° 
-3-9° 
-1-6° 
-3-4° 


Average 


+ 5-3° 


-1-5° 

> 


+ 66° 


-0-4° 


+ 31° 


-26° 

> 


E a n g e of 
variation ... 


6-8° 


7-0° 


5-7° 



These figures are very consistent and establish that in these periods 
under discussion the day temperature was considerably above the average 
at the plain stations and the night temperature was generally below it but 
by smaller amounts. They also shew that what may be termed the range 
of variation from the normal diminished from west to east in the plain of 
Northern India. 

Hence it may be inferred that the temperature conditions of periods 
of ordinary anticyclonic weather in Upper India are : — 

(a.) — Increased day and night temperatures at the hill stations, the 
excess being nearly as great in the night as it is in the day temperatures, 
so that practically the daily range is unaltered. 

(6.) — Increased day and decreased night temperature and hence a 
much greater daily range of temperature at the plain stations. 

(c.) — When these conditions are most pronounced, in consequence of 
the opposite variations of the night temperatures at the hill and plain 
stations, the minimum temperature is occasionally during such periods 
sevei'al degrees higher at the hill stations than in the adjacent plains. 
The data for January 1889 also shew that the low temperature in the 
plains, more especially when compared with the hill stations, is not a 
phenomenon of valleys or of the low lying districts in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the hills, but may extend over the whole of Northern 
and Central India, and therefore to a distance of some hundreds of miles 
from the mountains of Northern India. 

The same tables (I to IV) also give three examples of very low tem- 
perature of the hill stations during stormy weather. These are : — 
1st, the night of the 13th. 



28 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

2nd, the night of the 23rd. 

3rd, the nights of the 30th and 31st. 
The last is the most striking example and is therefore best adapted 
to illustrate the temperature relations between the hills and plains during 
cold weather storms. 

The following gives a brief description of the character of these dis- 
turbances taken from the India monthly weather report for January 
1889. 

" The barometer began to fall briskly on the afternoon of the 8th in 
Upper Sind and Beluchistan, and a very shallow depression was formed 
on the 9th, which followed the same course as the previous disturbance 
and gave moderately heavy snow to the Punjab Himalayas on the 10th, 
and brought the snow line down to below 9,000 feet. The weather con- 
tinued somewhat disturbed in Northern India for three days longer, and 
light showers fell at the hill stations on the 12th, and in Behar, Chutia 
Nagpore, and Central Bengal on the 13th. Pressure increased steadily 
until the 17th, when very strongly marked anti-cyclonic conditions, with 
fine, clear, cool weather and strong westerly or north-westerly winds, 
prevailed over the whole of Northern India. The highest pressures of 
the month were recorded on the morning of the 17th, the absolute maxi- 
mum being 30'38'' at Peshawar. No change of importance occurred un- 
till the 22nd, when the barometer fell briskly in Noi'th- Western India. 
The disturbance then initiated differed considerably in character from 
the previous. There were two separate areas of disturbance in which 
the barometer fell i*apidly, and more or less general rain was received. 
The first included the Punjab Himalayas and adjacent plains from 
Sealkot to Roorkee, and the second comprised the greater part of 
Rajputana and Indore. The disturbance in the Punjab passed away 
after giving moderate snow in the hills on the afternoon of the 23rd and 
light showers in the adjacent plains. That which originated in Raj- 
putana drifted during the next two days eastward into East Bengal and 
Burma, and gave moderate general rain to the North-Western Provinces, 
Central India, and light local showers in Behar, Bengal, and Assam. 
A short interval of fine weather followed until the afternoon of the 27th, 
when the first large and important cold weather storm of the year 
was initiated. It was, like the previous, a double disturbance. It 
consisted in part of a shallow depression which passed into Sind from 
Beluchistan on the 28th and advanced during the next three days in an 
east-south-east direction across the head of the Peninsula into Upper 
Burma, to which it gave cloudy weather on the 1st February. It ap- 
parently filled up very slowly in that area and gave low pressure in 
Burma until the 5th. The appearance of this depression in Sind on the 



1890.] Relations "between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 29 

28th was followed on that day by a very rapid fall of the barometer in 
the North Punjab and the formation of an independent deep depression, 
the centre of which was to the north of Rawalpindi and Peshawar on 
the morning of the 29th. It intensified considerably during the day 
and marched slowly to the south-east along the hills, to which it gave 
very stormy weather and heavy snowfall during the next forty-eight 
hours. A very rapid rise of the barometer set in on the 31st, and the 
depression filled up very rapidly. This deep depression very largely 
modified the distribution of pressure over the whole of North- Western 
and Central India, and obscured the shallow depression in Central India 
on the 29th and 80th ; but with the disappearance of the former on the 
31st, the latter again became clearly marked and formed the chief fea- 
ture of the weather during the next two days. The double disturbance 
gave a large general and much needed supply of rain to the greater part 
of Northern India, including the Punjab, Rajputana, Central India, the 
North- Western Provinces and Behar, and showers in Bengal." 

The following gives the precipitation at the hill stations during the 
storm : — 





January 1889. 


February 1889. 


Total 
fall du- 


















27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


1 


2 


ring 
period. 


Mtirree 


- 


0-71 


2-49 


2-45 


0-75 


105 


- 


L 6-75 


Simla 


0'07 


- 


078 


1-93 


1-65 


030 


- 


473 


Chakrata... 


- 


- 


075 


2-98 


1-44 


0-28 


- 


545 


Ranikhet... 


- 


- 


0-90 


252 


1 92 


025 


- 


5-59 



At the three first named stations rain and sleet fell during the 
earlier part of the disturbance, but it changed afterwards to snow, 
which fell steadily during the night of the 30th and the greater part 
of the 31st and 1st, when the weather cleared up rapidly. At Ranikhet 
little or no snow fell. The depth of snow at the end of the storm at 
Simla was quite three feet, at Chakrata about the same, and at Mui'ree 
about five feet. The nights of the 30th and 31st were hence stormy 
with strong winds, thick cloud, and constant snowfall. The cloud 
canopy extended over the greater part of Northern India, or over the 
East Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Behar, and East Rajputana. 



30 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

The following gives the minimum temperature on these nights at 
Simla and at a large number of stations in the plains. 













Difference 




Hill 

station. 


Minimum 


Plain 
station. 




Minimum 


between 


Date. 


tempera- 
ture. 


Province. 


tempera- 
ture. 


hills and 
plains. 






A. 






B. 


B— A 


Night of 














30th Jan. 














1889. 


Simla 


28'6° 


Ludliiana 
Lahore 

Lucknow 
Allahabad 

Patna 
Calcutta 


> Punjab 
N.-W. P. 

> Bengal 


53-8° 
49 0° 

58-9° 
59 -2° 

598° 
62-3° 


25-2° 
20'4° 

30 3° 
306° 

31-2° 
337° 








Jeypore 


Rajputana 


54-1° 


25'5° 








Nagpur 


Central Pro- 
vinces 


62-3° 


337° 








Deesa 


Bombay 


57-9° 


29-3° 








Jacobabad 


Sind 


41-1° 


12o° 


Do. of 31st 














Jan. 1889. 


Simla 


24-0° 


Lahore 


Punjab 


42-1° 


18-1° 








Lucknow 


|n.-w. P. 


56-9° 


• 32-9° 




















Allahabad 


59-7° 


35 7° 








Patna 


} Bengal 


59-8° 


35'8° 








Calcutta 


) 


618° 


37-8° 








Jeypore 


Eajputana 


41-2° 


17-2° 








Nagpur 


Central Pro- 
vinces 


593° 


35-3° 








Deesa 


Bombay 


57-9° 


339° 








Jacobabad 


Sind 


42-1° 


18-1° 



These figures indicate that over the whole of the plains of Northern 
India the minimum night temperature was from 20° to 30° higher than 
at the hill stations of Upper India. These very large differences (in the 
opposite directions to those discussed in the previous case) were mainly- 
due to the abnormally low temperature in the hills, and in part to the in- 
creased night temperature in the plains due to the presence of clouds 
diminishing radiation. The characteristic features of these periods will 
be best shewn by examining the whole of the temperature data of the 
same stations as in the previous case. 



1890.] Relations behveen the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



31 



The following gives the daily range of temperature on six days of 
the month during these stormy weather periods. 



Date. 


Mnrree. 


Rawalpindi. 


Simla. 


Ludhiana. 


Ranikket. 


Bareilly. 


11th 


12'0° 


28-5° 


9-2° 


231° 


17-2° 


24-9° 


13th 


14-0° 


27-7° 


21-9° 


18 5° 


19 3° 


23-9° 


23rd 


33° 


156° 


14-3° 


139° 


18-1° 


22-4° 


24th 


10-5° 


29-2° 


10-6° 


14-6° 


24-3° 


7'8° 


30th 


84° 


7-7° 


14-5° 


9-4° 


212° 


10-4° 


31st 


59° 


10-2° 


15-5° 


17;6° 


25-3° 


19-9° 


Average 














daily range 
daring se- 
lected pe- 
riods 


90° 


195° 


14-3° 


16-2° 


20-9° 


18-2° 


Normal 














daily range 
of month... 


12 3° 


25-4° 


14-8° 


24-l° 


14-5° 


24-2° 



The figures show that at such periods the daily range is slightly 
diminished at the hill stations, but is very greatly reduced at the plain 
stations. 

The following table gives the variations from the normal of the maxi- 
mum and minimum temperatures on the same dates at the hill stations, 
a plus sign indicating excess and a minus sign defect. 





Simla. 


Murree. 


Chakrata. 


Date. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


11th 
13th 
23rd 
24th 
30th 
31st 


-33° 

-0-3° 
-0-3° 
-8-4° 
-6 0° 
-9-3° 


+ 1-6° 

-7-4° 
-0 4° 
-4-8° 
-4-9° 
-9-7° 


-6-2° 
-6-2° 
-8-7° 
-3 5° 
-8-4° 
-13 1° 


-5-9° 
-7'4° 
-0-8° 
-3-2° 
-4-7° 
-6-5° 


-28° 

+ 3 6° 

+ 16'8° 

' +4-2° 

+ 2-2° 

-10-7° 


+ 0-8° 
+ 1-8° 
+ 2-4° 
-0-9° 
-3-2° 
-5-0° 


Mean. 


-4-6° 


-4-3° 


-7-7° 


-4-8° 


+ 2-2° 


-0'7° 



This table shows that during these pei^iods the night and day tem- 
peratures at the hill stations were considerably reduced below the normal 
and by nearly equal amounts. 



32 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 



The Chakrata observations at this period, it should be noted, were 
apparently vitiated by large occasional errors, but in examining their 
figures it should be taken into consideration that the only stormy weather 
which influenced Chakrata was that of the 30th and 31st. 

The following table gives similar data for the adjacent plain stations. 





Ludhiana. 


Rawalpindi. 


Roorkee. 


Date. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


11th 
13th 
23rd 

24th 
30th 
31st 


+ 21° 
-0-4° 
-16° 

-7-0° 
- 4-2° 
-6 3° 


+ 2-6° 
+ 4-1° 

+ 7'4° 

+ 0-6° 

+ 10'3° 

+ 0'4° 


+ 6-6° 
-2 1° 
-1-1° 
+ 5-2° 
-9-4° 
-8-2° 


+ 6 0° 
-3 6° 

+ 5-8° 
-2-4° 
+ 7-2° 
+ 60° 


+ 0-7° 
+ 2-1° 
+ 6-7° 
-4'4° 
-7 5° 
-11-1° 


+ 11-4° 
+ 10-0° 
+ 13-7° 
+ 5-0° 
+ 10-2° 
- 0-3° 


Mean. 


-2-9° 


+ 4'2° 


-15° 


+ 33° 


-2-3° 


+ 8'3° 



These data shew that at the plain stations the range of temperature 
was diminished not only by decreased day temperature but also by in- 
creased night temperature to an equal or greater amount. Hence dur- 
ing these storms the temperature was reduced at the hill stations through- 
out, whereas at the plain stations it was raised at night by amounts nearly 
equal to the decrease in the daytime, and there was practically no altera- 
tion in the daily range at the hill stations, whereas it was largely 
reduced at the plain stations. 

It hence follows that the temperature relations which obtain during 
stormy weather accompanied with snow in the hills and rain showers in 
the plains are : — 

1st. Diminished temperature throughout the whole day at the hill 
stations and hence the maximum and minimum temperatures 
are reduced below the normal by nearly equal amounts and the 
daily range of temperature is only slightly affected. 
2nd. At the plain stations temperature is below the normal to a 
moderate extent in the day, and is considerably above it at 
night, and hence the daily range of temperature is very con- 
siderably reduced. 
3rd. In consequence of the decreased night temperature at the 
hill stations and increased night temperature at the plain 
stations, the differences of the minimum temperature at hill 
stations and adjacent plain stations are then exaggerated and 
are occasionally 10° to 15° greater than the average differences. 
The third type of temperature relations which obtain in the cold 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



33 



weather in Northern India are those which hold during the fine clear 
weather and strongly marked anticyclonic conditions that follow a 
severe cold weather storm. There is no marked example in the tempera- 
ture data of January 1889. The conditions are shewn in the weather 
which followed the snow storms of the 30th, 31st January, and 1st Feb- 
ruary in the hills of Upper India. 

The account of the storm has been given in a preceding paragraph. 
The snowfall which it gave was far heavier in the Punjab Himalayas 
than in the N.-W. Provinces and Nepal' hills. At Simla an average 
depth of 3 feet lay on the ground at the end of the storm. The weather 
cleared up in the Punjab on the 1st, and fine clear weather prevailed for 
some days. The skies cleared in the N.-W". Provinces on the 2nd and 
3rd, and in Bengal on the 4th and 5th. 

The two following tables give the maximum temperatures and their 
variations from the normal at eight typical stations in Northern India 
during the period from the 30th January to 5th February. 









Maximum temperature. 






Station. 


Jany. 


Jany. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


32 6° 


341° 


40 7° 


437° 


47-7° 


53'7° 


45-7° 


Simla 


395° 


28-8° 


35-8° 


36-5° 


41-3° 


61-2° 


51-5° 


Lahore 


585° 


605° 


60-0° 


58-0° 


62 5° 


65-5° 


67 0° 


Roorkee 


58-3° 


65-8° 


62-8° 


59 8° 


62-8° 


64-8° 


68-3° 


Luoknow 


731° 


70-1° 


69-1° 


67-1° 


671° 


68'6° 


716° 


Patna 


652° 


68 2° 


67-7° 


67 7° 


70-2° 


69'2° 


68-2° 


Burdwan 


81-5° 


84-0° 


76-5° 


760° 


78-0° 


74-5° 


74 5° 


Calcutta 


82-5° 


83 5° 


76-0° 


72-5° 


75-5° 


73-5° 


74-5° 





Variation from norms 


il of maximum temperature 


of 


Station. 


Jany. 


Jany. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


-13-1° 


- 11-4° 


-4-7° 


-1-2° 


+ 31° 


+ 8-7° 


+ 0-1° 


Simla 


-93° 


- 20-8° 


-131° 


-12-4° 


-82° 


+ 07° 


+ f>l° 


Lahore 


-9 7° 


-7-8° 


-8-2° 


-10-2° 


-5-5° 


-2-5° 


-11° 


Roorkee 


-11-1° 


-3 9° 


-7'0° 


- 10'4° 


-7-9° 


-6-4° 


-32° 


Luoknow 


-0 8° 


-3 8° 


-5-3° 


-7-8° 


-8-6 D 


-7-5° 


-4'8° 


Patna 


-8-4° 


-5-6° 


-63° 


-65° 


-4-5° 


-5-9° 


-7-4° 


Burdwan 


+ 2-3° 


+ 4-8° 


-2-7° 


-37° 


— 2-2° 


-6-4° 


-69° 


Calcutta 


+ 49° 


+ 59° 


-1-6° 


-5-5° 


-38° 


-5 7° 


-5-2° 



These observations show that on the 30th and 31st, when stormy 
weather prevailed in Upper India, but had not extended to Behar and 
5 



34 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 



Bengal, the maximum temperature was considerably below the normal in 
Upper India (the deficiency being most marked at the hill stations), 
and was much above the average in Bengal, Behar, and the greater part 
of the North-Western Provinces. In the hill districts the maximum 
temperature was lowest on the last day of the storm and rapidly in- 
creased during the next few days, so that at Simla on the 5th, when 
the snow was nearly all melted except in sheltered spots, the maximum 
was slightly above the average. The most important fact is that the 
lowest day temperatures in the plains were not recorded during the 
passage of the cloudy weather of the storm, but on the first two days of 
cloudless skies and fine dry weather which followed the storm. The 
greatest depression of day temperature occurred at Lahore and Roorkee 
on the 2nd, at Lucknow on the 3rd, at Burdwan and Calcutta on the 4th 
and 5th. This transmission of the cold wave corresponds to the rate 
of transmission of the storm itself, which roughly averaged from 250 to 
300 miles per diem, or 10 to 12 miles an hour. 

The two following tables give similar data for minimum tempera- 
ture. (The data are of the night preceding 8 A. m. of the day named.) 





Minimum temperatui 


e of night preceding 8 A. m. 


of 


Station. 


Jany. 


Jany. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


26-7° 


23-7° 


25 7° 


25-7° 


34-7° 


36 7° 


34-7° 


Simla. 


24-0° 


21-0° 


26-2° 


26-0° 


314° 


38-5° 


385° 


Lahore 


42-1° 


39-6° 


42' 1° 


37-2° 


362° 


38-7° 


41-6° 


Roorkee 


431° 


411° 


44- 1° 


41-5° 


42-0° 


43-1° 


503° 


Lucknow 


56 9° 


48-0° 


47-0° 


50-5° 


46-0° 


42-0° 


44-0° 


Patna 


59-8° 


52 9° 


47 9° 


499° 


48-9° 


43-8° 


48-9° 


Burdwan 


62-4° 


61-4° 


533° 


51'3° 


43-2° 


43-2° 


51-3° 


Calcutta 


618° 


61-3° 


52-3° 


52 3° 


58-8° 


53-3° 


49 '8° 





Variation of minimum temperature 


of date from the normal. 


Station. 


















Jany. 


Jany. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


-6-5° 


-9 0° 


-6-8° 


-6-4° 


+ 2-6° 


+ 4-1° 


+ 16° 


Simla 


-9-7 


-13-1° 


-8-2° 


-8-8° 


-3-8° 


+ 2-9° 


+ 3-1° 


Lahore 


-0-2 


-3-2° 


-1-0° 


-5-5° 


-6'4° 


-4-0° 


-0-8° 


Roorkee 


-0-3° 


-2-9° 


-0-7° 


-37° 


-3-6° 


-2-6° 


+ 4-7° 


Lucknow 


+ 108° 


+ 1-8° 


+ 0-4° 


-3 5° 


-12° 


-5-4° 


-3-6° 


Patna 


+ 10 3° 


+ 3-9° 


-1-1° 


+ 05° 


-0-8° 


-5-9° 


-1-0° 


Burdwan 


+ 77° 


+ Q-SP 


-1-1° 


-3-4° 


-11-7° 


-12'0° 


-4-1° 


Calcutta 


+ 6-2° 


+ 5-8° 


-32° 


-36° 


+ 2-3° 


-37 


-76° 



1890. J Relations "between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 



35 



These figures shew that the minimum temperature was greatly below 
the normal at the hill stations during the storm and largely above it in the 
plains on the 30th and in Bengal on the 30th and 31st, the excess being 
greatest in the North-Western Provinces. The night temperature slowly 
and steadily rose at the hill station frem the 31st to the 5th, when it was 
above the normal. It was lowest in the Punjab on the 2nd and 3rd, in 
the N.-W. Provinces on the 3rd and 4th, and in Behar on the 4th and 
5th, and in Bengal on the 5th. These facts are most easily summarized 
by the statement that a wave of cold was transmitted eastwards across 
Northern India at the rate of about 300 to 400 miles per diem. 

The humidity data of the same stations for the same period are even 
more interesting and insfcractive. The first of the two following tables 
gives the humidity at 8 A. M. and the second the aqueous vapour pressui'e 
at the stations named. The third table gives the amount of cloud at the 
same hour and illustrates the rapid and complete clearing of the skies 
which follows the cold weather storms of Northern India. 









Humidity at 8 


A. M. 






Station. 


















Jany. 


Jany. 


Peby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


98 


100 


99 


83 


84 


26 


35 


Simla 


28 


31 


13 


47 


42 


58 


27 


Lahore 


93 


90 


94 


94 


92 


78 


68 


Roortee 


94 


79 


86 


90 


94 


90 


90 


Lucknow 


85 


95 


78 


62 


81 


63 


100 


Patna 


91 


99 


90 


85 


83 


51 


89 


Burdwan 


83 


84 


82 


62 


73 


59 


67 


Calcutta 


87 


89 


94 


69 


69 


55 


72 









Vapour 


tension at 8 A. M. 






Station, 


















Jany. 


Jany. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


■162 


•159 


•146 


•139 


•149 


■069 


099 


Simla 


•049 


•043 


•017 


•087 


•067 


•148 


•072 


Lahore 


•335 


•281 


•276 


■276 


■245 


•197 


•219 


Roorkee 


■391 


•261 


•242 


•281 


•265 


•259 


•270 


Lucknow . . . 


•486 


•488 


•316 


■257 


•322 


•228 


•300 


Patna 


•275 


•525 


•403 


■308 


■354 


•237 


•378 


Burdwan 


•505 


•524 


•480 


•289 


•354 


•302 


•299 


Calcutta 


■552 


■642 


•549 


■357 


•342 


•309 


•343 



36 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 





Cloud proportion at 8 a. m. 


Station. 


















Jany. 


Jany. 


Feby. 


Peby. 


Feby. 


Feby. 


Peby. 




30th. 


31st. 


1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


Murree 


10 


10 


10 


4 





10 


8 


Simla 


10 


1 


2 


9 











Lahore 


10 








10 











Eoorkee 


10 





3 


2 











Lucknow 


7 


8 








3 








Patna 


10 


10 








9 








Burdwan 


5 


8 

















Calcutta 

















7 






The second table shews that the amount of aqueous vapour pressure 
in the air was greatest in the Punjab on the 30th and in the Gangetic 
plain on the 31st. A large decrease occurred on the 1st in the Punjab, 
on the 2nd in the Gangetic plain, and the decrease continued until the 
end of the period in Bengal. The lowest aqueous vapour pressure 
was registered in the North- Western Provinces on the 4th and in 
Bengal on the 5th, and the amount of vapour was only from one -half to 
one-third of that present in the air on the 31st. This very great change 
accompanied the extension of west and north-west winds across the 
Gangetic Valley into Bengal. 

Two more remarkable illustrations might be given from the meteo- 
rology of recent years of the remarkable weather changes which occur 
in the rear of cold weather storms in Northern India and follow their 
disappearance (viz.,the periods February 1st to 6th, 1886 and February 5th 
to ]2th, 1887). The last week of January or first week of February is, 
in at least two years out of three, one of stormy weather in the hill dis- 
tricts, and some of the most severe snow-storms of recent years have oc- 
curred during that fortnight. The second of these two periods, viz., 
February 5th to 12th, 1887 is selected in further illustration of the 
peculiar features of the fine weather immediately succeeding severe 
stormy weather in Northern India and the Himalayan region. 

The disturbance which gave this stormy weather first appeared as 
a depression in the South-west Punjab on the 27th of January. It in- 
tensified on the 28th and moved eastwards. It passed into the Himalayan 
region of the North-Western Provinces on the 29th and 30th. Heavy 
snow fell in the North-West Himalayas and Afghan highlands at this 
time, and extended eastwards to the Eastern or Assam Himalayas. 
Stormy and cloudy weather with much snow continued over the whole 
Upper Himalayan region until the 7th, when the weather suddenly cleared 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 37 

up, and fine bright clear and cool weather prevailed for some days over 
the whole of Northern India. 

The following tables give data of the temperature, humidity, and 
other meteorological conditions of the period. 

Maximum temperature. 










February 1887. 






Station. 


















7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


11th. 


12th. 


13th. 


Murree 


25-5° 


27-1° 


286° 


30-7° 


29-3° 


32-4° 


29-7° 


Rawalpindi 


29-4° 


32-9° 


28-7° 


334° 


45-0° 


42 0° 


394° 


Lahore 


32 '2° 


31-7° 


31-2° 


34-2° 


41-5° 


46-0° 


40-6' 


Agra 


46-6° 


38-7° 


367° 


31-7° 


41-6° 


48-6° 


49-2° 


Allahabad 


44-7° 


41-6° 


391° 


396° 


396° 


417° 


52-5° 


Patna 


50 9° 


47-9° 


44 7° 


45-4° 


43 8° 


46-9° 


53-4° 


Calcutta 


68-7° 


59-3° 


57-3° 


52 8° 


47-7° 


47-7° 


51-8° 


Dacca 


595° 


55-2° 


533° 


49-1° 


466° 


45-5° 


50-0° 



Diurnal range of Temperature. 









February 1887. 






Station. 


















7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


11th. 


12th. 


13th. 


Murree 


12-1° 


15-2° 


12-2° 


14-2° 


11-7° 


103° 


10-8° 


Rawalpindi ... 


30 7° 


36 3° 


32 6° 


30'1° 


121° 


22-1° 


24-7° 


Lahore 


34-3° 


35 3° 


353° 


34-3° 


28-0° 


22-0° 


305° 


Agra 


27-0° 


32-4° 


323° 


29-8° 


30-8° 


28-6° 


305° 


Allahabad 


331° 


31-8° 


312° 


29 2° 


31-3° 


32-3° 


26-2° 


Patna 


26-9° 


279° 


29-8° 


23'8° 


26-8° 


25 '4° 


22'9° 


Calcutta 


13-4° 


23-2° 


20-7° 


24-8° 


24-8° 


251° 


24-7° 


Dacca 


226° 


27-5° 


29'8° 


28-5° 


30-4° 


28-9° 


25'9° 



38 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 
Humidity at 10 hours. 





February 1887. 


Station. 


7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


11th. 


12th. 


13 th. 


Murree 

Rawalpindi 

Lahore 

Agra 

Allahabad 

Patna 

Calcutta 

Dacca 


82 
37 
33 
33 

44 
45 
85 
90 


55 
30 
33 
32 
38 
54 
33 
33 


50 
44 
24 
28 
27 
41 
32 
28 


61 
61 

28 
29 
31 
38 
26 
22 


79 
48 
28 
25 
32 
42 
34 
46 


80 
55 
41 
36 
24 
43 
36 
42 


57 
47 
34 
39 
35 
47 
53 
53 



Aqueous vapour pressure at 10 hours. 





February 1887. 


Station. 


















7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


11th. 


12th. 


13th. 


Murree 


•168 


'109 


•126 


•154 


•169 


•196 


•148 


Rawalpindi 


•146 


•116 


•163 


•173 




226 


•211 


■230 


Lahore 


•140 


•135 


•105 


•146 




169 


•235 


•209 


Agra 


■183 


■155 


•142 


•150 




145 


•237 


•259 


Allahabad 


•238 


■158 


136 


•174 




189 


•174 . 


•252 


Patna 


•308 


•296 


'225 


•214 




238 


•277 


•332 


Calcutta 


•680 


•261 


•203 


•168 




208 


■237 


•377 


Dacca . . 


•618 


•289 


•217 


•134 


•292 


•295 


■396 





Amount of wind during 24 L 


Lours ending 4 P. M 


. February, 1887. 


Station. 


















7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


11th. 


12th. 


13th. 


Murree 


167 


117 


170 


117 


267 


206 


200 


Rawalpindi 


115 


155 


79 


56 


68 


58 


117 


Lahore 


50 


66 


75 


56 


42 


35 


95 


Agra 


92 


36 


85 


121 


59 


65 


77 


Allahabad 


85 


43 


114 


108 


47 


97 


144 


Patna 


43 


62 


88 


98 


50 


66 


76 


Calcutta 


94 


85 


126 


125 


80 


125 


77 


Dacca 


34 


63 


99 


126 


62 


67 


40 



The following gives a brief summary of the chief conclusions from 
the data of this period : — 

1st. — The lowest day temperatures were recorded at Murree and 
the hill stations just before the stoiun disappeared and at the 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 39 

plain stations during the fine clear weather which followed 
the storm. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed 
in the Punjab on the 9th and in East Bengal on the 12bh. 
This may be summed up by assuming the eastward passage 
of a cold wave along the plains of Northern India. 
2nd. — The lowest night temperatures of the period were registered 
in the hills on the 6th and 7th during the storm, and in the 
plains during the fine clear weather which followed in the 
rear of the storm. Thus the lowest minimum temperatures oc- 
curred in the Punjab on the 9th, in the North- Western Pro- 
vinces on the 9th and 10th, in Behar on the 10th and 11th 
and in Bengal on the 11th and 12th. This further proves the 
passage of a wave of cold eastwards along the length of the 
plains of Northern India, at a rate of about 300 miles per 
diem. 

3rd. — The period immediately following the breaking up of the 
storm was one of large diurnal range of temperature. The 
effect of the dry weather which followed in increasing the 
daily range was shewn most strikingly in Bengal. The daily 
range at Calcutta increased from 13/4° on the 7th to 25T° on 
the 12th and at Dacca from 226° on the 7th to 304° on the 
11th. 

4<th. — There was a large temporary increase in the air motion, which 
was first shewn at the western stations and extended east- 
wards. It occurred at the Bengal stations two or three days 
later than in the Punjab and Western districts of the North- 
Western Provinces. These winds were the cool westerly winds 
which followed in the rear of the storm and accompanied the 
setting in of fine clear dry weather. 
5th. — The most important change was in the amount of vapour and 
the humidity of the atmosphere. This was far more marked 
in Bengal than in the Gangetic area. In Bengal local 
damp sea winds prevailed during the existence of the cold 
weather storm, and after it disappeared they were l-eplaced by 
dry land westerly winds. The humidity at Calcutta decreased 
from 85 to 33 and at Dacca from 90 to 33 in 24 hours. The 
aqueous vapour pressure data shew that this was due to a large 
reduction in the amount of vapour pressure and hence to the 
displacement of the previous winds by an air current of op- 
posite characteristics. The amount of vapour in the air at Cal- 
cutta on the 10th was less than a fourth of that present in it 
on the 7th. 



40 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

The following hence gives the chief features of the anti-cyclonic 
weather immediately following a cold weather storm during which heavy 
general snow has fallen in the Afghan highlands and the Himalayas : — 

(a.) — Pressure is excessive in Upper India and unusually clear bright 
fine weather prevails. Strong westerly winds set in over 
Upper India and extend rapidly eastwards. In Bengal 
these winds displace the light southerly or easterly winds 
which prevailed during the previous disturbed weather. 

(b ) — During the stormy weather both day and night temperatui'es 
are very low at the hill stations, but, with the melting of the 
snow, temperature rapidly increases and the ordinary anti- 
cyclonic conditions of increased temperature are again exhi- 
bited at these stations. The important factor in determining 
this change of temperature conditions appears to be the melt- 
ing of the snow from all the lower elevations. 

(c.) — During the disturbed weather the day temperature in Upper 
India is below the normal and the night temperature is 
above it. In Bengal and Behar, in consequence of the pre- 
valence of light southerly and easterly winds, both day and 
night temperatures are considerably above the normal and the 
weather sultry and oppressive. The disappearance of the 
disturbance is usually followed by a rapid reduction of both 
the day and night temperatures. This accompanies a complete 
shift of wind from some southerly to some northerly direction 
and the prevalence of unusually clear bright skies in which 
the solar radiation is even greater than usual. This passage 
of a wave of cold is hence evidently due to the intrusion of a 
body of cold air advancing from Upper India or the Hima- 
layan mountain region into the Gangetic plain and Bengal. 

{d.) — The setting in of these winds produces a very rapid reduc- 
tion in the humidity of the air and the amount of vapour. 
The reduction is far greater in Bengal than in the interior, 
and is sometimes excessive. 

(e.) — In consequence of these large changes of humidity and tem- 
perature, the periods immediately following cold weather 
storms in Upper India are especially cool, pleasant, and brac- 
ing in Bengal and stand in marked contrast to the weather 
prevailing before and during the existence of the storrns. 

We proceed to give an explanation of these facts. 

The chief feature of the cold weather in Upper India is great still- 
ness of the air, the stillness being most marked at night. 

The following table gives the amount of winds measured by the 



1890.] Relations between the Sills and Plains of Northern India. 41 

self registering anemographs during the month of January 1889, and 
illustrates this feature of the air motion. 

The following table gives the amount of wind during the day and 
night hours 





Eoorkee. 


Lucknow. 


Date. 


Amount of wind in miles. 


Amount of wind in miles. 




6 A.M. — 6 P.M. 


6 P.M. — 6 A.M. 


6 A.M. — 6 P.M. 


6 P.M. — 6 A.M. 


1st January 1889. 


32 


3 


60 


24 


2nd 


1 





31 


24 


3rd 


33 





15 


12 


4th 


20 





13 


11 


5th 


2 


2 


12 


6 


6th 


12 


2 


43 


39 


7th 


30 


10 


49 


28 


8th 


14 


6 


53 


24 


9th 


14 


7 


30 


2 


10th 


55 


13 


4 


2 


Uth 


20 





5 


1 


12th 


1 


17 


17 


16 


13th 


44 





41 


5 


14th 


2 





3 


6 


loth 





2 


13 


9 


16th 


2 


2 


45 


17 


17th 


5 


4 


33 


13 


18th 


4 


10 


41 


42 


19th 


39 


18 


100 


47 


20th 


29 


3 


103 


48 


21st 


4 





26 


17 


22nd 


18 


21 


40 


11 


23rd 


29 





14 


15 


24th 


13 


4 


6 


2 


25th 


19 





23 


6 


26th 


6 


2 


4 





27th 


6 


4 


4 


3 


28th 


1 


34 


10 


8 


29th 


57 


153 


102 


100 


30th 


63 


25 


155 


25 


31st 


26 


1 


57 


11 



Average of period 

from 1st to 27th. 17 miles. 4-5 miles. 31 miles. 16 miles. 

These figures shew very clearly the quiescent state of the atmosphere 
in Northern India during the cold weather and more especially at night.- 
This is especially observable in the periods of ordinary anti-cyclonic 
conditions. 

In fine clear weather the range of temperature is large. It aver- 
ages 27° for the whole of the Punjab for the month, and in fine clear 
weather usually varies little from 36°F. or 20°C. The range at the hill 
stations is much less, averaging 15° and rarely exceeding 18°, even in 
6 



42 John Eliot — On, the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

clear weather. It is not necessary to give data for these statements, as. 
a reference to the Tables I to IV will confirm them. We shall therefore 
assume these two figures, viz., 18° and 36°, as representing approximately 
the daily ranges of temperature of the air at the hill stations and adjacent 
plains in Upper India in ordinary fine clear anti-cyclonic weather in 
January. If there were absolutety no motion of the air, vertical or 
horizontal, an increase of temperature of 36° of the lowest strata of air 
over the plains would cause pressure, as measured by the barometer, to 
increase about two inches. No such increase actually occurs. The 
only large barometric movement in such weather is the diurnal oscilla- 
tion (slightly exceeding in amount a tenth of an inch), which goes on 
with great regularity. Again, as no such large increase of pressure oc- 
curs, it is evident that it is counterbalanced by the subsequent changes 
of pressure due to air motion of expansion, convection currents and 
horizontal movement. The cooling of the air takes place most 
rapidly for some hours after sunset when the air movement is ap- 
parently least. The adjustment of pressure to the changing temperature 
conditions during night is frequently not accompanied by any per- 
ceptible or measurable air movement (vide data of Table, p. 41). The 
slightest observation of the way in which the smoke of the evening 
fires in an Indian town in Upper India lies over it motionless indicates 
clearly that the only important air movement which occurs in the 
evening during the rapid cooling of the air, can only be one of compres- 
sion due to descent of the air above the lowest stratum, and that this is 
so extremely slow a process as to be imperceptible even by its action 
on mist and smoke. Considering the first 1000 feet thickness of the 
atmosphere to be homogeneous, the upper surface would have to descend 
about 60 feet in order to produce the compression required to maintain 
pressure at the same amount. This motion may appear to be consi- 
derable, but if it occurs as an accompaniment to the cooling it will 
take several hours to be completed. A total downward movement 
of the air at a height of 1000 feet through sixty or seventy feet 
spread over several hours is exceedingly small and cannot be detected by 
any of the ordinary methods of measuring air motion. The assump- 
tion of this slow motion of compression is hence in accordance with 
facts and competent to explain them. The cooling by night hence 
takes place in a nearly quiescent atmosphere, and if there be any con- 
vection currents, they are so feeble, more especially when compared 
with those which accompany heating dui'ing the day, as to be of no 
importance and negligible. Hence the motion of the air at night 
in Upper India during fine clear weather in January may be assumed 
+o be a very small general downward movement producing the 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 43 

amount of compression necessary to counterbalance almost exactly the 
effect of diminishing temperature on the pressure. In the open Gange- 
tic plain, more especially near the hills, it may be accompanied by slight 
horizontal movements, but they are generally too small to be measured 
by an anemometer. Hence the adjustment of pressure takes place in 
the cold weather during the day time chiefly by convection currents and 
partly by expansional movement of the lower strata and partly by hori- 
zontal motion from west to east or from the area of later to earlier solar 
action during the day ; and during the night, almost solely by vertical 
movement accompanying or producing compi-ession. 

Through such a nearly motionless atmosphere the heat radiated 
from the earth's surface will pass readily. The chief proportion of the 
small absorption which occurs will be in the lowest strata. Hence the 
upper strata which receive little heat and give out little by radiation 
will have their temperature very slightly affected by this cause. Also 
if the compression of the lower strata be effected by the expansion of the 
upper sti'ata, these strata will be slightly cooled, whilst the compression 
of the lower strata will cause a slight increase of temperature, but these 
changes can be shown to be so small as not to affect the temperatui'e at the 
utmost more than 1° or 2°. The most important action, however, occurs 
in the lowest strata. The earth is cooled rapidly by radiation from its 
surface into space, and in the vast level plains of Northern India, the air 
remains quiescent or stagnant over it and hence cools down rapidly. (The 
cooling of the lowest strata probably takes place chiefly by conduction 
and to some extent by convection currents extending to a comparatively 
small height, determined partly by height of vegetation, trees, houses, 
&c.) The chief fact, however, remains that the cooling occurs in a 
stagnant or quiescent stratum near the earth's surface, and hence goes on 
continuously during the night, and produces a very large accumulated 
decrease of temperature. 

This action is, however, chiefly confined to the lowest strata and 
above these the fall of temperature will be almost solely due to conduc- 
tion (a slow process in air) and hence be small in amount. Also, as 
the lower strata are compressed and the upper strata expand, there will 
be some level at which at each instant there is neither compression nor 
expansion. Whether this will alter much in position during the night 
can only be conjectured, but it appeal's on the whole most probable that 
it will not. The total fall of temperature during the night will hence 
decrease rapidly in amount with elevation and at some elevation become 
practically constant where it will be due almost entirely to slight 
cooling by radiation and by expansion and to a very slight extent by con- 
duction and piobably not exceed 2° or 3° in amount. 



44 Jolm Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

In the preceding discussion it has been shewn that the temperature 
conditions and changes at the hill stations are usually different from 
those of the plain stations. For example, ordinary anti-cyclonic weather 
gives increased day and night temperature at the hill stations, and hence 
increases the mean temperature and only affects the diurnal range very 
slightly, whilst in the plains it gives increased day and decreased night 
temperature, and hence increases very largely the diurnal range of tem- 
perature, whilst it only slightly affects the mean daily temperature. Again 
stormy weather in the mountain districts of Northern India gives de- 
creased day and night temperature and hence a much lower mean temper- 
ature than usual with little change in the diurnal range of temperature. 
The same weather in the plains gives decreased day and increased night 
temperature, and hence the diurnal range of temperature is largely 
diminished, whilst the mean temperature is very slightly affected. Hence 
the important conclusions, 

1st. — That the chief weather changes and conditions in Northern 
India during the cold weather affect the temperature in 
entirely different ways in the plains and hills. In the 
former they modify the diurnal range of temperature chiefly 
and in the latter the daily mean temperature. 
2nd. — That the monthly means of temperature or of daily range of 
temperature are in consequence not comparable for the hills 
and plain stations, and that similar variations from the nor- 
mal imply different conditions and actions in the two cases. 
3rd. — Hence the nature and causes of these changes and variations 
of the vertical temperature relations cannot be properly 
estimated and investigated by comparing monthly means, 
but by comparison of the actual temperature conditions 
prevailing in each particular state or type of weather. 
Hence typical cases have been selected in tbe previous portion of 
the paper and the same principle is adopted throughout. 

We are now in a position to give a simple explanation of the high 
night temperatures at the hill stations observed during fine clear 
weather in December and January. 

In ordinary anti-cyclonic weather in January in the Punjab plains 
the temperature ranges from an average maximum of 72° to an average 
minimum of 36°, giving thus a mean diurnal range at such periods of 
36°. The hill stations in Upper India are at an elevation of about 7000 
feet above the sea or 6000 feet higher than the neighbouring plain 
stations. The rapid increase of temperature in the plains during the 
morning gives rise almost entirely to convection currents. As the air 
is very dry, it may be assumed that in rising and expanding it will cool 



1890.] Relations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 45 

and diminish in temperature at a rate not much less than that of a 
rapidly ascending current of dry air, which is very approximately 1° 
for every 193 feet. Assuming the rate of decrease of temperature in 
these ascending currents to be 1° for every 200 feet, the motion of the 
atmosphere would tend to give a temperature of (72° — 30° or) 42° at the 
elevation of 6000 feet above the plains of the Punjab. Little or no 
change would occur at night, when there are practically no convection 
currents, and hence at that elevation above the plains of Northern India 
the temperature in such periods would remain permanently at about 42° 
and hence be about 6° higher than the average night or minimum tem- 
perature at the level of the plains below. 

The day temperature at the hill stations would be considerably 
higher than 42° in consequence of the heating of the air by contact 
with the land surface, and average about 60° in such weather. About 
sunset temperature would fall quickly and a short period of rapid de- 
crease of temperature would occur until the temperature reached that 
of the same level above the plains, viz., 42°. The continuous decrease 
of temperature in the hills and plains for some time after sunset would 
evidently give rise to a compressive movement over the hills and plains 
aud also to a very slow downward movement of air from the hills to- 
wards the plains and to a nearly horizontal upper movement from 
above the plains towards the hills. Hence the air which cools by contact 
with the mountain sides and moves down towards the plains is replaced 
from a large source (that of the whole mass above the plains at the 
higher levels), and hence arrives at a nearly constant temperature 
corresponding to that level. Thus air brought in from the level of 
7000 feet would arrive during the night at that level in the hills at a 
nearly constant temperature at 42°, and hence when the temperature at 
the hill stations has fallen to a little below 42° it would remain fairly 
steady during the night at about that temperature.* As the tempera- 



* In order to verify this statement I had two series of temperature observations 
taken in a suitable open position on the top of a ridge at Simla on the nights of the 
9th and 11th of December last, when ordinary antioyolonic weather prevailed in 
Northern India. They are given in the following table and it will be seen fully 
to confirm the conclusion given in the text. 





Temperature of the air. 




Date. 


16 

hrs 


1630 
hrs. 


17 
hrs. 


17-30 
hrs. 


18 
hrs. 


1830 
hrs. 


19 
hrs. 


1930 
hrs. 


20 

hrs. 


2030 
hrs. 


21 

hrs. 


21-30 
hrs. 


22 
hrs. 


cd "a 

F3 r£ 


December 9th 
„ 11th 


549 
507 


52-4 
48-5 


492 
439 


47-7 
438 


45-4 
42-0 


466 

42-2 


469 

42-7 


466 
431 


467 

42- f 


44-9 
433 


432 
43 6 


45-6 
449 


45-9 

45-2 


410 
412 



46 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. I, 

ture at the level of the plains would probably fall to about 36° on such 
clear nights, the minimum temperature in the plains would hence be 
slightly below that at the hill stations 6000 feet above. 

The previous supposition gives an average case, and shews that in or- 
dinary anti-cyclonic weather in December and January the minimum tem- 
perature at the hill stations tends to be higher than at the plain stations. 

The following are specific examples taken from the observations of 
the inversion of the vertical temperature relations was most marked : — 

On the 2nd the maximum temperature at Rawalpindi was 70'5°. 
The corresponding temperature of convection at the level of Murree 
4800 feet higher would be (70'5 — 24°) or 46"5°. The minimum tempera- 
ture on the night of the 2nd was 49"3° or slightly greater. On the 3rd, 
the maximum at Rawalpindi was 68'9° and the convection temperature 
at the level of Murree 449°, which was practically identical with the 
actual minimum at Murree 44.6°. The minimum temperatures on these 
two nights at Rawalpindi were 37"4° and 36 9° or 11'9° and 7-7° lower 
than at Murree. Again at Ludhiana on the 3rd the maximum was 77' 7 
and at the level of Simla 6200 feet high the corresponding convective 
temperature would be (77'7° — 3L°) or 46'7°. The minimum at Simla on 
the night of the 3rd was 48'4° and 2"8° higher than at Ludhiana. At 
Roorkee on the same day the maximum was 72'3° and the corresponding 
convective temperature at the level of Musoorree (6000 feet higher) was 
42*3°. The minimum at Mussooree was actually 42 - 0° and 5*7° higher 
than at Roorkee. It is not necessary to multiply examples, as these shew 
roughly that the minimum temperatures at the hill stations and therefore 
the temperature during the greater part of the evening and night is prac- 
tically that of dry air at the level of the hill station rising rapidly with 
the maximum day temperature at the level of the plains or what may be 
termed the convective temperatures corresponding to the maximum 
temperature conditions of the lowest stratum. 

Hence the explanation and facts appear to establish the following: — 
(a) — In ordinary anti-cyclonic weather when the horizontal air 
motion by day or night is very small, the temperature at 



With these figures may be compared the following temperature observations 
recorded at Lahore on the same days. 





Temperature of the air at 


Maximum 
tempera- 
ture during 
day. 


I «a.g 

P n E? _J 


Date. 


4 hrs. 


8 hrs. 


10 hrs. 


16 hrs. 


22 hrs. 


Minim 

tempe 

ture du 

nigh 


December 9th ... 
11th ... 


405 
410 


475 

460 


660 
660 


762 
725 


5C0 
486 


74-2 
75'2 


389 
394 



1890.] Belations "between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 47 



considerable elevations above the plains is nearly constant, 
and is determined by the temperature at that elevation of 
the rapid upward convective currents at the hottest period 
of the day. 
(b) — There is at such periods a slow steady descent of air during the 
night from the hills towards the plains and a horizontal in- 
flow from higher levels of air at nearly constant tempera- 
ture to the hills, 
(c) — Temperature decreases very rapidly at the hill stations shortly 
before and for some little time after sunset until the tem- 
perature falls to or slightly below that of the same level in 
the open atmosphere over the plains of Northern India, after 
which it remains nearly constant throughout the night. 
The short chilly period immediately after sunset is a 
very characteristic feature of the hill stations in ordinary 
fine weather during November, December, and January, 
(c?.) — The temperature of the earth's surface in the plains of Nor- 
thern India falls rapidly and steadily during the whole night 
and until very shortly before sunrise. Hence also the 
temperature of the quiescent mass of air immediately above 
it falls pari passu, and by amounts ranging from 30° to 
40° in ordinary clear weather in January. The fall of 
temperature is greatest at a considerable distance from the 
foot of the hills, where the observations shew that the 
maximum temperatures are higher, the daily range of tem- 
perature greater, and the minimum frequently lower than 
immediately under the hills. The following gives examples 
for the 2nd and 3rd January, 1889. The stations which were 
to be compared are grouped by means of brackets. 



Station. 




2nd 




3rd 
















Max. 


Min. 


Eange. 


Max. 


Min. 


Range. 


Ludhiana ... ... 1 

Lahore ... ... J 


697 


41-0 


28-7 


75-2 


45-6 


296 


720 


362 


358 


730 


372 


358 


Koorkee ... ... \ 


708 


389 


319 


70-8 


36 6 


34-2 


Meerut ... ... > 


72-7 


421 


306 


74-2 


390 


352 


Delhi ... ... ) 


731 


411 


320 


78-1 


40-1 


380 


Bareilly ... ... \ 

Agra ... ... ) 


737 


413 


32 4 


71 2 


398 


314 


75-6 


446 


310 


78-6 


436 


350 


Gorakhpur ... .. ~\ 


68-9 


454 


235 


71-8 


479 


239 


Lncknow ... ... J 


75-2 


43-0 


322 


71 1 


411 


300 


Allahabad ... .. ) 


714 


437 


27-7 


770 


427 


343 



48 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature [No. 1, 

As there is little or no difference, so far as can be judged, in the 
radiating power of the earth's surface at Ludhiana, Roorkee, Bareilly, 
and Grorakhpur as compared with Lahore, Delhi, Agra, and Allahabad 
in January to account for the greater cooling of the earth's surface and 
the superincumbent air, it is almost certain that the mass of air descend- 
ing from the hills is warmed by the action of compression in descending, 
and that this is one, if not the chief, factor in giving a smaller fall of tem- 
perature and slightly increased night temperature at the stations nearest 
to the hills when compared with the more distant ones. Hence it is 
clear that the descending air does not contribute towards the cooling of 
the plains of Northern India during the night but actually tends to dimi- 
nish it. 

The efficient factors in the rapid cooling of the air in the plains of 
Northern India at such periods are : — 

1st. — Absence of cloud and other conditions favouring rapid radiation 
from the earth's surface. 

2nd. — Absence of air motion, and more especially of downward 
convection currents, so that the same mass of air remains 
in contact with the earth's surface. 

The first ensures the rapid cooling of the earth's surface and the 
second of the air immediately above the earth's surface. 

A brief explanation will serve for the temperature conditions in 
Upper India during and after stormy weather. The most important factor 
appears to be snow fall in the hills and rain in the plain districts. The 
condensation takes place largely, if not almost entirely, in the upper return 
current of the north-east monsoon circulation and hence at a great ele- 
vation. The falling rain and snow carry down with them the temperature 
of their place of origin and hence tend to cool considerably the whole mass 
of air through which they fall. The amount of the cooling will evidently 
depend greatly upon the amount and period of the rain and snowfall. In 
the hill districts, the temperature falls steadily throughout a long snow 
storm, and the lowest temperatures are usually recorded just before the 
weather begins to clear. In the plains, the day temperatui'e falls in con- 
sequence of cloud and rainfall and the action of rainfall referred to above. 
But the cloud canopy causes terrestrial radiation to proceed very slowly 
at night. The effect of the cloud in diminishing radiation is so large that 
the night temperatures are hence at such periods considerably higher 
than usual. Hence stormy weather in January and February depresses 
temperature largely throughout the whole day at the hill stations, and 
in fact tends to give them a temperature nearly equal to the permanent 
temperatures of a stratum considerably above their level (i. e. of the stra- 
tum in which condensation occurs). Whereas in the plains the chief 



1890.] Eelations between the Hills and Plains of Northern India. 49 

effect is to diminish the daily range of temperature by decreasing the 
day and increasing the night temperature. 

Finally, when the stormy weather passes away unusually dry clear 
weather sets in. In the hills the snow probably extends down to a level 
of 4,000 or 5,000 feet. The temperature of the air at and above that 
level is mainly determined by that of the snow surface with which it is 
in contact, and hence, even in the middle of the day, differs little from 
32°. Hence a period of low and nearly constant temperature conditions 
sets in until the snow is melted and the snow line retreats. The snow 
melts very rapidly, at a rate of six to nine inches per diem in clear 
weather in exposed positions, and a snow fall of 3 or 4 feet will melt 
away and disappear in five or six days in favourable weather except in 
sheltered positions. Consequently, temperature in the hills at such periods 
is at first low, but rapidly rises with the melting of the snow, and after 
a few days of fine clear weather the conditions merge into those of 
normal ordinary anticyclonic weather, which have been already stated. 

In the plains the conditions and actions are different. Solar radia- 
tion during such periods is more active than usual in consequence of the 
great clearness of the atmosphere, the absence of dust, &c. Hence not 
only is the upward convective motion over the plains dui'ing the day 
greater than usual, but in consequence of the low temperature over the 
snow-covered surface of the hills there is a rapid flow of air from the 
hills towai'ds the plains, which in consequence of the first action is pro- 
bably greater by day than by night. This mass of air starting from, say, 
a level of 4000 feet above the plains at a temperature of 32° will by rapid 
descent be heated about 20° and hence will arrive at the level of the 
plains at a temperature of about 32° + 20° =52°, or 20° lower than the 
maximum temperature prevailing in the plains in ordinary anticyclonic 
weather. Hence there will be a steady flow of cool air towards the 
plains from the hills, the temperature of which, when it arrives at the 
level of the plains, will be very low when compared with the ordinary 
day temperature at the period. As the snow melts and the snow line 
ascends, the temperature of the descending current at the level of the 
plains will increase. Hence in the plains immediately after a severe 
storm in the hills there will be, 

1st. A strong and steady current from the hills towards the plain s 
and hence a strong easterly current from the north north- 
west and west down the Gangetic Plain. 
2nd. This current will be fed from a source of nearly constant 
temperature above the elevation of the snowline, and hence 
the temperature of the descending current at the base of 
the hills will be least immediately after the clearing up 



50 John Eliot — On the occasional Inversion of the Temperature, Sfc. [No. 1, 

of the weather, and will increase slowly with the melting 
of the snow in the hills. Hence one of the most striking 
features is the low maximum temperatures recorded at 
such periods in Upper or Northern India, although the 
air is unusually clear, and the solar radiation at the earth's 
surface more intense than usual. 
3rd. One of the chief features of a descending current is 
great dryness, hence the descending currents from the hills 
at such times will tend to give abnormally low humidity to 
the whole area over which their influence extends. The 
change of humidity due to this will evidently he greatest 
in the area over which damp sea winds previously prevail- 
ed, that is, usually in Bengal. 
It will thus be seen that the features of the very cool and dry 
periods after stormy weather in Northern India during January and 
February are explicable on the assumption of unusually large and 
massive currents from the hills at a time when the snow surface has 
greatly extended downwards. 

It is hardly necessary to point out that these cool periods are of 
occasional occurrence in Bengal, and are the most characteristic and 
pleasant feature of the cold weather. These cool jieriods in Northern 
India hence shew most strikingly the rapid and large influence which 
snowfall over a large mountain area exerts. Mr. Blanford and myself 
have shewn the probably large influence it occasionally exercises on the 
distribution of the south-west monsoon rainfall. This has been ques- 
tioned by some writers as the effect appears to them to be dispropor- 
tionate to the cause. The large changes in air motion, temperature, and 
humidity over the whole of Northern India which follow general snowfall 
in the hills, and which continue for longer or shorter periods according- 
to the intensity and extent of the storm, are a frequent strong argument 
in its favour. 



1890.] A. Alcock — On the Gestation of Elasmobranch Fishes, 51 

II. — Natural History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Marine Survey Steamer 
' Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., D. S. O , 
commanding. — No. 14. Observations on the Gestation of some Sharks 
and Bays. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B., Surgeon-Nahiralist to the 
Marine Survey. 

[Keceived November 18th, 1889 ;— Bead January 1st, 1890.] 

(With Plate I.) 

The observations which I have to record were, of necessity, made so 
hurriedly that I can only hope them to be regarded as a gleaning in the 
outskirts of the field of bionomic science. But any one who, single- 
handed, and almost without appliances, has been called upon, at a 
moment's notice, to undertake the examination of large dead animal 
bodies in the plains of tropical India will readily realize the difficulties 
which hinder the exact and exhaustive dissection, under similar condi- 
tions, of huge fishes, on board ship, in the Bay of Bengal. And I trust 
that the drawbacks alluded to will be taken into consideration with the 
unfinished appearance of the work. 

§ 1. Observations on the Gestation of Carcharias melanopterus, 
Zyga?na blochii, and Carcharias dussumieri. 

a. Carcharias melanopterus. A female, five feet long, was cap- 
tured by Mr. W. H. W. Searle, of the ' Investigator,' on the Orissa coast, 
off the entrance to the Chilka Lake, on the 21st January, 1889. The 
abdomen was much distended ; and, on opening it, the distal ends of the 
oviducts were found to form, on each side, an enormously dilated uterus, 
each occupying the whole length of the abdominal cavity on its own side. 

On section, the walls of the uteri were found to be hyperEemic, 
rather hypertrophied, and spongy : their cavities were divided off, each 
into three separate longitudinal compartments : and tightly-packed in 
each compartment, lying head forwards, parallel with the antero- 
posterior axis of the mother, was a young one twelve inches long. Each 
young one was, further, completely enveloped in a very delicate mem- 
brane, on removal of which the placental-cord was found to be extended, 
in a semi-spiral curve, from a point midway between the pectoral fins 
of the foetus to its maternal attachment at the hinder end of the uterus. 

Each placental cord, which is about eighteen inches long, and 
one-sixth of an inch in diameter, is seen to divide, near the maternal 
attachment, into two equal branches, each of which subdivides again 
and again to form a compact arborescent mass, which is closely applied 
to a flat vascular disk on the wall of the uterus, and thus the placenta 



52 A. Alcock— On the Gestation of Blasmohranch Fishes. [No. 1, 

is formed. The maternal attachment of each placental cord is separate 
and distinct. 

At the foetal end, the cord, having pierced the ventral wall between 
the pectoral fins of the foetus, divides into two branches. The lower of 
these, which is the artery, can be traced into the mesentery, where, 
at the level of the proximal end of the large intestine, it is found to 
be furnished, with a pouch-like gland : its connexion with the dorsal 
aorta could not be made out. The upper branch (venous) subdivides 
into two branches, which ascend in the median fissure of the liver to the 
portal vein. 

A transverse section of the placental cord shews one artery and one 
vein. 

A transverse section through the wall of the uterus shows an outer, 
thin, compact layer of muscular and connective tissue; but the greater 
part of the section consists of an indefinite spongy network (venous ?), 
with numerous large thick-walled arteries. 

The red blood cells of the foetus are y^Vo 0I an inch long, and 2 3 * 9 
of an inch broad. 

b. Zygakna blochii. On the same occasion, a female of this 
species, nearly five feet long, was taken. The general appearances were 
similar to the appearances in Carcharias melanopterus ; but each uterus 
contained five foetuses ; and the placental cords, which were much more 
delicate, were uniformly covered, except at the extreme foetal end, with 
flattened, leaf-like, bilobed or trilobed appendicula, from one-eighth 
to one-quarter of an inch long, each lobe being about one-eighth of an 
inch broad. 

A transverse section of a placental cord, which includes vertical 
sections of the peripheral appendicula, shows, in the cord, a single 
artery a large vein, and four large irregular channels ; and, in each 
of the appendicula, a central longitudinal vessel apparently opening 
into one of the channels of the cord. 

A single intact appendiculum, examined under a moderate power, 
is seen to have a thick external epithelial investment, while internally 
the central vessel is seen to break up into a fine ramifying and anasto- 
mosing capillary-like plexus. 

A transverse section of an appendiculum, under a high power, 
resolves the epithelium-like investment into a gland-like aggregation of 
round laro-e-nucleated cells, about ten strata deep, beneath which is the 
loose-meshed connective tissue of the appendiculum which supports 
the ramifying branches of the contained vessel. 

The structure of the placenta, and the ultimate distribution of the 
vessels of the cord, are the same as in Carcharias melanopterus, but there 



1890.] A. Alcock — On the Gestation of Elasmobranch Fishes. 53 

is no gland- like body in connexion with the artery. The red blood-cells 
of the fcetns are y^- -$ of an inch in the major, and -^Vo of an inch 
in the transverse diameter. 

The length of the foetuses was about fifteen inches. 

The nature of the appendicula is difficult to understand, seeing that 
the foetus is connected with the mother by a large and well-developed 
placenta ; but their richly cellular investment is evidence of some active 
function, either in the elaboration or purification of the blood proceeding 
to the foetus. If the channels of the cord are regarded as lymphatics, 
the appendicula might be looked upon as forming a diffused and pri- 
mitive lymphatic gland-system, their thick investment of lymphoid cells 
being analogous to the medulla of a mammalian lymphatic gland. 

c. Carcharias dussumieri. A female, seven feet and a half long, 
was hooked at sea, off the west coast of Middle Andaman Island, on the 
13th of April, 1889. 

Immediately after death, lively movements commenced in the ab- 
domen, which was much distended ; and the abdominal cavity, on beino- 
opened, was found almost completely filled by the dilated, congested, 
spongy- walled uteri, as in the case of Carcharias melanopterns and Zygcena 
blochii. Bach uterus contained five living foetuses, each two feet lone- 
lying head forwards in separate compartments, each with its own 
placenta, exactly in the manner already described. The placental cords 
had the usual appearance. 

The young ones when removed to a tub of sea- water swam about 
vigorously for nearly an hour, but died eventually from hemorrhage 
due to rupture of the placental cord. 

The structure of the placenta, and the distribution of the vessels 
of the cord, were exactly similar to those of 0. melanopterus ; but no 
gland-like organ was found on the artery. 

Unfortunately, the selected specimens, though placed in strong 
alcohol, putrified. 

The specimens of Carcharias melanopterus and Zygcena blochii 
though packed in salt, became so rotten that they fell to pieces. 

§ 2. Observations on the Gestation of Trygon bleekeri, and on the 
Uterus of Myliobatis nieuhofii. 

a. Tbtgow bleekeri. A female, with a disk of very larcre dimen- 
sions, was taken in the seine, by Mr. W. H. W. Searle, in False Point 
Harbour (Orissa coast), on the 15th December, 1888. 

The distal end of the right oviduct was enormously dilated, and 
contained in its cavity a fully-developed male foetus with a disk ll- 2 - 
inches long and 101 inches broad. 



54 A. A]cock — On the Gestation of Elasmobranch Fishes. [No. 1, 

The striking feature was, that there was no connexion of any kind 
between the foetus and the mother, and no evidence of any such pre- 
vious connexion. 

The mucous membrane of the uteims, however, was covered with 
an abundant glairy albuminous fluid, the secretion apparently of a layer 
of thick-set papillas which formed its inner coat ; and the inference 
seems irresistible that this fluid constituted the nutriment of the foetus, 
and was, in short, a true uterine milk. Unfortunately, the examination 
of the stomach of the foetus was delayed for twenty-four hours, when 
the viscera had undergone such changes that the verification of this 
theory was hardly possible. 

On removal of the fluid, which was then found to form a nearly 
solid coagulum on the application of heat, the papillary layer of the 
mucous membrane of the uterus was found to be of a vivid scarlet. 

The papillae themselves average about half an inch in length, and 
are filiform in shape, and very delicate. They are so thick-set as to be 
in contact when not floated out in water. 

Beneath them is a thick mucous layer rich in blood-vessels, and 
outside this is (1) an inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of 
muscle, and (2) a connective-tissue coat ; the whole aggregating in 
thickness one-eighth of an inch. 

The thickness and compactness of the muscular coat is in striking 
contrast with the loose spongy nature of the uterine walls in Garcharias 
and Zygcena, and appears to indicate much greater parturient effort in 
Trygon. 

b. Myliobatis nieuhofii. A female, with a disk seventeen inches 
long and twenty-eight broad, was taken in the seine, by Mr. W. H. W. 
Searle, off Cocanada, on the 31st March, 1889. 

The left ovary was full of large ova, and the distal end of its 
oviduct formed a large globular swelling, with thick, firm, muscular 
walls, and a uniform internal lining of broad flattened papillae nearly 
half an inch long. 

On the posterior surface of this uterus, and closely adherent to it, 
was an indistinctly tabulated gland-like organ, which, on section, was 
found to consist of an aggregation of tubules with blood-vessels and 
characteristic glomeruli, and a small amount of intertubular stroma. 
The tubules were lined with large-nucleated, cubical, epithelium. Un- 
fortunately, the other relations of this kidney were missed. 

A section through the uterus shows, from without inwards, (I) a 
compact counective-tissue investment about one-eightieth of an inch 
thick, with numerous large blood-vessels ; (2) a layer of unstriped 
muscular tissue in transverse bundles ; (3) a layer of similar muscular 



1890.] A. Alcock — On the Gestation of Elasmobranch Fishes. 55 

tissue in longitudinal bundles, the united thickness of the two layers 
being about one-nineteenth of an inch ; (4) a mucous layer of varying 
thickness, containing numerous blood-vessels and lymphatic (?) spaces, 
and crowded with lymphoid cells. 

This mucous layer forms the long papillae above mentioned, and a 
uniform sheet of close-set tubular glands, which resemble, for the most 
part, the lieberkuhnian follicles of human anatomy, covers its entire sur- 
face, both papillary and inter-papillaiy. These glands, at any rate near 
their orifices, are lined with short columnar epithelial cells, and similar 
cells invest the surface of the mucous membrane between the orifices 
of the glands. 

The individual papilla?, as already stated, are about half an inch 
long, and are flattened. In some cases they bifurcate or trifurcate. 
In breadth they vary from one forty-eighth to one twenty-fourth of an 
inch. They are formed by a central prolongation of the mucous coat 
richly provided with lymphoid cells, and containing at least one blood- 
vessel and numerous lymphatic (?) spaces ; and are invested externally 
by the above-described layer of tubular glands. These glands are 
mostly simple at the bases of the papilla?, but peripherally they fre- 
quently become racemose, and in this case the acini are lined internally 
with a cubical epithelium. 

As to the function of this vast surface of glandular tissue, we are 
able to form an opinion by referring to the case of Trygon bleeheri. 
There we found a uterus exactly similar in its naked eye anatomy to 
the one we are discussing ; and in this uterus was a large foetus entirely 
separate, as far as structural connexion goes, from the mother ; while 
the uterine papillaiy Surface was concealed by a copious secretion of 
a highly albuminous, and presumably nutritive, fluid. In the absence of 
any vascular connexion between the foetus and the mother, we assumed 
that this fluid served for the nutrition of the foetus. 

In Myliobatis nieuhofii, in which the uterine papilla? are less 
attenuated, and more amenable to manipulation, we find the whole 
intra-uterine mucous membrane forming a superficial gland ; and I 
think we are justified in assuming that this gland is practically a milk- 
gland, the secretion of which furnishes the developing fcetus with nutri- 
ment. 

In the Zoological Record the only allusion to uterine villi that I can 
find is to a paper by Trois, in the " Atti del Institute Veneto " Vol. II, 
p. 429, " On the uterine villi of Myliobatis noctula and Gentrina salvi- 
ani :" but I regret that I have not been able to obtain access to this. 



56 A. Mukhopadhyay — Hypokinetic Equations. [No. 1, 

Explanation of Plate I. 

Fig. 1. A piece of the placental cord of Zygcena blocMi, natural size. 

Fig. 2. Transverse section through the same, showing artery and vein, lym- 
phatic (?) spaces, and three appendicala in oblique section with parts of two more 
in vertical section. x 16. 

Fig. 3. A portion of one of the ajDpendicula of the same, showing the ramifying 
vessel, x 21. 

Fig. 4. Transverse section through part of one of the appendicula of the same, 
near its base, x 110. 

Fig. 5. Transverse section through uterine wall of Mi/liobatis nieuhofii, showing 
fibrous and muscular coats, and mucous membrane, with the bases of three papillaa. 
x 21. 

Fig. 6. Obliquely transverse section through part of one of the uterine papilloe 
of the same, showing some of the simple follicles of the mucous membrane in oblique 
section, and one of the racemose follicles. x 110. 



III. — On Ghbsch's Transformation of the Hydrolrinetic Equations. 
By Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., F. R. A. S., F. R. S. E. 

[Received February 27th ;— Read March 6th, 1889.] 

A first integral of the hydrokinetic equations of Euler' may be 
obtained by known methods in three cases: (1) Irrotational motion; 
(2) Steady rotational motion ; (3) General rotational motion. It is the 
object of this note to show how the method of applying Clebsch's 
transformation to the third case can be materially simplified, and inci- 
dentally the relation between the three solutions is pointed out.* 

Starting, then, with the hydrokinetic equations, we remark that 
they may be at once reduced to the forms 

^ 2*4. 2^ + ^ = (1) 

at ax 

d " 2 wi+ 2uZ+f = Q (2) 

at ay 

| y -2^ + 2^+f = (3) 



■/ 



, ^+V+\q* 



g2 = u % _|_ v % _{. w % 
* For the ordinary method, see Basset's Hydrodynamics, vol. i, p. 28. 



AALCQCKJo-urrL.Asiat Soc. Bengal. 189Q. Vol.LIK.Pt.II. 



PI. I 




:,;, ,; ; '., . •• ;■ 



^3 



!I^A 



4^ 



- 1, 1 '■ 



lllftk 



,'' M . 



o 




AA.del 
M.P.Patrkerlith. 




West.Hewman imp. 



1890.] A. Mukliopadliyay — HydroJrinetic Equations. 57 

In the first case, for irrotational motion, the components of mole- 
cular rotation £, -q, £ vanish, implying the equations 



where 



Hence, the required first integral is 



u = 


d4> 
dx 


dp 

dy 


w = 


d<p 
dz 


otioi 


1 reduce to 






dU 
dx 


= 0, 


£-* 


dU 

dz 


= 




U 


-2+* 





/ 



p A at 



where F is ordinarily a f auction of the time, but for steady motion an 
absolute constant throughout the liquid. 

Secondly, if the motion is rotational but steady, we have 

*U,o, - = o, $ = 

dt ' dt ' dt 
and the equations of motion lead to 

dB dB dB n 

u — — \r v —— + w — - = U 
dx dy dz 

_dB dB „ cZZ2 rt 
£ — + ??— + £ — = 0. 
dx dy dz 

These linear differential equations lead, by Laplaces's method, to the 

subsidiary systems 

dx dy dz 

U V w 

dx dy dz 

1 = v " 7 

which denote respectively stream lines and vortex lines. Hence, it is 
possible to construct a series of surfaces 

B = constant 
each of which shall be covered over with a net work of stream lines 
and vortex lines. Hence for steady rotational motion we have 



/ 



— + V + x qfi = constant, 
P 2 



the constant being an absolute constant so long as we pass from point 
to point on a stream line or vortex line, but which varies as we pass 
from one stream line to another or from one vortex line to another. 
8 



58 A. Mukhopadhyay — Hydrokinetic Equations. [No. 1, 

Thirdly, if the motion of the liquid is perfectly general, neither 
steady nor irrotational, we may put, after Clebsch, 

udx + vdy + wdz = d<p + X dx- 

Observe for a moment that as this simply signifies that the differential 
expression on the lefthand side, when not a perfect differential may be 
resolved into two, one of which is so, and the other may be made so by 
means of an integrating factor, the legitimacy of the transformation is 
selfevident. We have then 

u = C ^+ A^ v = ^ + A^ 
dx dx dy dy 

w = — + A — 
dz dz' 

furnishing the known expressions 

dy dz dz dy 



<ft *X 


dX d x 


8 * -■*£." 


dx dz 


2£ = — -^ - 
dx dy 


dX d x 

dy dx 



These lead to the equations 

■ dX dX dX _ 

dx dy dz 

dx dy dz 

both of which give the subsidiary system 
dx dy dz 

the differential equation of vortex lines. Hence the vortex lines are 
obtained as the intersection of the surfaces X = constant, x = constant. 
Again, the value of u gives 



du _ d ( d<$> d\\ 
dt ~~dx\~di ~dt) 



dX d\ dX d x 
dt dx dx dt' 



Substituting in equation (1), we have at once 
dE SA dx _ S x dX _ 
dx 8t dx 8t dx 



where 



/dp 
P 



'T+3+^+i* 



1890.] A. Mukhopadhyay — HydroKneiic Circulation. 59 

and 8 denotes particle differentiation. Equations (2j and (3) lead to 
two similar equations, and we have 

<ffl" dE dH _ 

dx dy dz 

leading to the subsidiary system 

dx dy dz 

J = V ~1 

which denote vortex lines. Hence, we see that it is p'ossible to construct 
a family of surfaces 

H = constant, 
covered over by vortex lines, and the mode of integration shows imme- 
diately that the constant is a function of the time alone. Therefore, for 
steady rotational motion we have 



/ 



**"s+4M>-'» 



along a vortex line. 



IV. — Note on Stokes's Theorem and Hydrolcinetic Circulation. 
By Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., F. R. A. S., F. R. S. E. 

[Received March 24tli ;— Eead April 3rd, 1889.] 

The object of this note is to give a new proof of Stokes's formula 
for hydrokinetic circulation 

j (ndx + vdy + wdz) = 2 I j (I i + m rj + n £) d S, 

and to point out how it is an immediate consequence of the theory of 
the change of the variables in a multiple integral. 
Assume, after Clebsch, 

udx + vdy + wdz = d<f> + \ d-%, 

so that the integration being performed round a closed curve, we have 

j (udx + vdy + ivdz) = | > d%. 

But, the value of 

\d X 



f 



60 A. Mukliopadhyay — Hydrokinetic Circulation. [No. 1, 

taken round the closed curve is clearly equal to tlie sum of the values of 

d\ dx 



ff 



taken round the projections of the closed curve on the coordinate planes. 
Now, for the projected curve on tke coordinate plane of yz, we have at 
once from the ordinary formulae for the transformation of multiple 
integrals, 



If 



dX dx 



=ffm-m^ 



The projected curves on the other two coordinate planes lead to two 
similar expressions. Hence, the circulation round the given closed 
curve is furnished by 



(udx + vdy -\- wdz) 
d\ dx d\ dx\ 



I 

J J \dydz dzdyj J 



But, as an immediate consequence of Clebsch's transformation, we have 

„ =. *$ + x dx 

dx dx 

dy dy 

d<t> d X 

dz dz 



■whence 



ot — *f _ ^1 — ^ *^X dXd\ 
dy dz dy dz dz dy 



2 V 



du dw d\ dx dX dx 
dz dx dz dx dx dz 



nj-_.dv^^du_d\dx dX dx 
dx dy dx dy dy dx 



1890.] A. Mukhopadhyay — On a Curve of Aberrancy. 61 

Therefore, putting 

dy dz = Id 8, dx dz = mdS, dx dy = ndS, 
where I, m, n are the direction cosines of the normal, we have 



If 



I (udx + vdz + wdz) 

i /div dv\ /du dw\ /dv du\ \ 

[ \dy dz) \dz dx) \dx dy) ) 

= 2 | | (# + my + nQ cZ^, 



which is Stokes's Theorem. It is worth noting that as no physical con- 
ception enters into the above proof, it holds good whether we regard the 
theorem as a purely analytical one or as merely furnishing a formula for 
hydrokinetic circulation. 



V. — On a Curve of Aberrancy. 

By Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., F. R. A. S., F. R. S. E. 

[Received May 23rd ;— Eead June 5th, 1889.] 

If a curve be referred to rectangular axes drawn through any 
origin, the coordinates (a, /3) of the centre of aberrancy, which is the 
centre of the osculating conic at any given point (x, y) of the curve 
are given in the most general form by the system 

Sqr 



a = x — 



P = V - 



3qs — 5r 8 
3q (pr - 3<7 2 ) 



3qs — 5r a 

where p, q, r, s are the successive differential coefficients of y with 
respect to x.* The locus of (a, /3) is called the aberrancy curve of the 
given curve, and in this note, I shall investigate the aberrancy curve 
of a plane cubic of Newton's fourth classt 

y ■=■ a* 3 + 2>hx % + 3cx + d 
in which the diametral conic degenerates into the line at infinity. 
We have 

p = 3 (ax* + 2bx + c) 
q = 6 {ax + b) 
r = 6a 
s= 

* J. A. S. B. 1888, vol. Ivii, part ii, p. 324. 

f Salmon's Higher Plane Carves, (Ed. 1879), p. 177. 



62 A. Mukhopadhyay — On a Curve of Aberrancy. [No. 1, 

whence 

pr - 3^3 = 18 (ac - 6 2 ) - 90 (ax + i)» 





8x 3b 
a = 1- — 

5 5a 




f-**^'^—^; 


Therefore 






3a 3& 

X = ~8~Sa 




5 
aa; + b = - (aa + 6) 

o 


and 


9 («a+ 6) ( 
v = # — i (ac — b' 



< >~ 8a* [(a* -**)-§ (««+&)*;} 

Bat from the equation of the curve we have 

a%y = (ax -f 6) 3 + 3a (ac — 6 a ) # + a?d — & s . 
Therefore, substituting for x and y in terms of a and /?, we have 
64 aS/3 = - 125 a s a3 - 375 a%o? + (192 ac - 5676 2 ) aa 
+ (64a»<2 - 1896 s ), 
or, writing x, y for a, /8, we see that the aberrancy curve of the plane 
cubic 

y = ax % + 3bx % + 3cx + d 
is another plane cubic of the same class 

y = Ax* + 3Sa; 2 + 3C# + D 
where 

J. = —ha 
B = - hb 

= - ko + (1 + h) a -^-¥- 
a 

n %d _ jfi 
D = -M-t-(l + &) — ~ 
a* 

125 

If, therefore, 

H=ac-h\G = aU - Sale + 26 s 
be the invariants of the given cubic, and H', G' the corresponding quan- 
tities for the aberrancy cubic, viz., 

H' = AG- B% G' = AW - 3AB0 + 2B 3 , 
we have by direct calculation 

H' = -JcE 
G' = WG. 



1890.] G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. 63 

It follows, therefore, that the quantity 

W (ac - J2)3 



O aH-3abc+2b* 
is an invariant for the given cubic and its aberrancy curve. 

If we seek the common points of intersection of the two cubics, 
we find on subtracting the equations 

(ace + bf> = 
which shews that the two cubics have only one common point of in- 
tersection which is the point of inflexion for both ; the coordinates of 
the point are 

b G 

® - - --, y--k 
a a* 



VI. — Natural History Notes from H. M. Indian Marine Survey Steamer 
'Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpenter, R. N, D. S. O., 
commanding. — No. 15. Descriptions of seven additional neiv Indian 
Amphipods. — By G. M. Giles, M. B., F. R. C. S., late Surgeon-Natu- 
ralist to the Survey. 

[Received and Read November 6th, 1889.] 

(With Plate II.) 

Before proceding to the description of the species now described, 
I have to make a correction in my last paper read on February 1st, 1888. 

In that communication, I described, under the name of Ooncholestes 
dentallii, gen. et sp. nov., a curious corophiid which inhabits deserted 
dentalium shells ; remarking that I believed that such a habit had not 
beeu previously noted in an amphipod. I find, however, I was in eri'or 
in this matter, as, while searching for references to species which might 
be identical with those described in the present paper, I came across 
a description of a Norwegian species which is certainly congeneric and, 
like the Indian species, inhabits deserted dentalium shells. Sars (Forh. 
Vidensk.-Selsk. Christiania, 1882, No. 18, pp. 113, Part VI, fig. 7) 
describes this species as Siphonoecetes pallidas. 

I do not see, however, how either Sars' or my species can be in- 
cluded in Siphonoecetes without unduly straining Kroyer's definition 
of the genus in Nat. Tidskr. I, p. 491. In the two species under consi- 
deration, the 1st and 2nd gnathopoda, instead of being subequal, present 
a very marked difference of size ; and again, the eighth thoracic appen- 
dages are very long, instead of the 6th, 7th, and 8th being " very short." 
My species too wants the double hook to the single ramus of the last 



64 G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Aniphipods. [No. 1, 

abdominal appendage, having indeed no rami, and, as far as I can make 
out, Sars' species agrees in these particulars also. 

It appears to me therefore preferable that Sars' species should stand 
as Goncholestes pallidus (Sars). 

"While, however, certainly congeneric, the two species are without 
doubt specifically distinct, mine differing from 0. pallidus in the even 
more marked disproportion between the second and third thoracic 
appendages, and in the third having a much better developed subchela, 
"which is formidably armed with two strong teeth, as also in having the 
excessive length of the eighth less marked. 

Melita cotesi, n. sp., PL II, Fig. 1. 

This species is allied to M. leonis and M. formosa described by 
Murdoch, P. IT. S. Nat. Mus., VII, pp. 521. 

It illustrates the danger of naming a species from what may, at 
first sight, appear a very prominent peculiarity. In a previous com- 
munication, I described a Melita which I named megacheles on account 
of the large size of the subchela of the second gnathopod, which 
appeared larger proportionally than that of any species which I could 
find described. Our present find, however, out-herods Herod in this 
particular, and fearing to use any superlative appellation, lest another 
even more formidably armed should turn up, I name it after Mr. Cotes 
of the Indian Museum, but for whose kindness in undertaking the 
wearisome work of searching through references while I was at sea, 
this series of papers on Indian Amphipoda would have been greatly 
delayed in appearance. 

About 7 mm. long ; semitransparent, with minute reddish dots 
scattered over the whole surface, and an especially large patch on the 
propodite and basipodite of the second gnathopod. 

Head small, no larger than an average thoracic segment ; eye small, 
round, placed in the angle between antennules and antennas. 

Thorax forms more than half the length of the body ; coxal plates 
rather narrow, especially the hinder ones. 

Abdomen relatively small, the hinder edge of each segment save 
the last shewing more or less distinctly three dentations on either side 
of the middle line. 

Antennules nearly as long as the head and thorax, the peduncle, 
the second joint of which is considerably the longest, forming rather 
the shorter half ; appendix three-jointed. 

Antennce rather shorter, the peduncle, whose first three joints 
are very short, having the last two joints so long that the entire peduncle 
forms at least two-thirds of the length of the organ. 



1890.] G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. 65 

Maxillipedes moderately large, subpediform. 

The 2nd of the thoracic appendages small, barely subchelate. The 
3rd of the left side is enormously developed. The propodite alone 
as long as the first five segments of the thorax and wider than the 
depth of the body including the coxal plates. The inferior border 
smooth with one broad lunate projection. The dactylo-podite propor- 
tionally large. The appendage of the left side barely subchelate and 
but little larger than the second appendage. The 4th small, and the 5th 
almost minute. The 6th, 7th, and 8th large, the seventh being the 
largest and as long as the head and thorax, while the eighth falls but 
little short of it. 

The gill plates are exceptionally large. 

The abdominal appendages are small, but call for no special remarks, 
being in every way normal and typical of the genus. 

Hab. Andaman Islands, in shallow water. 

Phoxus uncirostratus, n. sp., PL II, Pig. 2. 

This species was dredged in 5 — 10 fathoms off the " Seven Pagodas " 
on the Madras coast on a sandy bottom. 

It is about 5 mm. in length and of a uniform dirty white colour. 

The head is small, the arched and excavated rostrum considerably 
exceeding the head proper in length. The former is long and pointed, 
and is bent down at the tip so as to form a distinct hook, a feature in 
which it appears to differ from all the previously described members 
of the genus. 

The thorax is large, forming nearly half the entire body length, and 
this portion of the body, excluding the coxal plates, is depressed rather 
than compressed. The first four coxal plates are very large, exceeding 
their corresponding segments in depth, the fourth being of exceptional 
size ; they, besides being the deepest, are of great width, exceeding in 
this diameter the length of any two of the thoracic segments ; the three 
hindermost coxal plates, on the other hand, are exceptionally small. 

The abdomen is of moderate size, its first four segments being of 
nearly equal length, while the last two are extremely small. 

The telson is small and cleft, and is furnished with a few fine 
hairs. 

The antennule is as long as the head and first thoracic seg- 
ment together, the peduncle forming rather the shorter portion of the 
organ. Its first joint is very long and stout, but is almost completely 
hidden under the excavated lower surface of the rostrum, the remaining 
two joints of the peduncle being short, and comparatively slight. The 
flagellum consists of 14 — 16 short articuli, and is but little longer than 
9 



66 G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Ampliipods. [No. 1* 

its appendage, which consists of about twelve joints, and almost exactly 
equals the peduncle in length. 

The antenna is subequal to the antennule in length, and is quite 
equally divided into peduncle and flagellum, the first of the five joints of 
the former being hidden beneath the rostrum. 

The gnathites are small and weak, the mandibles being quite 
simple, and armed with a small cutting and a serrated masticatory 
tubercle ; its appendage is two-jointed, and but feebly armed with hairs. 

The maxillae are proportionally somewhat stouter, and have their 
rami armed with a number of very stout curved spines. 

The maxillipecles are of considerable size, and pediform. 

The gnatlwpoda are small, not more than twice as long as the 
depth of their corresponding coxas ; both are of similar form, subchelate, 
with the palm oblique, and defined by a large triangular process, but 
the hinder pair is somewhat the larger. 

The fourth and fifth thoracic appendages are of the usual ambu- 
latory type, are subequal, and but little exceed the gnathopodain length. 
The sixth and seventh resemble each other in form, being stoutly built 
and laterally armed with strong spines ; the seventh, however, is the 
longer, equalling the entii'e thorax in length, while the sixth is but as 
long as its first six segments. The eighth is the shortest of the thoracic 
appendages, and is of peculiar form, its basipodite being expanded into 
a broad oval plate which projects downwards behind the distal arti- 
culation of the appendage, so as almost to reach the level of the point 
of the dactylopodite. 

The first three abdominal appendages are rather small, but quite 
of the usual type. Of the last three, the fifth is the shortest. It and 
the fourth are armed with numerous stout, almost hooked spines ; their 
rami are nearly equal. The sixth is peculiar in having its outer ramus 
distinctly two-jointed, while the inner ramus is considerably shorter than 
the first joint of the outer ; both rami are armed with a brush of stout 
hairs. 

Although I carefully dissected the head of one specimen, I could 
make out no trace of eyes. 

Ampelisca daleyi, n. sp., PI. II, Fig. 3. 

A single specimen of this species was dredged in 7 fathoms, off the 
Seven Pagodas, on the Madras coast. Unfortunately the specimen was 
accidentally destroyed, but not before I had made a di-awing. 

It differs considerably from its congener previously obtained in 
Indian waters {A. lepta from 107 fathoms) in being a larger and much 
more robust form, in the minuteness of its superior antennae, and in 



1890.] G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. 67 

the comparative shortness of the limbs, and appears to most nearly 
resemble A. australis, Haswell, from which, however, it differs in the 
comparative length of the joints of the thoracic appendages. 

My specimen was 11 mm. long ; of a pale brown colour liberally 
marked with patches of a deep brown. 

The head is small and oval, the two pairs of simple eyes being 
placed respectively opposite the origins of the autennules and antennae. 

The thorax forms more than half the body length, its four anterior 
segments increase progressively in length, but the three hinder are 
subequal and longer than any of the other segments, thoracic or 
abdominal. The first four coxal plates are deeper than their corre- 
sponding segments, the fourth being the deepest, and also exceptionally 
broad. The fifth coxal plate has an anterior lobe of moderate depth, 
and has the hinder border of the posterior lobe subdivided by a notch 
into two lobules, of which the upper is the smaller. 

The abdomen forms rather more than one-third of the entire body 
length, its first three segments are subequal in length, and each is as 
long as the remaining three together. Their depth is moderate, not 
exceeding that of the thoracic segments with their attached coxse. 

The telson is small, squamiform, and deeply cleft. 

The antennule is very minute, being barely as long as the head 
and first thoracic segment ; the first joint of the peduncle is moder- 
ately stout, but the remaining two joints can barely be distinguished 
from the articuli of the flagellum, especially the third, which but little 
exceeds them in length. The peduncle forms about one-third of the 
entire length of the organ. 

The antenna is more than twice as long as the antennule. Its 
first two joints are short and moderately stout, while the distal three 
are very long and slender, the third being the longest and the fifth 
the shortest ; the flagellum is composed of a number of long slender 
articuli, but was broken off, so that the entire length could not be ascer- 
tained. 

The gnathites are completely hidden beneath the opaque first coxal 
plate. 

The second and third thoracic appendages (gnathopoda) are small, 
and have the propodite merely dilated without forming a true subchela. 
The third is somewhat the larger. The fourth and fifth are of similar 
form, but the fifth is a little the larger, the fourth being as long as the 
head and first four thoracic segments. In both, the meropodites are 
peculiarly long and the carpopodites very short. The last three 
are remarkable in having their dactylopodites curved backwards, instead 
of forwards, as is usually the case. The sixth and seventh have the 



68 G. M. Giles— Descriptions of new Indian Ampliipods. [No. 1, 

basipodites much enlarged, especially the latter. Their meropodites 
are short and their dactylopodites remarkably long and slender, the 
seventh, which is the longer, is subequal in length to the fourth. The 
eighth is peculiar in having its posterior border provided with a 
flat plate which reaches considerably below the articulation with the 
ischiopodite ; the ischio- mero- and carpopodites are subequal, the pro- 
podite comparatively long and slender, and the dactylopodite minute. 

The first three abdominal appendages are of the usual type, and the 
last three equally biramous and of progressively smaller size, the sixth 
being proportionally smaller than in nearly any member of the genus, 
except A. propingua, Boeck., which differs, however, in a number of other 
points. 

Lysianassa wood-masoni, n. sp., PL II, Fig. 4. 

This species was dredged from a coral sand bottom in 17 fathoms 
in Macpherson's Strait, Andaman Islands. 

The animal is 8 mm. long, semitransparent, and colourless, with 
the exception of the eye, which is of a deep purple tint. 

The head is small, having, in profile, an irregularly pentagonal out- 
line. The large compound eye occupies the greater part of its anterior 
half, and the border articulating with the antennule is marked by two 
notches with a tubercle between them. 

The thorax forms rather more than half the entire body length, its 
segments increasing regularly in dimensions from before backwards. 
All the coxal plates are deep, the fourth, however, markedly exceed- 
ing the others. The lower borders of the last three present a notch for 
the articulation of their corresponding basipodite. 

The first three abdominal segments are large and subequal ; the 
fourth, nearly as long, but much less in depth ; and the last two very 
email. 

The telson is laminar and notched. 

The antennule is as long as the first four thoracic appendages. 
Its peduncle forms but a third of its length, the first joint being large 
and having its lower border produced distally into a sort of process, 
while the last two are extremely short. There is a very minute appen- 
dage consisting of four articuli. The first joint of the flagellum is 
much larger than those that succeed it, approaching the first joint 
of the peduncle in length. It bears on its lower border a brush of long 
silky hairs. 

The antenna is as long as the thorax : its peduncle forms but one- 
fourth of its length, and consists of two subequal, very short basal, 
and three, also subequal, somewhat longer, distal joints. The flagellum 
is made up of a large number of short articuli. 



1890.] G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. 69 

A single specimen only having been obtained, the gnathites could 
not be closelyexamined. 

The 2nd of the thoracic appendages is very small, not as long as the 
antennule, and imperfectly subchelate. The 3rd is nearly twice as long 
as the 2nd, but is scarcely at all stouter, and is provided with an 
obliquely palmed subchela, the dactylopodite being minute and much 
curved. The 4th and 5th are ordinary ambulatory legs, moderately stout 
and subequal to each other, and equal to the 3rd in length. The 6th 
is barely as long as the 1st gnathopod, and is remarkable for its 
basipodite, which is of nearly circular outline and very deeply serrate on 
its posterior border. The 7th is nearly as long as the 2nd gnathopod, 
and its basipodite has a tendency to the same form as that of the 6th. 
Its basipodite is rather broader than long, but its borders are quite 
smooth. The distal joints of each of the last three thoracic appendages 
are armed with closely set, sharp, short spines. 

There is nothing remarkable about the first three abdominal appen- 
dages, and the last three are equally biramous, armed both on propodite 
and rami with short, stout spines. The 4th is the longest of the three, 
and the 5th, the smallest, while the 6th is remarkable for its short, 
stout, almost spherical propodite, and for the size of its rami, which are 
larger in all respects than those of the preceding abdominal appendages. 

Anonts indicus, n. sp., PI. II, Fig. 5. 

The present species was dredged in 5 — 10 fathoms off the Seven 
Pagodas, Madras, on the same occasion as Phoxus uncirostratus. In 
colour it is of a pale earthy white, and it measures about 5 mm. in 
length. 

The head is small and oblong, its anterior upper part carrying the 
large compound eyes. 

The thorax and abdomen are subequal in length, but the abdomen 
is much the deeper and stouter. 

The thoracic segments increase somewhat in length and depth 
from before backwards, but are everywhere narrow. The first four 
coxal plates are large, the fourth being the largest, and are each nearly 
twice as deep as their corresponding segments. The last three are 
markedly smaller and are much narrower than their segments. 

The first three abdominal segments are large in all dimensions ; the 
fourth is as long as the seventh thoi'acic segment, and the last two very 
short indeed. 

The telson is laminar and double. 

The antennule is short, the peduncle, which forms the larger 
half of its length, being barely as long as the head. Its first joint is 



70 G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphvpods. [No. 1, 

nearly spherical, and exceeds a good deal in length either of the remain- 
ing two pieces, of which the distal is somewhat the smaller. The flagel- 
lum is composed of 12 or 14 short articuli, and its appendage, which is 
abont half its length, of a smaller number of slighter, but otherwise 
closely similar, pieces. 

The antenna is slighter but somewhat longer than the antennule. 
In the female, the nagellum but little exceeds that of the antennule, 
but, in the male, it often forms a lash of considerable, but variable, 
length. 

The gnathites are small and feebly armed, the mandibles having 
but a simple chisel-like cutting plate, and a two-jointed appendage, 
and the maxillepedes being small and not pediform. 

The first of the gnathopods is short, stout, and subchelate, the palm 
being but somewhat oblique and the dactylopodite short and strong. 
The second is much longer than the first, but is very slender. Its 
propodite resembles that of the first in general outlines, but the 
dactylopodite is so small that it might easily be overlooked, forming 
only a small extremely hooked claw projecting from the middle of the 
distal extremity of the propodite. It was only, however, after a re- 
peated and very troublesome examination that I succeeded in getting a 
clearly uninjured specimen of the appendage to project beyond the coxal 
plates. In length the second gnathopod almost equals the first six seg- 
ments of the thorax. 

The fourth and fifth thoracic appendages are subequal to each other, 
but shorter and slenderer than any of the other appendages ; they 
are quite of the usual ambulatory type. The sixth, seventh, and eighth 
closely resemble each other in form, but differ considerably in length, 
all three having the posterior border of their basipodites provided with 
very broad and strong buttress-like plates, and the remaining articula- 
tions broad and strong ; while, however, the eighth is as long as the 
head and thorax, the seventh is about two-thirds and the sixth a little 
over one-half this length. 

The first three abdominal appendages are of medium size and of 
the usual type. The last three are biramous, the rami of each being 
equal. The fourth is much larger than the fifth, the sixth still smaller, 
the entire length of the last only equalling that of the propodite of 
the fourth. 

Parapleustes picttjs, n. sp., PI. II, Fig. 6. 

This species appears to answer best to the genus Parapleustes pro- 
posed by Buchholz (Zweite deutsche nord polar Fahrt, 1866 — 1870, p. 
337) for a species (much resembling the present) which was dredged off 



1890.] G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. 71 

the east coast of Greenland. Our species was dredged in 30 fathoms, 
in Manner's Straits, Andaman Islands. Found crawling upon a Penna- 
tula, the pink and white colours of which are almost exactly imitated 
in the amphipod. 

The distribution of the colouring varies in different specimens. In 
one, the head and body as far as the fourth thoracic segment and the 
entire abdomen were pink, while the remaining middle zone of the body 
was of an opaque glistening white. In another, the distribution was 
almost reversed, the pink forming a broad band in the middle of the 
animal. In a third it was almost confined to the hinder part of the 
body. In all, however, the tints were the same, the pink parts having 
a uniform transparent character diversified by minute opaque spots of a 
darker tint, while the white was remarkable for its dead opacity. 

The largest specimen measured about 7 mm., the smallest little 
more than 2 mm. 

The head is rather long and cylindrical, its anterior half being 
almost completely covered by the eyes, which are of a pink colour, 
deeper than any other part of the body. 

The remainder of the length of the body is almost exactly divided 
between thorax and abdomen, the latter, however, being much the 
deepei*. The segments of the thorax are of nearly equal length through- 
out, but the more posterior are much the deeper. In the abdomen the 
third segment is considerably the longest, while the second exceeds the 
rest in depth, as well as all, save the third, in length. 

The fourth abdominal segment is nearly as long as the first, but 
very narrow, while the last two are very small in all dimensions. 

The telson is simple and squamiform, equalling in length the 
protopodite of the sixth abdominal appendage. It is armed with a few 
fine hairs. 

The first four coxal plates are very deep and broad, the fourth being 
the largest, the last three comparatively small. Spence Bate (Ann. 
Nat. Hist. Ser. 3, Vol. I, p. 362, 1858;, in his definition of the gemis, 
states that the " Coxa of the second pair of pereiopoda " (fourth coxal 
plate) is " very deeply excavated upon the upper part of the posterior 
margin to receive the coxas of the third pair of periopoda." This is 
however, moi'e apparent than real, at any rate in the present species ; 
the appearance being the optical expression of the fact that the fifth 
coxal plate overlaps the fourth as well as the sixth, the upper part of 
the former not being remarkably excavated, but narrowing uniformly to 
its articulation with the pleuron of its segment. 

The antennule has a three-jointed peduncle not exceeding the head 
and first thoracic appendage in length. The first joint is somewhat 



72 G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. [No. 1, 

longer than the second, while the third is very short. The flagella 
of both antennae vary somewhat in length in various specimens, the 
number of articuli, however, remaining about the same, the increase being 
gained by an elongation of all the pieces. In the specimen figured the 
flagellum but slightly exceeds the peduncle in length, but in others 
it was considerably longer. There is no appendage to the flagellum. 

The first three joints of the peduncle of the antenna are very short 
and, except the end of the third, hidden beneath the excavated cephalon. 
The last two joints equal in length the first two of the antennule. 
The flagellum also vaines in length, but is always about a third shorter 
than that of the antenuule. 

The gnathites were not dissected out, but a mandibular appendage 
was distinguished, and it could be seen that the maxillipeds are small 
but pediform. 

The two pairs of gnathopoda closely resemble each other alike in 
size and form. Both are feebly subchelate, with the palm oblique, 
the propodite forming about one-third of the entire length exclusive 
of the dactylopodite. Their carpo- mero- and ischiopodites are shorter 
than their breadth, while the basipodites form nearly a half of the 
length of the appendage exclusive of the dactylopodite. 

The 4th and 5th thoracic appendages are of the usual ambulatory 
type, are subequal to each other, and, in length, to the gnathopoda, 
each being as long as the head and first five thoracic somites. They 
are very slender and closely resemble each other in all particulars. 
The 6th, 7th, and 8th closely resemble each other in all points save 
in size, each being stoutly built and having the basipodite provided 
with a strong buttress-like plate along the posterior border. The 7th 
and 8th are subequal, being as long as the thorax and the first two abdo- 
minal segments, but the sixth is about one-sixth shorter. 

The first three abdominal appendages are small, but quite of the 
usual type. The last three are biramous, with equal rami ; the fourth 
being the longest and the sixth the shortest of the three. The fourth 
and fifth have their rami armed with stout spines, while the sixth has 
only fine hairs. 

Ctetophium andamanense, n. sp., PI. II, Fig. 7. 

Taken in the surface net at Port Mouat, Andaman Islands. Only 
a single specimen was obtained and this was swimming free, nor could any 
trace of a tube he found ; probably this had got destroyed by the wash 
of the tide. 

The animal is about 3 mm. long and of a dirty white colour, 
sparely sprinkled with minute dark brown spots. 



1890.] : l _ G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. 73 

Its nearest allies appear to be 0. orientate, Dana, and 0. cristatum, 
Thomson, from the former of which it differs in its superior antenna 
being proportionally smaller, in the comparative shortness of the dacty- 
lopodite of the second gnathopod, and in the details of the armature of 
the hinder pleopoda ; and from the latter in both pairs of antennas being 
proportionally smaller and in wanting any marked crest on the hinder 
part of the thorax. 

The head is subquadrate, rather deeper than long, its length form- 
ing only one-eighth of the entire body length. 

The small etje is placed on a prominence opposite the origin of 
the antenna. 

The thorax is long, forming three-sevenths of the entire length. Its 
segments are long and slender, the anterior and posterior ones being- 
larger than those at its mid length, and the fifth segment exceptionally 
small. 

The abdomen is small and, like the thorax, slender. Its first 
three segments are rather shorter than average thoracic segments. The 
fourth, though narrow, is longer than the others, while the fifth and 
sixth are extremely small. 

The telson is small and laminar, and is armed with a few short, 
stiff hairs. 

The antennule is fully as long as the head and first four thoracic 
segments. More than three-fourths of its length are formed by the ped- 
uncle ; the first joint of which, though very stout, is shorter than either 
of its two other joints, while the second is considerably the longest. 
There is a minute secondary appendage, consisting of four short 
joints. The flagelluin is only as long as the first joint of the peduncle ; 
it too consists of four joints, the first of which forms quite half its 
length. The entire inferior sui'face of the appendage is armed with 
closely placed long hairs. 

The antenna is as long as the head, thorax, and first two abdominal 
segments ; it is very stoutly built and adapted for climbing. The first 
three joints of its peduncle are short and together as long as the 
fiagellum, while the two distal joints are subequal, and form two-thirds 
of the entire length of the organ. The fiagellum consists of two stout 
long joints, which are armed with strong hooked spines. The entire 
lower surface of the peduncle being furnished with long stiff hairs, like 
those on the superior antenna. Its last joint is armed with two paira 
of stout, hooked spines, and by a hooked terminal nail. 

The gnathites could not be closely examined, but it could be 
seen that the mandibular appendage is large and clawed, and that the 
maxilliped is exceptionally large and pediform. 
10 



74i G. M. Giles — Descriptions of new Indian Amphipods. [No. 1, 1890.] 

The first of the gnathopods is small, being no longer than the first 
two joints of the peduncle of the superior antenna ; nearly half its length 
is made up by the basipodite. The articulation between the ischiopodite 
and meropodite is very oblique, and the appendage appeal's to consist of 
but five pieces, owing probably to the dactylopodite being fused 
with the propodite, the subchela being formed between these and the 
dilated carpopodite. The second is very much larger thau the first, being 
nearly as long as the head and entire thorax ; it, however, resembles it 
closely in general form, and like it is composed of but five pieces. 

The fourth and fifth thoracic appendages are subequal and exactly 
similar, and have the distal extremities of their articuli dilated so as to 
admit of very free flexion, but are otherwise of the usual ambulatory 
type. In length they nearly equal the first six thoracic segments. The 
sixth, seventh, and eighth much resemble the fourth and fifth but are 
stouter built, and, while the sixth is only subequal to them, the seventh 
is as long as the antennule, and the eighth as long as the antemiule 
except the last joint of the flagellum. 

The first three abdominal appendages, though of the usual type, 
are exceptionally small. The fourth is as long as the last joint of the 
peduncle of the antennule, its propodite forming half its length. Its 
rami are unequal, the outer being hardly more than half the length of 
the inner, both rami and peduncle being armed with stout - spines. 
The fifth is only two-thirds the length of the fourth, but is stouter ; 
like the fifth, its rami are unequal and spinose. The sixth is reduced 
to a rudimentary tubercle, armed with one or two spines. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Melita cotesi, x 20 ; la, 2nd and 3rd right thoracic appendages, x 10. 

Fig. 2. Phoxus uncirostratus, x 15 ; 2a, mandible and appendage, x 30 ; 26, 
the maxilla?, x ] 20 ; 2c, the Gth abdominal appendage, x 30. 

Fig. 3. Ampelisca daleyi, x 7. 

Fig. 4. Lysianassa tvood-masoni, x 10. 

Fig. 5. Anonyx indicus, x 12'5 ; 5a, distal joints of 3rd thoracic appendage, 
x 50. 

Fig. G. Parapleustes pictus, x 15. 

Fig. 7. Cyrtophium andamanense, x 25 ; 7 a, flagellum of inferior antenna?, 
x 30 ; 7b, last three abdominal segments with appendages, x 30. 




G.M.GILES. JouTn.A3iat.Soc.Bengal.1890.VoJ.LDCPt.il. 




v, M.c.aa. 

Ppg No. 02, As. Soc— 8-4.90— 700 




aoto-IitJjo., S. I. O., Calcutta. 



CONTENTS 

OF THE NATURAL HISTORY PART (PT. II.) OF THE 

JOURNAL OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL FOR 1889. 



No. 1, (issued May 21st, 1889). A new Species and Genus of 
Coccidse.-^Bi/ B - T - Atkinson, B. A. (With Plate I.)— On the Species 
of Thelyphonus inhabiting Continental India, Burma, and the Malay 
Peninsula. — By Eugene W. Oates, F. Z. S. Communicated by The 
Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate II.) — Notes on 
Indian Rhynchota ; Heteroptera, No. 5. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. — 
On certain Earthworms from the Western Himalayas and Behra Bun. — 
By Alfred Gibes Bourne, D. Sc. (Loud.), 0. M. Z. S., F. L. S., Fellow 
of University College, London, and Madras University. Communicated by 
The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate III.) — Notes 
on Assam Butterflies. — By William Dohertt, Cincinnati, U. S. A. 
Communicated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With 
Plate X.) 

No. 2, (issued September 3rd, 1889). The Tornadoes and Hailstorms 
April and May 18S8 in the Boab and Bohilhhand. — By S. A. Hill, 
Sc, Meteorological Reporter to the Government of the N.-W. Provinces 
and Oudh. (With 6 Charts— Plates IY.— IX.) The Geometric Inter- 
pretation of Mongers Bifferential Equation of all Conies. — By Asutosh 
Mukhopadhtat, M. A., F. R. A. S., F. R. S. E, Description of a Stag's 
Head allied to Cervus dybowskii, Tac., -procured from the Barjeeling 
Bazaar. — By W. L. Sclater, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Mti- 
seum. (With Plate XI ) — On the Volatility of some of the compounds of 
Mercury and of the metal itself. — By Alex. Pedler. — Some applications 
of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean Values, {First Paper). — By 
Asutosh Mukhopadhtat, M. A., F. R. A. S., F. R. S. E. (With a 
Wood-cut) .— Some applications of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean 
Values (Second Paper). — By Asutosh Mukhopadhtat, M. A., F. R. A. S., 
F. R. S. E. — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese, occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood of Simla (Western Himalayas). Part II. Puccinia. — By A. 

Barclat, M. B., Bengal Medical Service. (With Plates XII. — XIV.) 

Definitions of three new Homoptera. — By M. L. Lethierrt. Communi- 
cated by~E. T. Atkinson, Esq. — Notice of a Neolithic Celt from Jashpur 
in the Chota Nagpur District. — By J. Wood-Mason, Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, and Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College of Bengal, Calcutta. (With Plate XV.) 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

VII. — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese oecurring in the Neighbour- 
hood of Simla {Western Himalayas) . Pt. III. — By A, Barclay, 
M. B., Bengal Medical Service, (With Pis. Ill— VI) 75 

VIII. — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. — By 
George King, LL. D., F. R. S., C. I. E., Superintendent of 
the Boyal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, , 113 

IX. — Description of a new Genus of Bamboos. — By 3. S. Gamble, 

M. A. (With PL ^ TTN ) "., 207 

X. — ISTovicise Indicse. it. An additional s»< '~? of Ellipanthus, 
By D. Prain, (With PI. VIII) '• 



m 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



Part IL— NATURAL SCIENCE. 



No. II.— 1890. 



VII. — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese occurring in the Neighbourhood 
of Simla (Western Himalayas). Pt. III. — By A. ^Barclay, M. B., 
Bengal Medical Service. 

[Received January 27th ; — Read February 5th, 1890.] 

(With Plates III.— VI.) 

In this third instalment of a descriptive list of the Zfredinece of 
Simla (in continuation of the second part in this Journal, Vol. LVIII, 
Pt. II, 1889), I complete a description of all the species known to me 
up to the present time. The present part includes descriptions of 6 
species of TJromyces, 4 of Phragmidium, 3 of Melampsora, 3 of Goleo- 
sporium, 1 of Gymnosporangium, 2 of Chrysomyxa, 2 of Gceoma, and 6 of 
isolated Uredo forms. I have also added descriptions of four Aecidial 
forms, which should have been included in Part I of this List, and seven 
species of P-uccinia, which should have found a place in Part II. 

I must here express my obligations to Dr. George Watt, C. I. E. 
for his kind and ever ready help in determining the species of many 
hosts. 

UROMYCES, Link. 

There are remarkably few of these in this region, only six species 
so far as I am at present aware, and all but one on the higher phaner- 
11 



76 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineee [No. 2, 

ogamcms plants, the exceptional one being on a grass. The most re- 
markable of these is Z7. Gunningliamianus, presenting extremely ano- 
malous characters. Another interesting species is that on Strcbilanthes, 
as this host also bears an Aecidium which is, however, in no way related 
to the teleutosporic fungus. 

a. HEMIUEOMYCES, Schroter. 
1. Uromyces Vossij;, nov. sp. 

On Vossia speciosa, Beuth. 

This grass is sometimes largely attacked by a species of Uromyces. 
In August the leaves may be seen in commencing attack with the for- 
mation of brown uredo pustules on the under leaf surface. These pus- 
tules are small, oval or linear, and isolated. 

The uredospores are brownish, with sometimes a tinge of orange red, 
very deciduous, falling off without any portion of stalk adhering. The 
cell wall is uniform in thickness, and presents three or four pores, easily 
seen by treatment with sulphuric acid. They measure on an average 
24 x 19 2/jl, varying from 25 x 22 to 23 x 17/x. The epispore is finely 
warty. They germinate in water in the usual way, throwing out a 
simple germ tube (fig. 1, PL I.) 

Late in the year teleutospore pustules are formed. Theseare well 
raised oval or linear dark brown sori, also hypophyllous. The spores 
are very readily detached, coming off with a small portion of stalk 
adhering. They do not germinate on maturing, but only after a period 
of rest. These are thicker walled than the uredospores, and are espe- 
cially thickened at the apex. They measure from 24 x 21 to 29 x 22/*, 
when fresh and examined in water. In spring they germinate very 
readily in water (fig. 2, PI. I.) 

b. UROMYCOPSIS, Schroter. 

2. Uromyces Cunninghamianus, Barclay. 

On Jasminum grandiflorum, L. 

For a complete description of this parasite I must refer the reader 
to a paper on its life history read at the Linnean Society on the 18th 
December, 1889. The diagnostic characters of the species are as follows : 

Towards the end of August the leaves and smaller stems of the 
host are largely attacked in the aecidial stage, and these are then much 
hypertrophied. The peridia burst in a stellate fashion, allowing the 
orange red aecidiospores to fall out. When these spores have been shed, 
teleutospores are formed within the old peridia. These teleutospores are 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 77 

adherent, and remain in a quiescent state until the following year, when 
they germinate and reproduce aecidia on the newly developed leaves. 
Experimental evidence, which will be found detailed in the above-men- 
tioned paper, fully confirmed the autoecious nature of the fungus. 

The aecidiospores are round or oval pale yellow bodies, and measure 
on an average 16//. in diam. They are tuberculated on the outer sur- 
face. Their mode of germination is quite peculiar. A germ tube is 
emitted, about 35/x in lengthy which then divides into two by a 
transverse septum, and each part forms a long narrow sterigma, which, 
however, forms no sporidium, but directly penetrates the host to form 
another mycelium, bearing aecidiospores at first (but no spermogonia) 
and teleutospores later. 

The peridium is formed of a single layer of cells about 26 X 19/x in 
size. 

The spermogonia accompany the first crop of aecidia: they are not 
numerous, and measure about 145//. in depth and width. They have a 
tuft of protruding parapliyses. 

The teleutospores are brown single-celled bodies, thickened at the 
free end, firmly adherent to their beds, becoming detached with a portion 
of stalk adhering. They measure 36 x 20/x on an average. They ger- 
minate after a winter's rest in the usual way, each promycelium forming 
three sporidia as a rule, but sometimes four. 

The sporidium is oval, and measures 12 X 8/x to 14 X 10//,. Secon- 
dary sporidia are abundantly formed, often before the primary one has 
become detached. 

3. Uromyces Valeriana, Schum. 

On Valeriana Wallichii, D. C. 

For a description of this species see the Journal of this Society, 
Vol. LVI, Part II, No. 3, 1887, page 352. 

Dr. P. Dietel (Leipzig) to whom I sent specimens of this fungus 
thinks it is a new species. 

c. LEPTUROMYCES, Schroter. 
4. Uromyces Solidaginis, Niessl. 

Cn Solidago Virgaurea, L. 

This host may be found in some localities largely attacked in 
August and September. Attention is drawn to the fungus by the cir- 
cular discoloured patches produced, mostly on the radical leaves, but 
sometimes also on higher leaves. An attacked plant, however, does not 
usually form a flowering stalk. These discoloured patches (pale yellow) 



78 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese [No. 2, 

when first coming to notice are about 5 m.m. in diameter, and then bear 
but a few spore pustules on the lower surface ; but as they grow older 
they enlarge, become paler, and therefore more conspicuous, bear very 
numerous minute pustules, still mostly on the lower surface, but a few 
isolated ones on the upper surface also. An old patch may attain a 
diameter of 1 cm. A single leaf may bear from 1 to 30 patches and 
even more. The spore pustules are minute brown sori, with the spores 
fairly adherent. If these spores be examined they are found to be 
teleutospores ; there are no uredospores. A careful search over both the 
upper and lower surfaces of patches disclosed no spermogonia, even on 
the youngest. 

Each spore is pale brown, with a small portion of stalk adhering, 
much thickened at the apex, and with a clearly defined nucleolar space. 
Through the apical thickening a germ pore may be seen. The free end 
of the spore is usually rounded, but is sometimes conical, and may even 
be pointed. The surface of the spore is smooth. The fresh spores 
examined in water measure 27 to 30 by 17/x, the apical thickening being 
10/*. These spores germinate at once, if placed in water in a watch 
glass, in the usual way, producing four sporidia on long narrow sterig- 
mata. The sporidia are round to oval, measuring from 10/* in diameter 
to 12 x 10/*. These also germinate readily. If the spores are placed in 
a hanging drop of water, with very little air, the peculiar germination 
described by Kienitz-Gerloff as occurring in Gymnosporavgiiim spores 
takes place. That is to say, the end of the promycelium breaks up into 
three or four cells, which become detached, and which further germi- 
nate by throwing out a germ tube. I have already described this in a 
paper on the life history of Cceoma Smilacis, the teleutospores of which 
exhibit the same phenomenon.* These detached cells, which apparently 
act as sporidia, measure from 8 x 8 to 18 x 9/*, or on an average of several 
measurements 14'0 x 8'1/*. 

a. MICEUKOMYCES, Schroter. 
5. Uromtces Strobilanthis, nov. sp. 

On Strobilanthes Dalhousianus, Clarke. 

Iii autumn the leaves of this host bear numerous pustules on the 
lower surface. Whilst it is common in some years it is rare in others. 
I could not, for instance, find any in 1889. The spores are very firmly 
adherent to their beds and when scraped off retain a portion of stalk. 
They are more or less elongated bodies, reddish brown by transmitted 

* Scientific Memoirs by Medical officers of the Army of India, Part IV, 1889. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 79 

light, with the free end considerably thickened. When well moistened 
the spores measure from 26 X 16 to 34 x 14//, or on an average of several 
measurements 30'4 X 14'6//. The length of the stalk adherent is usually 
about 40//. They germinate only after a period of winter rest ; at least 
they do not germinate in autumu ; but I have not observed their ger- 
mination in spring. 

This teleutospore has no genetic relationship with the Aecidium 
borne by the same host.* 

6. Uromyces McIntirianus, nov. sp. 

On Hemiyraphis latebrosa, Nees. 

This fungus was collected by Mr. A. L. Mclntire, of the Forest 
Department, in the Simla region ; but I have not myself found it. The 
pustules are circular, minute, coalescing, and mostly hypophyllous. The 
spores are brown, coming off with a long piece of stalk attached. They 
are oval, contracting slightly towards the stalk, slightly thickened at the 
apex which is rounded, and quite smooth on the surface. Among them 
are a few two-celled spores (Puccinia) and some fewer single celled 
but much larger spores, possibly though not probably of the nature of 
uredo-spores. The teleutospores vary considerably in size, 33 — 24 
X 26 — 18//,, when just moistened. The few two celled spores measured 
38 — 32 x 24 — 16//,. These spores are also brown, rounded at both ends, 
smooth, and with little or no constriction at the septum. The large 
single-celled spores measured 36 — 34 x 27 — 22/t. None of these 
spores germinated when placed in water ; but they had been preserved 
some months in botanical drying paper. 

Remarks. — As far as I am able to determine this is a new species 
and I have named it after the collector. 

PHRAGMIDIUM, Link. 

a. EITPHRAGMIDITJM, Schroter. 

1. Phragmidium subcor'ticium, Schrank. 

On Rosa rnoschata, Mill. 

I found this host attacked by a species of Phragmidium early in 
September. The leaves bore at this time both yellow uredo- and black 
teleutospore pustules, the latter readily distinguishable from the species 
on Rubus by their smaller size, and by their irregular and general 
distribution over the lower leaf surface, instead of being in special cir- 

* Scientific Memoirs by Medical officers of the Army of India, Part II, 1886. 



80 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese [No. 2, 

cular patches on the leaves. On examining the yellow pustules they 
were found to contain numerous uredospores, with some immature 
looking yellow teleutospores, while the black pustules contained mostly 
dark brown teleutospores. These spores were put at once into water, 
and while the uredospores germinated in the usual way no teleutospore 
did so. 

The uredospores are angular orange red bodies, with an epispore be- 
set with numerous warts (almost spines) and punctured by 7 to 9 germ 
pores. They measure about 26 to 30/* in diameter. Only one germ 
tube is emitted by each spore. 

The teleutospores are readily distinguished from those on Rubus by 
their pointed or mucronate ends. In young pustules some teleutospores 
are orange yellow, though most are dark brown. They are also moro 
divided, each containing usually 7 or 8 cells, but sometimes even ten. 
They measure about 100 X 33//, (an unusually long spore with ten com- 
partments measured 126 x 33/x). The spores are covered with coarse 
warts. Another peculiarity consists in a very well marked bulging in 
the stalks with a cavity containing yellowish granular matter (fig. 3, 
PI. I). These spores germinate only after a period of winter rest. In 
April I obtained sporidial formation in spores I had kept since the 
preceding autumn. The sporidia are spherical, bright orange red, and 
9"5 to 125/t in diameter. 

The aecidial stage consists in the formation of very bright orange red 
beds, sometimes of very extensive area. These beds are formed on the 
leaves and on the smaller steins, and the mycelium bearing them always 
gives rise to hypertrophy, sometimes very excessive, on the stems. In 
the latter situation the hypertrophy is due to an excessive enlargement 
of the parenchyma cells between the hypoderma and the central vascular 
bundles. This stage is met with throughout the summer months. The 
aecidiospores are given off in long chains, but there is no peridium of 
any kind. The margin of beds is, however, fringed with club-shaped 
paraphyses. In this stage spermogonia are numerous. They are super- 
ficial, and frequently coalescing groups of them may be found on the 
upper leaf surface opposite a bed of spores below. The aecidiospores 
are pale orange red or yellow oval bodies, measuring on an average 
20 X 17/x. The epispore is thick and beset externally with tubercles. 

A bush in my garden is frequently attacked with this aecidium- 
bearing fungus, but curiously enough it never bears teleuto- or uredo- 
spores. 

Remarks. — This is probably Phragmidium subcorticium, but the 
hyaline point at the free end of the teleutospores is not nearly so long 
as is given by Schroter and Plowright in their works. I would also 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 81 

draw attention to the resting property of the teleutospores which is in 
strong contrast with the immediate germinability of the next species. 



b. HEMIPHEAGMIDIUM, Schroter. 



2. Phragmidium Rubi, Pers. ? 

On Rubus lasiocarpus, Smith. 



A Phragmidium on this host is fairly common. On the 21st Feb- 
ruaiy I collected some leaves bearing both yellow uredo-like pustules 
and black teleutospore pustules on separate green leaves. Both kinds 
of pustules are hypopbyllous, in scattered circular pustules, indicated 
above by a brownish red discoloration of the leaf, especially marked in 
the case of teleutospore formation. I put some spores from each kind 
of pustule into growing cells on the following day ; but whilst none of 
the teleutospores from the black pustules germinated, several of those 
contained in the yellow pustules did so freely, forming ordinary pro- 
mycelia, dividing into four parts, each bearing a sporidium at the end 
of a pointed sterigma (fig. 5, PI. I). The sporidia are round orange 
yellow bodies, 8 to 10/t in diameter, the diameter of the promycelial 
tube being 8/x. These latter teleutospores were among numerous uredo- 
spores, and were orange red in colour as contrasted with the deep brown 
of the former teleutospores, which would not at this time germinate. 
The orange yellow teleutospores were evidently just formed, and, indeed, 
bat for their ready germinability, would be described as immature 
spores, the more so as they contain fewer cells than the brown spores, 
namely, 3 to 5 cells against 5 to 7 in the brown spores. Curiously 
enough the uredospores, which were in the majority in such pustules 
did not germinate in the cultivations in which the young teleutospores 
did. 

The uredospores are round pale orange yellow bodies, with numerous 
club-shaped paraphyses among them. They are tuberculated on the 
surface, and measure about 21/*, in diameter. I never succeeded in 
observing their germination (fig. 6, PI. I). 

Later in the year, from July to December, fresh crops of black 
teleutospore pustules are produced, without any uredospores. Some of 
these later teleutospores, which are dark brown and many-celled (on an 
average six-celled), I put into water on the 10th September, and now 
they germinated very freely, producing immense numbers of sporidia 
(four to each promycelium), round or pyriform in shape, orange yellow 
in colour, and 10 to 12/i in diameter. These brown teleutospores 
measure on an average 100 '8 x 37//. ; but of course they vary consider-- 



82 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineas [No. 2, 

ably, especially in length. The free end of the spore is rounded, with 
occasionally a minute knob. The surface of the spore is beset with 
tubercles (fig. 4, PI. I). 

I have never seen any aecidial form of this species. 

I may add that I collected some of these teleutospores from green 
leaves in the middle of December, and placing them in water found that 
they germinated very freely, even so late in the year as that. 

Dr. P. Dietel is inclined to think this is a new species as it differs 
from Phr. ~Rubi in having thick stalks and in frequently wanting an 
apical cone. He thinks it comes near the Australian Phr. Bamardi, 
Plow et Winter though the latter has lighter coloured spores and forms 
small punctiform pustules. 



c. phragmidiopsis, Schroter. 
3. Phragmidium quinqueloculare, nov. sp. 

On Riibus biflorus, Ham. 

In April, the stems bear orange yellow pustules, the leaves very 
rarely. These are probably aecidia. The spores are brilliantly orange 
red, bluntly angular with slight thickenings at the angles, and densely 
beset with warts. The fresh spores measure 24 — 20/x. in diameter. 
The margins of the pustules are surrounded by club-shaped paraphyses. 
On applying sulphuric acid (with a view to determining the existence 
of germ pores, in which I was unsuccessful) the spores first turn deep 
blue and then later pale blue. The spores germinate readily in water 
throwing out exceedingly long slender unbranched tubes. 

On old dead leaves I found numerous minute, circular, discrete, 
black teleutosporic pustules, very unlike those of Phr. Ricbi (above 
described) to the naked eye. The teleutospores are mostly brown, but 
some are orange red, and are very regularly divided into 4 to 5 cells, 
each well rounded, with a minute, colourless rostrum at the free end. 
The stalk is slightly bulged, and contains a cavity. They measure 
80 — 64 x 22 — 20/*. The length of each cell is about 12 — 13/x. I 
could not determine the number of germ pores to each cell. 

After a winter rest the teleutospores germinate freely. The pro- 
celia before forming sporidia are filled with orange red matter. The 
sporidia are spherical and orange red, measuring 12/x in diameter, and 
are borne on fairly long narrow and pointed sterigmata. 

Remarks. — I do not think this fungus is identical with Phr. Rubi 
Pers, Phr. violaceum or Phr. liubi-Idaei, Pers. I have regarded it as a 
new species provisionally ; but it is difficult to be certain about this. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 83 

d. PHEAGMIDIUM (INCOMPLETE.) 

4. Pheagmidium incompletum, nov. sp. 

On Rubus paniculatus, Smith. 

In March I found the leaves of this host bearing the uredospores 
(aecidiospores ?) of some species of Phragmidium probably, which I 
have not been able to determine, never having seen the teleutospores. 
It was found in a deep valley near Simla. The nerves of the leaves 
were mostly attacked, and in such places they were distinctly hyper- 
trophied : a few pustules were also found, however, upon the blade 
proper. The pustules were entirely hypophyllous, but their places were 
indicated on the upper surfaces of the leaves by reddish brown spots 
of discolouration. The pustules were light yellow and small. 

The spores are yellow, round to oval, beset with prominent spines, 
and measured when fresh 34 — 30 X 25 — 23/*. There are no para- 
physes. They germinated readily in water, throwing out single long 
unbranched straight tubes, mostly aerial. 

Remarks. — In this incomplete stage it is impossible to identify it 
with any known species. 

MELAMPSORA AND COLEOSPORIUM. 

I have found considerable difficulty in separating certain Uredines 
into Melampsora and Coleosporium, mainly because I have not been able 
to observe the germination of the teleutospores sufficiently accurately. 
Apart from this, however, the morphological characters of each group 
are sufficiently definitely set forth in Winter's work* to enable one to 
separate them with confidence, were these characters maintained in each 
species. For example, it is stated that in the genus Melampsora the 
teleutospores are single-celled, or vertically divided, rarely horizontally, 
and that the uredospores are borne singly on basidia ; whilst in the genus 
Coleosporium the teleutospores consist of several, usually four, super- 
imposed cells, and the uredospores are in short chains. But in the case 
of the Simla forms these characters are not separately maintained, for 
whilst in some species the teleutospore forms conform with the descrip- 
tion of Melampsora spores the related uredospore forms resemble Cole- 
osporium forms. This is the case, for example, with the parasites on 
Hypericum and Leptodermis. In these species the teleutosporic forms 
are distinctly of the Melampsora type, whilst the uredos being in well 
defined chains, resemble Coleosporium. As the teleutospores are the 
more important I have considered these forms species of Melampsora, 

# " rji<3 Pilze Deutscbiuiids," &o. 
12 



84 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineaa [No. 2, 

In only one species, namely, that on a species of Salix, do the characters 
of the teleutospores and uredospores coincide with the descriptions given 
by Winter. This would appear to show that the distinctive characters 
of the nredospore formation in the two genera as usually given, are not 
of generic value. Lastly, I would draw special attention to the forma- 
tion of spermogonia in one of these fungi, namely, on Hypericum. So 
far as I am aware the existence of this form of fructification has never 
yet been observed in any other species either of Melampsora or of 
Coleosporium. 

MELAMPSORA, Castagne. 
a. HEMIMELAMPSOEA, Schroter. 

1. Melampsora Sangti-Johan^is, nov. sp. 

On Hypericum cemuum, Roxb. 

This is a very remarkable parasite, causing very noticable abnor- 
malities in the host ; for not only are its leaves sometimes covered with 
conspicuous localised patches of discoloration, but whole shoots are 
often involved (fig. 3, PI. II). In the latter case the shoot is, before 
the formation of teleutospores, of a sickly pale yellowish green colour ; 
often hypertrophied when quite young ; but this hypertrophy is masked 
later on by arrested growth of the shoot, and the normal shoots of equal 
age continuing to grow throw the attacked shoots out of comparison. 
The leaves borne by such attacked shoots are always considerably smaller 
than healthy ones. The fungus in one form or another is to be met 
with almost throughout the year upon the living host. It is extremely 
common in this neighboui'hood, and plants are often met with completely 
eaten up with it. The normal course of the fungus through the year 
is as follows : 

In early spring (March) both the localised leaf patches and wholly 
involved shoots are abundantly met with ; but the latter are always 
more abundant than the former. In April some uredo pustules are 
formed on both localised patches and on the leaves of wholly in- 
volved shoots ; but much oftener on the latter. These pustules are, 
however, very uncommon, and must be looked for diligently. I have 
found them only in April. During the time uredo pustules are formed 
spermogonia also are found on the same leaves. These are mainly 
epiphyllous, though a few may be found also on the lower surface. The 
uredo pustules are minute circular pale yellow sori, mostly hypophyllous. 
After April there is a cessation of activity in the reproduction of the 
fungus until July. In this interval, however, if from unusual wet 
weather new shoots are formed by the host, some of them are found 



1890.] occurring in the NeighbourJwod of Simla. 85 

attacked. Under similar circumstances a few localised patches are also 
found ; but as a rule the interval is one during which the fungus is 
comparatively rare. Early in July, after the commencement of the rains, 
the host puts forth new shoots abundantly, and many of these are then 
found to be wholly attacked ; localised patches are very rare, and almost 
entirely absent. The September, towards the end of the rains, localised 
patches are again formed, and become fairly abundant, though not so 
abundant as in spring. Lastly, from October to spring the fungus is 
again rare in both forms ; and, indeed, in the depth of winter (Decem- 
ber to February) it may be said to be absent. 

The localised patches are found on quite healthy leaves. When 
quite young they are circular, very conspicuous, especially on the upper 
leaf surface, from their yellowish green colour, and measure about 5 m.m. 
in diameter. The edge of the patch above is often surrounded by 
irregular reddish brown spots. The patches in time increase consider- 
ably in area. A single leaf may contain from 1 to 8 such patches. 

The leaves of wholly involved shoots are generally covered on their 
under surfaces with irregular beds of a brownish orange to deeply 
orange colour, forming diffused blotches, which often in time coalesce, 
and uniformly cover the whole of the lower leaf surface. A few such 
blotches sometimes occur on the upper surface also ; but rarely. 

The uredospores are given off in short chains, and there are no 
paraphyses among them (fig. 2, PI. II). They simply burst through 
the epidermis, a fray of which may be seen on the margin. The whole 
depth of the trredo bed is about O'lOO m.m. They are very irregular in 
size and shape, pale orange or yellowish red in colour, with an epispore 
finely tuberculated. They measure when fresh and examined in water 
253 X 21'7/* on an average, varying from 22 x 20 to 30 x 28/*. After 
lying many hours in water they measure 38 X 30'8/* on an average, 
varying from 25'2 to 44'1/* in diameter. They germinate in water, but 
not readily, throwing out a simple' germ tube. In transverse sections 
three to four ripe spores may generally be seen in a row, with as many 
immature ones below. It is noteworthy that in fully involved leaves 
from wholly attacked shoots there is no differentiation of the leaf tissue 
cells into palisade and spongy cells : the former are, however, quite 
typical in normal leaves (fig. 2, PI. II). 

The teleutospores are formed beneath the epidermis, which is gradu- 
ally lifted and disorganised, laying the spores bare. These beds, when 
just formed, are seen in transverse sections of leaves to be very slightly 
elevated above the genei-al epidermis . level. The depth of such a bed 
is about 30/*. When transverse sections of leaves through teleutospore 
beds are kept in water the spores germinate, throwing out a simple 



86 A. Barclay^ — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese [No. 2, 

promycelial tube, measuring 4 to 6/x in diameter, which bears a spori- 
dium 6/jl in diameter. The teleutospores are long very narrow cells, 
very densely packed together side by side (fig. 1, PI. II) ; so much so 
that in section the spores are polygonal. Each spore is about 26/j, long 
and 6 to 8/a broad. The spores are never horizontally divided but are 
sometimes obliquely divided. Fig. 4, PL II represents a surface view of 
portion of a spore bed. It will be seen how small they are in diameter. 

The spermogonia are large flat structures, very frequently contigu- 
ous to a uredo pustule. They measure from 0'252 to 0'346 m.m. in 
width, and 0'126 to 0144 m.m. in depth, and their bases rest upon 
subepidermal tissue (fig. 2, PL II). They appear to have no tuft of 
paraphyses protruding, at least I saw none in the numerous permanently 
mounted preparations I made and examined. 

Remarlcs. — This is evidently distinct from M. Hypericorum (D. 0.) 
as both the uredo- and the teleutospore beds are large and extremely 
conspicuous, whilst those of the European species are said to be very 
inconspicuous and small. 

2. Melampsora Leptodermis, nov. sp. 
On Leptodermis lanceolata, Wall. 

Early in August the leaves of this host discover small -saffron 
yellow uredo pustules on the lower surface, with pale yellow spots on 
the upper surface opposite them. The leaves are generally extensively 
bespattered with these pustules. 

The uredospores are given off in chains (fig. 6, PL II), and are 
orange yellow (more yellow than orange), round, or slightly oval, beset 
with prominent spines. The fresh spores examined in water measure 
25 X 20/x. I did not observe their germination : they refused to ger- 
minate in water on the several occasions I examined them. There are 
no paraphyses among the uredospores'. 

At the saiue time some bright orange red, more or less waxy looking 
beds may be' seen interspersed among the uredo pustules, which are the 
teleutospore ieds. The uredo stage is quickly over, and towards the end 
of August only teleutospore beds are found. These beds rest on the 
subepidermal cells. They are formed below the epidermis, which they 
gradually lift up and disintegrate. In transverse sections through 
newly formed beds it is seen that they are somewhat elevated above the 
general epidermis level. Such young beds measure about 30/x in total 
depth, 18 of which is above the outer surface of the surrounding epi- 
dermis. This elevation continues as the bed grows older, until at last 
its base is on the level of the outer surface of the epidermis. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 87 

The teleutospores are brilliant orange yellow in colour, and are 
usually single celled, and somewhat thickened at the free end, and the 
whole bed is covered externally with a thin hyaline layer (fig. 5, PL II). 
Each spore measures about 13/i in breadth, and 30 to 35/* in length : 
each usually displays a clear nucleolar space. When a portion of leaf 
blade containing teleutospore beds is kept in a moist atmosphere the 
latter are found after some hours covered with minute orange red hairs, 
just distinguishable with the naked eye. These are the promycelial 
tubes which each bear a very large oval deeply orange red sporidium, 
measuring about 27 by 15/*, attached asymetrically to the sterigmata. 
These sporidia germinate readily in water throwing out a simple germ 
tube, into which the orange red contents wander. As affected bushes 
have usually immense numbers of pustules on almost every leaf I 
thought there might be a perennial mycelium • but an examination of 
the stem bearing numerous such leaves showed no trace of mycelium. 

A very remarkable peculiarity in this fungus is the occurrence of 
hypertrophies on the leaves and smaller stems, bearing Puccinia pustules. 
It is so extraordinary that one is inclined to believe that it is an acci- 
dental association of two parasitic fungi, each perfectly independent ; 
and this view commends itself the more favourably when I note that 
I never found these Puccinia hypertrophies on any other than one parti- 
cular bush. On this bush, however, I collected many, and a few of them 
were on leaves bearing immense numbers of Goleosporium teleutospores. 
As the Puccinia were so intimately associated with the Goleosporium I 
will note its chai'acters here, leaving the final determination of accidental 
association, or relationship, to future biological experiment. 

I found these Puccinia hypertrophies on the 7th August, when the 
Coleosporium is in full growth, on the stem, petiole, and leaf blades. 
The hypertrophies were studded with black pustules containing Puccinia 
spores. The spores are firmly adherent, and when scraped off appear 
brownish yellow to the naked eye. By transmitted light they are pale 
brownish yellow bodies, with thin walls, and very clearly defined nucleo- 
lar spaces in each cell. They are clearly, though not deeply, constricted 
at the septum ; sometimes with a slight apical thickening, but oftener not. 
Externally they are smooth (fig. 7, PI. II). The fresh spores examined 
in water measured from 42 to 47/* in total length, and 20 to 24/* in 
breadth at the septum, which divides the spore into two almost equal 
halves. The stalks adhering to the scraped off spores are very long, 
measuring in diameter 5/* at the far end to 10/* at the insertion into the 
spore. I placed these spores into water with a view to observing their 
germination : but they do not germinate apparently until after a period 
of rest. 



88 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineae [No. 2, 

3. Melampsora Salicis CArRE^?, (Pers). ? 

On Salix, sp. 

In April I found this host attacked by a uredo-bearing fungus, but 
by no means largely. Young shoots were attacked, and in such cases 
every leaf bore beds. The uredo pustules were extremely numerous on 
each leaf, and on the lower surface mostly, with only a few on the upper 
sui'face. These are round or oval and prominent (hemispherical). The 
spores are pale yellowish orange, and very deciduous, and each pustule 
contained club-shaped paraphyses (fig. 8, PI. I). The spores were very 
uniform in size and round, measuring 20/jl in diameter when examined 
fresh. The epispore is coarsely tuberculated and the contents granular. 
I placed these spores in water in a watch glass, but they did not germi- 
nate. 

After this I lost sight of the fungus until July, when I saw the 
same host in the same locality much more extensively attacked, probably 
by the same parasite. Now the leaves were more generally attacked, 
not as before only leaves on particular shoots. The leaves exhibited 
patches of discolouration, blackish brown in the centre with a surround- 
ing zone of brownish red, and lastly the whole surrounded by an irregu- 
lar zone of pale yellow. On the lower surfaces of such patches spore 
beds were erupted. On the blackish centre there was usually a central 
pustule, surrounded by a circlet of others ; and beyond this circle, and 
outside the blackish centre, irregularly disposed small yellow pustules. 
The spore beds everywhere contained the same uredospores, with very 
large club-shaped paraphyses surrounding the base, and sparsely also 
among the spores. A uredo bed may often be seen in the middle of 
teleutospore beds. The uredospores are not given off in chains but are 
borne singly on stalks (fig. 8, PI. I). These spores are oval, and beset 
sparsely with coarse spines, The fresh spores measure 28 X 22/x, on an 
average. The heads of the paraphyses are smooth. 

Again in September I found the leaves bearing teleutospore fructi- 
fication. The leaves were now speckled irregularly on their lower sur- 
faces with orange red spots, mostly round but sometimes of an irregular 
shape from the coalescence of pustules. With a field lens a central 
cushion of spore beds may be seen, about 2 to 3 m.m. in diameter. On 
the upper leaf surface these invaded areas are dark red and very conspi- 
cuous. Individual leaves are often very extensively attacked. The 
central spore cushion contains uredospores with extremely large capitate 
paraphyses. The spores are very pale yellow and echinulate, oval to 
round, 23/u. in diameter to 26 X 21/*. The heads of the paraphyses 
measured 27/x in breadth by 34/x in length. The teleutospores in 
mounted specimens, after treatment with alcohol, measure from 34 to 
54/j. in length and 8/x in bi^eadth. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 89 

Remarks. — I have thought it best to name this fungus M. Salicis 
Capreae ; but further research may show it to be different. 

COLEOSPORIUM, Leveille. 
HEMICOLEOSPOKIUM, Schroter. 

1. Coleosporium Plectranthi, nov. sp. 

On Plectranthus Qerardianus, Benth. 

This host begins to be attacked towards the end of July, and in 
August is in the uredo stage. The pustules are entirely hypophyllous, 
and consist of little yellow heaps of the size of an ordinary pin's head. 
The pustules sometimes exhibit a circinate tendency. The position of 
pustules above is indicated on the upper leaf surface by yellow areas, 
irregular in size and contour. Some leaves have very numerous areas 
of invasion, whilst othei'S have but very few. The uredospores are very 
pale yellow, oval, densely tuberculated, measuring on an average when 
fresh and in water 24 X 17/x. The epispore is very thick; but I could 
not detect any germ pores. They are given off in fairly long chains. 

Around these uredo pustules, early in August, some indistinct 
smears of orange red colour may be seen, the commencing teleutospore 
beds, and these rapidly acquire prominence. At the end of August 
teleutospore beds are very numerous : they are strictly hypophyllous on 
the uredo areas of invasion. The beds are bright orange red waxy 
looking cushions. A uredo pustule is often, though not always, the 
centre of a concentric arrangement of teleutospore beds. At the end of 
August I put some uredospores and some sections of leaf blade through 
teleutospore beds into water. The former did not germinate, probably 
because they were too old ; but the latter produced a few oval sporidia. 
I was unfortunately unable to make out the exact morphological form 
of the promycelium ; but as far as I could see it was of the nature of a 
Coleosporium one. The teleutospore beds are covered with a well marked 
hyaline layer, and the top of each spore often presents a globular mass 
of the same hyaline substance. The spore cells are usually single but 
sometimes divided into two or three parts. The whole length of a spore 
is about 24 to 28/a, and in breadth about 12 — 14^, (fig. 4, PI. IV). 

2. Coleosporium Clematidis, nov. sp. 

On Clematis montana, Don. 
Clematis Bachanatiiwia, D. C. 

A Coleosporium on Clematis montana is not infrequently found about 
Simla during August to October : it is not, however, common in the 



90 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the UredineEe [No. 2, 

neighbourhood of the station. Deep orange red waxy looking beds are 
formed on the under surfaces of the leaves, frequently circulating round 
a central m*edo pustule of much paler and more yellow colour. A 
single leaf may bear numerous such pustules. On the upper surface the 
position of these beds below is indicated by irregular patches of paling, 
not of definite outline or shape. 

The uredospores, given off in chains, are orange red, densely beset 
with large tubercles, and measuring when fresh 30 x 20/x on an average ; 
but varying a good deal in individual measurements. 

The teleutospore beds. — In Clematis montana the teleutospores are 
usually divided into four cells by transverse septa (fig. 3, PI. IY). The 
average length of each spore is about 50 to 60/x and 12 to 14/x in breadth. 
A single sporidium is formed by each cell on a long narrow sterigma 
(fig. 5, PI. IV). The spore beds are initially formed beneath the 
epidermis. 

A little later (September) a similar parasite may be found on 
C Buchcmaniana ; but I am not certain that it is of the same species. In 
the absence of biological data it may be regarded provisionally as the 
same. The circinate arrangement of teleutospore beds around central 
uredo pustules is not observed on this host. The uredo pustules are 
saffron yellow, and scattered irregularly over the lower surface of the 
leaf. 

The uredospores, here also given off in chains, are pale yellowj tuber- 
culated, and measure when fresh 27 x 22/x. 

The teleutospore beds are brick red, and occur here and there amongst 
the uredo pustules, which are at the time I got specimens (September), 
much more numerous, the reverse being the case in the former host. 
These beds form, as above, elevated cushions on the surface, above the 
level of the epidermis. In transverse sections the free surface is seen 
to be covered with a thin hyaline layer, about 25/x in depth. In such 
sections the palisade layer of cells on the opposite side are seen to be 
undisturbed. The whole depth of the teleutospore beds in fresh sec- 
tions examined in water was found to be about 0'189 m.m. Each te- 
leutospore in this host is lai'ger than on the former, measuring about 
80 to 100/tA in length by 14/x in breadth. Moreover the spores on this 
host are usually not divided, but sometimes into 2 or 3 parts. 

3. Coleosporium Campanulae, Pers. 

On Campanula color ata, Wall. 

Even as early as the 6th February (1889), a few days after the 
snow had melted, I found this host bearing brilliant orange red uredo- 
spore pustules. At this time only the young lowermost leaves and their 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 91 

petioles were thus attacked, the pustules breaking out from both sur- 
faces of the leaf blade. At this time I fouud that the uredospores 
germinated freely in water, throwing out a simple long tube (about 200/* 
in length, and 5/x in diameter), into which the coloured contents of the 
spore wandered, leaving the walls of the latter colourless. In March 
this stage is still common, but now the sori are more frequently erupted 
from the lower surface of the blade, a few pustules occurring on the 
upper surface, exactly opposite some below. Still only the lower leaves 
near the ground are attacked. The sori on the lower surface tend to 
coalesce now. Towards the end of March the uredospores do not germi- 
nate so readily in water. The fungus is then missed to general observa- 
tion until early in July, when a new crop of uredo pustules attracts 
attention. These are numerously erupted from the upper leaf surface, 
and now from the upper leaves on the stalks. At the same time such 
attacked plants usually exhibit some generally paled lower leaves, on 
the lower surfaces of which waxy orange red elevations may be seen, 
which are teleutospore beds. The same leaves usually bear a few uredo 
pustules as well. This stage continues throughout August ; but the 
teleutospore beds increase in numbers whilst the uredo pustules diminish 
and become vei'y scai-ce, though never entirely absent. At the end of 
September a third crop of uredo pustules is produced, now all over the 
green parts of the plant, ascending to, and involving even the green 
parts of the flower and young fruit capsules. Shortly after this the 
host withers and dries up. From July onwards the teleutospore beds 
are constantly met with. 

The uredospores of all three crops are alike, both in measurement 
and in general appearance (fig. 10, PL IV). They are given off in 
chains, are orange red, thick walled, beset with tubercles, and measure 
on an average 21 x 17/*; but after lying in water for 12 to 24 hours 
25 X 18//.. Each spore appears to have three germ pores. 

The teleutospores are covered by a well marked hyaline layer. The 
spores are orange red and are divided by transverse septa into 3 to 5 
cells (fig. 2, PI. IV). The average length of each complete spore is 40 
to 45/*, and the average breadth 14/*. 

Remarks. — I have named this species provisionally G. Gampahulae ; 
but it should he noted that both the uredo- and teleutospores are smaller 
in the Simla species ; neither are the uredospores so variable in size and 
shape ae they appear to be in the European species. 



13 



92 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineas [JSTo. 2, 

GYMNOSPORANGIUM, Hedwig f. 

1. Gymnosporangium Cunninghamianum, Barclay. 

On Cwpressus torulosa, Don. 
And Pyrus Pashia, Ham. 

For a detailed description of this, the only species of Gymno- 
sporangium in this region, I must refer the reader to a paper on its life 
history in the " Scientific Memoirs by Medical Officers of the Army of 
India," Part V, 1889. 

The aecidial stage I have already described in a former volume of 
this Journal* under the name G. clavariaeforme, as at that time its 
characters appeared to me to agree most nearly with those of that- 
European species. Since the discovery of its complete life history, 
however, I have no doubt that it is a distinct species, and I have re- 
named it as above. 

The teleutosporic stage on Cupressus torulosa may be described as 
follows. The teleutospore beds are hemispherical dark brown compact 
bodies during dry weather, and are formed on the ultimate small 
branches as well as on twigs of 4 to 5 m.m. in diameter. During moist 
weather these beds swell up enormously into gelatinous masses, which 
quickly assume a yellow ochre colour, due to a rapid formation of sporidia. 
During heavy rain the gelatinous spore masses fall to the ground. 

The teleutospores are slender spindle shaped yellow bodies on long 
stalks covered with a substance capable of swelling greatly when mois- 
tened. When the spore becomes detached from the stalk after mois- 
tening a characteristic disc remains at the place of junction. There 
is no appreciable constriction at the septum, and the walls are usually 
uniformly thick, with sometimes a slight thickening at the apex. The 
spores when scraped off dry beds and examined immediately in water 
measui'e 75'6 x 25'2/x. Each cell of the spore has two germ pores near 
the septum. They germinate very readily in water : a promycelium is 
formed by each cell, dividing into four parts, each forming a sporidium 
on stout sterigmata. The sporidia are orange red, oval, measuring from 
15 X 9 to 22 X 14//,. The formation of secondary sporidia is not un- 
common. Experimental evidence fully confirmed the genetic relation- 
ship between these teleutospores and the aecidial form on Pyrus 
Pashia. 



* J. A. S. B., Vol. LVI, Pt. II, No. 3, 1887. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 93 

CHRYSOMYXA, Unger. 

LEPTOCHBYSOMTXA, Schroter. 

1. Chrysomtxa Himalense, Barclay. 

On Rhododendron arboreum, Sm. 

A detailed description of this fungus will be found in the " Scienti- 
fic Memoirs by Medical Officers of the Army of India," Part V. It is 
an extremely conspicuous parasite, since it gives rise to witches' brooms 
on the host, and is very abundant.. The fructification of the fungus may 
be seen from early spring to the end of May. This has its seat especi- 
ally on the petioles and along the midribs a short distance into the leaf- 
blade. When ripe the fruit bodies, which are orange red, clothe 
the petioles so densely as to hide it completely. Bach separate fruit 
body is club-shaped. The expanded upper part measures on an average 
2 m.m. in diameter, and the whole about T5 m.m. in length. These 
fruit bodies are also occasionally found on the main axis of shoots and 
as isolated groups on the leaf blade. In a moist atmosphere they be- 
come pure yellow from rapid sporidial formation. These fruit bodies 
are found only on the leaves and stems of the previous year's growth ; 
never on the newest. The shoots attacked are dwarfed in growth, and 
bear smaller leaves than normal. There are no uredospores. 

Localised attack of the leaf blade is not common. When it occurs, 
always on leaves of the previous year's growth, small patches are formed 
reddish brown above with a cluster of about 25 fruit bodies on the lower 
surface. The leaf blade at such places is very slightly thickened. 

The mycelium in the stem is perennial. It is of the usual cha- 
racters, contains an abundance of orange red oil globules and forms 
haustoria. 

The fruit body consists of four parts : (a), the primary lowermost 
stalk cells, forming the stalk of the club-shaped fructification : (h), a 
group of large central cells, three to four in each row, usually forking, 
and forming the main part of the expanded club end of the fruit body : 
(c), secondary stalk cells, branches of the last, which give rise to pro- 
mycelia : and (d), the promycelia proper, measuring about 50^ in 
length by 10/x in breadth, and dividing into four cells, each of which 
produces a sporidium at the end of a narrow sterigma. The sporidia 
are round or oval, orange red, and measure from 9/x in diam. to 12 x 
10/x. The sporidia are thrown off forcibly as iu the case of G. Bhodo- 
dendri (D. C). 



94 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese [No. 2, 

2. Chrtsomtxa Piceae, nov. sp. 

On Ficea Morinda, Link. 

I first found this parasite in June at Narkanda (40 miles from 
Simla) where it is fairly, though by no means very, abundant ; but I 
have since found it fairly common much nearer, namely, at Mashobra, 
a suburb of Simla. In Simla itself I have never met with it on the 
comparatively few individuals of the host which are present. At 
Mashobra I found numerous trees attacked with it in the middle of 
May, and some very extensively. The upper sides of the needles bore 
brilliant orange red convex beds, round or oval to oblong. Each needle 
usually bore several such beds ; but varying from 2 or 3 to 16, mostly 
in a single row. Sometimes, however, there was an imperfect parallel 
row on the other side of the upper needle surface. I observed that in 
most trees almost all the beds were on one particular side of the needles, 
so that they could be much better seen from one side of the tree than 
from the other. This was probably due to some light effect ? 

Thus the usual site of eruption is the upper half of the needle 
surface ; but sometimes beds are extruded from the lower side also. In 
the immediate vicinity of the beds the needles were very slightly paled 
or yellowed, but very inconspicuously. These fruit bodies occur- mostly 
on the older needles, and by far the most frequently on two-year old 
needles, and were never present on the youngest just evolved needles. 
I never found any on the axis. The beds varied from about 06 m.m. 
in diameter to 2'5 or 3 m.m. in length by 06 m.m. in breadth. In depth 
(i. e. from the free end to the base on the snbhypodermal tissue they 
usually measured 0"44 m.m.). 

The mycelium ramifies among the chlorophyll containing cells be- 
tween the hypoderma and the endothelial sheath, but appears never to 
penetrate within the latter. The hyphae are on the whole sparingly 
distributed, except at the bases of fruit bodies where they are very 
abundant. They are easily seen in fresh sections as they contain orange 
red oil globules, and measure 4/a in diameter. The resin canals never 
contain hyphae ; but these are sometimes seen in the air spaces below 
stomata. 

The fruit body consists mainly of radiating long oval cells, borne 
by much septated filaments forming a pseudo-parenchyma. These 
long cells measure from O'lOO to 0T57 m.m. by 12 to 16/*. broad. 
They may frequently be seen to contain a central well marked 
nucleus, staining deeply with carmine. These cells are never forked 
(fig. 1 , PL IV.) There are a few scattered cells beyond the outer ends of 
the long cells, on the surface of the fruit body, but they do not appear to 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 95 

be portions of a promycelium. Unfortunately I have never been able to see 
any sporidial formation. I nave kept needles bearing the fructification 
in a moist atmosphere, but without seeing any germination. My descrip- 
tion of this parasite is therefore very imperfect. 

Remarks. — In comparing this fungus with Rees's description of 
Chrijsomyxa Abietis, Ung, there appear to be considerable differences, 
and especially in the large cells forming the main elements of the fruit 
body. I have examined numerous sections, but have never seen these 
cells septated, nor forked. It would therefore almost seem that the 
parasite is more nearly related to Goleosporium than to Ghrysomyxa. 
The want of observation of the nature of germination unfortunately 
precludes any decision on this point, and I have included it among 
Chrysomyxata on general rather than on particular analogy. Should 
future research show that it is in fact a Ghrysomyxa it would be an 
interesting example of the very close morphological relationship between 
this genus and Goleosporium. 

Among other points of difference may be noticed the lai'ger size of 
the teleutospore beds in the European species, the smaller number of 
them on each needle (one to two), their eruption from the under surface 
of the needle, the conspicuous yellow bands of discolouration produced 
on the needles, the smaller number of teleutosj)ore cells on each fruit 
bodv (about 12 against 20 in Simla), and the presence of haustoria. 

CAEOMA, Link. 

1. Oaeoma Smilacis, Barclay. 
On Smilax aspera, L. 

For a detailed description of this parasite I must refer the reader 
to a paper on its life history in the " Scientific Memoirs by Medical 
Officers of the Army of India," Part IV. It is apparently a complete 
autoecious species, but the experimental evidence for this is not complete.* 

The aecidial stage is found in July on the newly evolved leaves and 
their petioles. Bright yellow patches are formed on the leaves, more 
or less irregular in shape, and varying in size from a small point to 
2 cm. in diameter. These patches are considerably thickened. When 
mature such patches bear minute brownish papillae on both surfaces, 
which are the aecidia. The latter open by a pore, through which the 
aecidiospores are extruded. These patches also bear spermogonia mostly 
on the upper leaf surface. 

In October, when the aecidial stage is disappearing, the same 
generation of leaves bear uredo pustules, formed by a distinct mycelium. 
* Since this paper was read I have completed the evidence. 



96 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineaa [No. 2, 

The lower surfaces of the leaves exhibit a few or a very great mauy 
slightly paled circular areas on each of which a minute pustule is 
formed, containing yellowish brown uredospores. The invaded areas 
are not in the least thickened. When a leaf is not excessively attacked 
the uredo pustules frequently exhibit a marked circinate arrangement, 
two circles around a central pustule. 

The teleutospore stage consists in the gradual production of Pucci- 
nia spores in the uredo pustules, which latter then enlarge very greatly. 
The teleutospore beds are well raised dark brown compact masses. If 
a leaf bearing teleutospore beds be placed in a moist chamber the beds 
swell very noticeably, and become light brown in colour. This swelling 
is due to the swelling of a gelatinous sheath enclosing the stalks of the 
teleutospores. 

The mycelium bearing uredo- and teleuto-spores does not contain 
orange red oil globules, does not form hausteria, and does not give rise 
to any hypertrophy of the host's tissues. That bearing aecidia contains 
conspicuous coloured oil globules and gives rise to considerable hyper- 
trophy of the host's tissues ; but still does not form haustoina. 

The uredospores are oval or pyriform, pale yellow, and beset exter- 
nally with very prominent spines. Among them are a few club-shaped 
paraphyses. They are formed singly on short stalks. The fresh spores 
measure on an average 46'5 x 3r7/x. The epispore is thickened -at the 
free end. They do not germinate readily in water, and I have con- 
sequently not observed their germination with accuracy. 

The teleutospores are pale yellow, with long stalks surrounded with 
a gelatinous sheath. The free end is thickened. They vary in length 
from 74"0 to 50'8/x : the upper cell varies from 38 x 16 to 25 x 1 5/x, 
and the lower from 36 X 16 to 25 X 15/x. The spore is slightly con- 
stricted at the septum, and measures about 14/x in breadth. They are 
firmly adherent. The epispore is smooth. When the stalk is swelled 
in water the thin central axis is clearly defined as in Qymnosporangium. 
The spores germinate by forming two usual promycelia, but instead of 
forming sporidia on sterigmata, the four cells of each promycelium 
separate from one another, and apparently represent sporidia. These 
detached cells measure from 14 X 8 to 18 X 11/x. I never observed 
these cells germinating. At the time I wrote the paper referred to 
above I had never witnessed any variation from this mode of germina- 
tion. At that time all my cultivations were made in hanging drops of 
water in a confined atmosphere. Recently, however, I caused the te- 
leutospores to germinate in water in a watch glass, in a large moist 
atmosphere (as recommended by Plowright), and then the usual spori- 
dial formation took place. The sporidia arc oval and orange red and 
measure from 10//, in diameter to 18 X 8/u., 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 97 

The aeciclium is deeply placed and is not bounded by any peridium, 
but by a layer of convoluted hypliae. The aecidiospores are given off 
successively from basidia, but ripe spores do not remain attached to one 
another in rows as usual. As each spore ripens it is cast off, and the 
spore below, which up to this time remained in a rudimentary condition, 
then grows rapidly, forming another ripe spore, and so on. The spores 
are pale yellow, mostly oval, with an epispore of variable thickness, 
thickened at one end, and beset with large coarse spines, which are 
deciduous. The fresh spores measure 432 x 25'6/* on an average, 
varying from 36 X 28 to 52 X 16/*. The thickness of the epispore is 
usually about 4/*, and 6 to 10/* at the thickened end. These spoi'es, 
like the uredospores, do not germinate readily in water. 

The spermogonia are plentiful, are deeply set, and a tuft of para- 
physes protrude through the mouth. They measure 145/* in depth, and 
157 in breadth. 

2. Caeoma Mort, nov. sp. 

On Morus alba, L. var. 6. serrata. 

This fungus is one of those species situated so nearly between two 
genera that it is somewhat difficult to decide to which it belongs. On 
the whole I am inclined to regard it as a species of Caeoma. 

Curiously enough I only once found it, namely, in Novembei', 1885, 
and although I have frequently searched for it again I have never suc- 
ceeded in finding it. Owing to this circumstance my notes of it are 
very imperfect. 

The aecidia are hypophyllous. Although there is no regular co- 
herent peridium the outer aecidiospores resemble peridial cells in beino- 
colourless and larger than the aecidiospores proper (fig. 6, PI. IV), 
which are reddish yellow, round or oval, and measuring when fresh 
from 14/* in diameter to 20 x 14/*, but on an average 17 x 14/*. The 
epispore is thick, measuring 2/*. The outer colourless pseudo-peiidial 
cells measured from 19 x 11 to 22 x 12/*.. I did not observe the 
germination of the aecidiospores. 

ISOLATED UREDO FORMS. 

Of isolated Uredo forms six are known to me. Among these two 
are remarkable, namely, those on Vitis himalayana and on Gomphrena 
globosa, the former for forming columnar spore masses, and the latter 
for producing a curious flocculent mycelium on the surface of water 
when allowed to germinate there in a moist atmosphere. 



98 A. Barclay— A Descriptive List of the Uredineee [No. 2, 

1. Uredo Eupatoriae, (D. C.) ? 

On Potentilla (Kleinicura, W. and A. ?) 

This host may sometimes be found in July extremely attacked by 
a uredo bearing fungus. Brilliant orange red or yellow pustules may 
be found in great numbers on the stem, leaves, petioles, bracts, and even 
fruit. The spores are brilliantly orange red, irregularly round, beset 
externally with spines or tubercles, measuring on an average 20//. in 
diameter when fresh. When placed in water they germinate readily, 
and normally like uredospores. 

2. Uredo Bupleuri, nov. sp. 

On Bupleurum falcatum, L. 

In September this may be found attacked. Numerous minute 
brown circular pustules are borne on the lower leaf surface, with some 
irregular discolouration on the opposite or upper leaf surfaee. The host 
is at this time in full flower. The spores are brown, round, measuring 
when fresh 20/x in diameter, with an epispore studded with shallow 
warts and with three germ pores usually, but sometimes four. "When 
placed in water they germinate l-eadily in the usual manner of uredo- 
spores. Though I have examined pustules up to the time the host dies 
and is withered up I never saw any other form of spore. 

3. Uredo Cronartiipormis, nov. sp. 

On Vitis himalat/ana, Brand. 

This host is very extensively attacked with a peculiar uredo-like 
affection, suggestive of Cronartium, since the spores are aggregated 
together into small cylindrical columns, with numerous curved para- 
physes at the bases of the columns. The whole, column of spores and 
paraphyses, are borne on minute papillae on the lower leaf surface. 
The column of spores is about 1 to 2 m.m. in length, and 0T9 to 
- 25 m.m. in diameter. 

The parasite is first met with towards the end of July, but conti- 
nues to increase in abundance until the leaves fall off in autumn (Octo- 
ber and November). The pustules are exceedingly small, and are 
distributed in immense numbers all over the lower surface of the leaf 
blade. The upper surface of the leaf is studded with reddish brown 
stains which makes this otherwise inconspicuous fungus remarkable. 

When these columnar heaps of spores are scraped off, which may 
very easily be done with a light touch, and placed in water, they readily 
break up into their component elements, and the weight of a cover glass 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 99 

immediately dissociates the spores. Even when a leaf bearing these 
columns is first hardened in absolute alcohol the columns do not attain 
any greater coherency. 

The individual spores are obovate or club-shaped, and fairly densely 
covered with spines. They are pale orange yellow, and measure about 
30 x 18 to 27 x lfyt, when fresh (fig. 9, PI. IV). 

The earliest formed pustules are yellowish in colour, but later, at 
the end of August, when the fungus is extremely common, the pustules 
are bi'own. The leaves are now old and this may be the sole reason, 
for the spore columns and spores are identical in size and structure, 
though the latter are also brownish now. Placed in water the spores of 
both colours germinate similarly, exactly like uredospores, and very 
readily, even up to the middle of October. 

In August, when the parasite is beginning to appear, I tied some 
leaves bearing yellow pustules to a plant in my garden which was quite 
healthy, and in September many of its leaves were studded with similar 
yellow pustules. 

Although I looked carefully and continuously for some teleutosporic 
form I never found any trace of such. 

4. Uredo Apludae, nov. sp. 

On Apluda aristata, L. 

This grass harbours a uredo bearing fungus towards the end of 
September, but I have never found any teleutospores on it. The uredo 
pustules are brown, small, oval to linear, very inconspicuous in that it 
gives rise to no appreciable discolouration in the blade, and entirely 
hypophyllous. The spores are round to oval, pale brown, thick walled, 
and measure when fresh 22 x 20fi on an average. Some few are much 
larger, viz., about 30 x 21//,, The epispore is densely beset with minute 
tubercles, and has four germ pores. At the end of October I found the 
same pustules even on drying leaves. 

5. Uredo Gompheenatis, nov. sp. 

On Gomphrena globosa, L. 

Late in October this host is largely attacked in certain localities 
only. In such places the lower surfaces of the leaves are often densely 
besprinkled with dark brown, minute, circular pustules, whilst only 
exceptionally are some found on the upper leaf surface. The upper 
surfaces of attacked leaves are very slightly paled opposite spore beds 
on the other side. Spore beds are also formed on the stems and are here 
linear or oval. The spores are very deciduous, and there are no para- 
14 



100 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredinegs [No. 2, 

pnyses. The uredospores are spiny and yellowish brown, and fall off 
without any portion of the stalk adhering, although the place of attach- 
ment to the stalk is generally very noticeable (fig. 8, PL IV). The 
walls are generally uniformly thick, but in some cases with a very 
slight apical thickening. The fresh spores examined in water measure 
on an average 35 x 26'2/u., varying from 82 x 27 to 40 X 24/*. Each 
spore has two germ spores. When placed in water these spores germi- 
nate at once most freely, forming immensely long germ tubes, so long 
that if numerous spores are floated on water in a watch glass in 24 hours 
a white silky mould appears to have been formed by them. In germi- 
nation they are typical uredospores. I never found any teleutospores 
though I looked carefully for them until the host withered in winter. 

6. Uredo Deutziae, nov. sp. 

On Deutzia corymbosa, Br. 

I found this host attacked with a Uredo-beaiung fungus in June. 
The pustules are very pale yellow, hypophyllous, on paled circular areas 
of the leaf. They are numerous on each leaf. Each pustule, of which 
there are many on each discoloured patch, is minute and hemispherical. 
The upper leaf surface is paled opposite the spores below. In general 
appearance they resemble the Uredo pustules of Melampsora or Coleos- 
porium. The spores are pale orange yellow, sparsely spiny, round to 
oval, and measuring 25 — 22 x 21 — 18/x, after lying 24 hours in 
water. 

Bemarhs. — I found fungus while this paper was passing through 
the press and I have been unable therefore to illustrate it in the plates. 
I have not had an opportunity for observing its further development, 
and must class it meanwhile with isolated Uredo forms. It may 
possibly be U. Hydrangeae, Berk, et Curtis. 

ADDENDA. 

In the first portion of this list of Uredines* containing a descrip- 
tion of the Aecidial forms I noted that I would defer a description of 
the two forms occurring on Pinus longifolia and P. excelsa, as my notes 
of them were at that time incomplete. Descriptions of them now 
follow. In addition to these I have noted the characters of other two 
isolated Aecidia. 

Since the publication of the second part of this list,f dealing with 

* Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LVI, Pt. II, No. 3, 1887. 
t Ibid, Vol. LVIII, Pt. II, No. 2, 1889. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 101 

the Puccinia, I Lave discovei'ed six other species, all on the higher 
Phanerogamia, most of them apparently new. 



1. Aecidium complanatum, nov. sp. 

On Pinus longifolia, Roxb. 

This Aecidium, on the needles of Pinus longifolia, is extremely com- 
mon in Simla, and, indeed, it is rare to find the host free from it. I 
have once only seen it on the stem (var. corticola) and my further re- 
marks refer only to the variety on the needles. The Aecidium may be 
found from autumn to June. A minor crop of aecidia is produced in 
November on the needles developed in spring, and although numerous 
in certain localities is not by any means so abundant in general as a 
second crop which commences in Februai'y and which gradually reaches 
a maximum development in May. The crop commencing in autumn is 
associated with well marked spermogonia, while that commencing in 
February is apparently without them. 

The needles of the host are annual in this region falling from May 
to June, that is just before the rains set in. At this time the new 
needles are emerging from their brown scaly covering, and are about 2 
to 3 inches long, and, growing rapidly, entirely replace the needles of 
the year before in July. (I should here mention that a minor evolu- 
tion of young shoots and needles occurs in autumn, about November). 
These newly developed needles bear no sign of attack until the middle 
of August, when many of them, in favoured localities, may be seen bear- 
ing paled areas with spermogonia, which long precede the eruption of 
peridia. After May the dying needles still adherent may still of course 
be seen bearing peridia ; but these are old, and are either empty or 
contain only a l'emnant of aecidiospores. In July, when all the old 
needles have fallen, there is no vestige of the parasite left. 

The aecidia are large, flat, prominent bodies, reddish yellow in 
colour, and borne on paled portions of the needles. Each needle bears 
from 1 to 8 peridia, mostly on the lower or lateral surface. Their 
length coincides with the long axis of the needle and is very various. 
The peridia are usually about l/5th inch (5 m.m.) in length, but are 
sometimes as much as l/2th an inch (12*7 m.m.) in length, and in height 
from the surface of the needle l/10th inch (25 m.m.). 

The mycelium is confined to the paled ai'eas of the needle, and does 
not enter within the endothelial sheath. The hyphae ramify extensively 
among the parenchymatous cells between the endothelial sheath and 
the hypodermal cells. They do not appear to do any injury to these 
parenchymatous cells. There are no haustoria. 



102 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineas [No. 2, 

The peridium is very resistant, and when emptied of the orange 
red aecidiospores is white. It ruptures along the summit or ridge when 
ripe to allow the exceedingly numerous aecidiospores to fall out. It 
consists mainly of two layers of cells (in some parts of three) very 
firmly adherent to one another, by the interlocking of the prominent 
spines which cover them externally. The walls of these peridial cells 
are 4/x thick, and the cells themselves measure when moistened from 
28 x 20 to 44 x 29/x,, or on an average 38 x 41^. 

The aecidiospores are formed in very long rows, those towards the 
basidia being separated from one another by clearly denned intercalary 
lamellae. They are oval orange red bodies, with thick epispores, beset 
with numerous and prominent spines, which doubtless aid in their aerial 
distribution. The dry spores measure on an average 24'3 x 17'9/x, and 
when moistened 25'4 x 17'9/x. After lying 24 hours in water they 
measured 26'4 x 19'6/a on an average. I never succeeded in getting 
these spores to germinate in cultivations, although I have tried various 
fluids. 

Spermogonia. These are of the usual structure ; but are very large 
and deeply set. 

Remarks. — This species must, I think, be considered different from 
Aec. Pini (Willd) Pers., as the aecidiaare very different in shape and size. 
Whilst the species I have described has large flat peridia, from 5 m.m. 
to 1 cm. in length and 2'5 to 3'5 m.m. in height, those of A. Pini are co- 
nical or cylindrical and 2 to 2'5 m.m. in height. Moreover, whilst the 
aecidiospores of the latter are 30 to 34 x 20 to 22/a those of the Simla 
species are 26 — 24 x 19 — 17/x. 

2. Aecidium brevius, nov. sp. 

On Pinus excelsa, Wall. 

This is an almost ecpially abundant Aecidium, though less promi- 
nent than the above, the peridia being much smaller. It is, I believe, 
a distinct species. I have only met with it on the needles and never on 
the stem. It is tnai'kedly later in appearing to observation than the 
former. The aecidia begin to appear early in April, and increase in 
numbers to June. The needles of this host are not altogether annual, 
though a great many are shed annually, and those attacked by the 
parasite are apparently always so shed, as after July no vestige of the 
aecidia remains. New needles begin to emerge from their scaly coverings 
towards the end of April, and are full grown in July to August. These 
new needles are never found attacked. 

The aecidia are like those of the above species, elongated, flattened, 
orange red bodies, but much smaller (fig. 2, PI, III). One of ordinary 



1890.] 



occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 



103 



size measures T Vth inch in length and ^th. to ^th inch in depth. 
The number of these borne on one needle is usually about four ; but varies 
from one to six, and in exceptional instances even more may be found. 

The mycelium is confined to the paled portions of the needles and 
is therefore strictly localised as in the above species. The hyphae 
ramify among the parenchyma cells between the hypoderma and the 
endothelial sheath, and does not penetrate within the latter. There are 
no haustoria. 

The peridium is very tough and white, consisting of two layers of 
cells firmly adherent to one another, as in the case of the above species ; 
but the peridial cells are much larger, measuring about 40 x 22//, or 
42 x 21/* (figs. 6, 7, PI. III). This difference is so great as to justify 
me, I think, in regarding it as a distinct species. 

The aecidiospores are oval and oiange red, with a stout epispore 
beset with prominent spines. The epispore is often thickened more on 
one side than on the other (fig. 2, PI. III). They are formed in long 
serial rows, and in great numbers within each peridium. Between the 
lower ones intercalary lamellae are present. The dry spores measure on 
an average 275 x 16'9/x and when moistened, 273 x 193/x. After 
lying 24 hours in water they measure 30"2 X 212/x on an average. I 
have failed to observe the germination of these spores also in cultiva- 
tions, although I have tried them in various media. 

Spermogonia. These are of the usual structure ; but are very large 
and deeply set. 

Remarks. — I think the differences between these two Aecidia are 
sufficient to warrant their separation as two distinct species. With a 
view to ascertaining the exact difference in the size of the aecidospores 
and the peridial cells of the two species I simultaneously treated both 
in the same way, and then carefully measured them. The needles bear- 
ing aecidia were first placed in a mixture of equal parts of glycerine 
and alcohol and then examined in pure glycerine. The aecidiospores 
from P. longifolia measured on an average of several individual measure- 
ments 22 3 X 15/*, whilst those from P. excelsa measured 28'6 x 18'4/x.. 
The differences between the aecidiospores and the peridial cells are 
shown in the following table : 





Aecidiospores. 


Peridial cells. 


Host. 


Moistened 

in 

water. 


Dry. 


24 hours 

in 

water. 


Alcohol 

and 

glycerine. 


Alcohol 

and 

glycerine. 


Water. 


P. excelsa ... 
P. longifolia 


273 x 19 3 
254 x 179 


27 5 x 169 
243 x 17-9 


302 x 21 2 
264 x 196 


286 x 18-4 
223 x 15-0 


40 x 22 
27'6 x 172 


1295 x 91-5 
38 x 41-3 



104 A. Bai'clay — A Descriptive List of the Uredinea? [No. 2, 

Cooke, considered both species identical (see Indian Forester, 
Vol. Ill, 1877-78) and named it Periderminm orientate, C. but as 1 thiuk 
there is no doubt whatever they are quite distinct I have re-named both 
species. 

In a paper describing a Chrysomyxa (G. Himalense) which is ex- 
ceedingly common in Simla on Rhododendron arboreum, Sin., I have 
drawn attention to a possible connection between the Aecidium on 
P. excelsa and this Chrysomyxa* and have given reasons why a connec- 
tion with the Aecidium on P. longifolia is not probable. The occurrence 
of a double crop of aecidia on P. longifolia, of which I did not know 
when I wrote tbe paper referred to above, renders it, however, still more 
difficult to conjecture the life history of this parasite. 

N. B. — In order to complete this list I would here draw attention 
to three other Aecidia on other species of the Goniferae, namely, two 
distinct species on the needles of Picea Morinda and one on the Deodar. 
These I had already fully described in this Journal before I commenced 
a systematic review of all the Uredineae of this region. For one of 
those on Picea Morinda {Abies Smithiana) described in Vol. LV, Pt. II, 
No. 1, 1886, I propose to retain the name 

3. Aecidium Thomsoni, Berkeley. 

although there is some doubt as to the identity of that species with the 
species in this region ; and for the other, described in the same volume, 
Pt. 2, No. 2, I propose the name 

4. Aecidium Piceae, nov. sp. 

The species I have described on the Deodar, Volume LV, Pt. II, 
No. 2, 1886, I now propose naming 

5. Aec. Cedri, nov. sp. 
6. Aecidium Plectranthi, nov. sp. 

On Plectranthus Coetsa, Ham. 

An inconspicuous and rare Aecidium was found first on the 4th 
July, and then shortly aiterwards on a very few bushes in the same 
locality. The aecidial patches are small, and a single leaf sometimes 
contained several of them ; but usually only one or two. On the upper 
surface of patches spermogonia could be seen with a field lens, while 
the under surface bore the peridia. These are short cups open stellately, 

* Scientific Memoirs by Medical Officers of the Army of India, Part V, 1889. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 105 

and discover brilliant orange red spores. The aecidio-spores are round 
or oval, beset densely with shallow tubercles or warts, and measure 
when fresh 25//, in diameter to 26 x 24/i. 

7. Aecidium infreqdens, nov. sp. 

On Geranium (nipalensis, Sweet?) 

This is also a very rare Aecidium. I have only once found it in 
July, 1886. The aecidial patches in the only specimen I ever saw were 
very numerous on the leaves, each division of the five lobed leaf bearing 
from one to six patches. The patches were about ■£§ inch in diameter. 
The peridia were entirely hypophyllous, and burst stellately, showing 
orange red aecidiospores within. The under surfaces of the leaf patches 
were yellow, and the upper surfaces greenish yellow. After the aecidio- 
spores have fallen out of the peridia the latter become deep brown, and 
then look like teleutospore beds. 

The aecidiospores are round, or angular when dry, of a pale 
yellowish colour, and with very thin walls. The spores become de- 
tached in rows of three or more. The fresh spores varied in size from 
14/x in diameter to 18 x 10/*. 

The peridial cells are thickened on one side : when seen flat they 
are angular in contour, and measure about 20/x in diameter. 

a. HEMIPUCCINIA. 

1. Puccinia Iridis, (D. C.) 

On Iris florentina, L. 

Or Iris pallida, Lam. 

This host is very frequently attacked by a uredo bearing fungus, 
and I have found it abundantly both in spring (March) and in autumn 
(September, November). The pustules, which are borne on both sur- 
faces of the leaves equally, are linear and brown, flanked by the rent 
edges of the epidermis. The spores are round or oval, deep brown, 
deciduous, falling off without any portion of stalk adhering, and 
measuring when fresh from 26//. in diameter to 30 X 24 or 84 x 20/*. 
The epispore is spiny or tuberculated. They germinate freely in water 
after the manner of uredospores. The end of the long germ tube 
sometimes swells into a head, not, however, separated by a septum (fig. 
7, PI. IV), The spores, whether collected in spring or late autumn from 
dried leaves, always germinated in the same way. Each spore has three 
germ pores. 

I found the teleutospores for the first time at the end of 1889, 
although I had looked carefully for them in previous years, and then 
in one locality only. They are therefore rare notwithstanding the 



106 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineoe [No. 2, 

abundant distribution of the uredo form. The dried leaves are covered 
with black pustules, round to oval, on both sides of the leaf, mostly 
remaining covered with epidermis, and with the spores firmly adherent. 
The pustules contained a few uredospores also. The teleutospores are 
small, much constricted at the septum usually, though the spores vary 
much in shape, and much thickened at the apex. The fresh spores 
measured 36 to 44/x in total length, by 14 to 18 in greatest breadth, or 
10 to 13 at the septum. The thickening at the apex is 6 to 9/*. The 
spores did not germinate on being put into water, and I therefore 
conclude that they inquire a winter rest. 

2. PUCCINU ARGENTATA, Schulz. ? 
On Impatiens amphorata, Edgw. 

In the middle of September I found this host attacked with a 
brown uredo bearing fungus ; but only in certain localities, and I would 
characterise it as rare. The upper surfaces of attacked leaves display 
circular paled patches, and the lower surfaces of these patches bear 
minute circular brown pustules. Later when the leaf is beginning to 
wither the invaded areas are conspicuous by their green colour against 
the yellowed general leaf surface, showing again a lichenoid symbiosis 
between the chlorophyll cells of the leaf blade and the mycelium of 
the fungus. A single leaf usually bore immense numbers of these, while 
the petioles also bore some. Towards the end of September, when the 
host is beginning to disappear for the season, Puccinia pustules are 
developed, though uredo pustules are still more numerous ; but gradually 
the uredo pustules recede. 

The uredospores are brown oval bodies, spiny on the surface, and 
often displaying a nucleus or nucleolar space, and thus resembling a 
Uromyces spore (fig. 11, PI. I). They are very deciduous, falling off 
without any portion of stalk adhering, though the place of union with 
the stalk is usually clearly definable. The fresh spores measured 24 x 
16/x on an average. These spores germinated readily in water, throwing 
out a long simple germ tube, the end being often curiously twisted into 
an intricate loose knot. Some smaller germ tubes produced a swelling 
at the end, but this was not separated off by any septum. 

The teleutospores are plump rounded spores, irregular in size and 
shape, and with little or no constriction at the septum. Most of them 
display a small conical colourless thickening at the free end ; but some 
are without this (fig. 11, PL I). The spores are readily detached from 
their beds, and little or no portion of the stalk adheres. They are deep 
brown in colour, and the external surface is very faintly tuberculated 
over both cells. An averaged sized spore measured when fresh 32/x in 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 107 

total length, and 18//. at the septum, which divides the spore into equal 
parts : a nucleus is contained in each cell. The spores do not germinate 
immediately after ripening. 

3. PUCCINIA NITIDA, nOV. sp. 
On Polygonum amplexicaule, Don. 

I have never found this fungus actually in Simla ; but it is fairly 
common at Mashobra, a suburb about 6 miles from the station. In one 
locality many plants were abundantly attacked. Leaves usually bore 
innumerable pustules, some brown and some black, mostly hypophyl- 
lous, rarely epiphyllous. The former are uredo and the latter teleuto- 
spore pustules. 

The uredospores are round to oval, light brown, spiny, and 22 x 24/a 
in diameter when fresh (fig. 10, PI. I). 

The teleutospores are plump, rounded, deep brown, and very slightly 
constricted at the septum. Each cell has a well marked nucleolar space, 
and the free end is not thickened (fig. 10, PI. I). The germ pore of the 
upper cell is clearly visible a little to one side of the summit. The spores 
are readily detached, with usually no portion of stalk adhering. The epi- 
spore over both cells is finely tuberculated. The spores are very variable 
in size and shape : some of the smaller squatter spores measure 26/x in 
total length, by 16/x at the septum, and 19/x in greatest breadth. Larger 
spores measured 38 to 41/u. in length, by 18/x at the septum. The spores 
do not germinate immediately after ripening. 

Remarks. — Saccardo notes three species of Puccinia on species of 
Polygonum, namely, P. Polygoni, Pers, P. Bistortae, Strauss, and P. 
mammillata, Schroter. I do not think the Simla species is identical with 
any of them. At any rate it is not P. Polygoni, Alb et Schwein, because 
the uredo sori in Simla are not irregular and not circinate ; the teleu- 
tospores are not adherent, no portion of stalk remaining on the detached 
spores; they do not contract towards the stalk; and are not thickened 
at the apex. 

4. Puccinia Fagopyri, nov. sp. 

On Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench. 

At the beginning of October I found some stray plants of this host 
growing on a weedy bank far from cultivated fields, largely attacked 
with a fungus bearing black and dark brown teleutospore and uredo 
pustules, all hypophyllous, with circular paled areas on the upper leaf 
surface. 

15 . 



108 A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Tlredinese [No. 2, 

The uredospores are pale brown ecliinulate bodies, oval and measur- 
ing 23 X 18/j, on an average. The spores germinated in water in the 
usual way (fig. 9, PI. I). I have occasionally seen a globular expansion 
at the end of the germ tube, as shown in the figure ; but this is never 
separated off by a septum. 

The teleutospores are very deciduous, falling off with only a frag- 
ment of stalk adhering. They are dark brown and very variable in 
size and shape, somewhat constricted at the septum, with a smooth 
surface, and slightly thickened at the apex. A clear nucleolar space is 
seen in each cell (fig. 9, PI. I). The fresh spores measured from 25 
to 36/x in total length, by 11 to 13/x at the septum. The septum divides 
the spore into two almost equal halves. The upper cell is often much 
broader than the lower, and is more or less globular. The apical thicken- 
ing is about 4<fji. in depth, the cell wall 'elsewhere being about 2/u. in 
thickness. The spores do not germinate immediately after ripening. 

5. Puccinia Gentianae, (Strauss). 
On Qentiana Kurroo, Eoyle. 

I found two plants of this host at the end of December largely 
attacked with a Puccinia, on a hill some miles from Simla to the south 
(near Solon) ; but have never seen it again. The plants I found were 
withered. The under surfaces of the leaves bore numerous black cir- 
cular isolated pustules. On examining the spores from these they were 
found to consist of teleutospores with a few uredospores. The spores 
are readily detached from their beds, coming off with a fragment of 
stalk usually adhering. 

The uredospores are oval, pale brown bodies, spiny, measuring 26 x 
22/u, after lying 24 hours in water. 

The teleutospores are plump and rounded at both ends, and slightly 
if at all constricted at the septum. The epispore is very finely tubercu- 
lated over both cells, and is uniformly thick, with the exception of a very 
shallow mamillated thickening at the free end. Each cell of the spore 
exhibits a clear nucleolar space or body. After lying 24 hours in water 
these spores measured from 38 to 40ft in length by 25 to 26 in breadth. 
They are very uniform in size. They do not germinate immediately 
after ripening. Occasionally a single celled teleutospore may be seen. 

Hemarhs. — This is most probably P. Oentianae (Strauss) as the 
characters of both uredo and teleutospore agree ; but I have not seen 
any Aecidium. The locality, however, in which I found the fungus is 
not familiar to me : I have only once visited it in winter. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. 1 '" ! ' 

b. MICEOPUCCINIA, Schroter. 
6. Puccinia Leptodermis, nov. sp. 

On Leptodermis lanceolata, Wall. 
For description see above under Melampsora Leptodermis. 

7. Puccinia Wattiana, nov. sp. 
On Clematis puberula, H. f. and T. 

This fungus was collected by Dr. George Watt in the Sutlej valley, 
near Suni, 2,500 ft., in October 1889. The leaves were covered with 
blackened, more or less circular patches, on the under surfaces of which 
were numerous dark brown pustules, with a marked circinate arrange- 
ment : a few pustules, however, were found also on the upper leaf surface. 
The blackened areas of discoloration measured 3 — 4 m.m. in diameter, 
and each leaf bore numerous such patches, from 5 to 30. Some pustules 
were also discovered on the petioles and ultimate stems. 

The spores are readily detached, coming off with a considerable 
portion of stalk adhering. They are deep chestnut brown, smooth on 
the surface, l'ounded at both ends, with little constriction at the septum, 
and often presented a small colourless mammilla at the free end, which 
is not otherwise thickened. Spores were often seen divided into 3 and 
even 4 cells, and a few were single celled. There were no uredospores. 
The spores measured, when just moistened 42 — 37 X 21 — 20 /x. 

The spores, which had been preserved in situ in ordinary botanical 
drying paper, were placed in water on the 4th May 1890, and on the 
following day they were found to have germinated freely. The pro- 
mycelia are usually quite short, though sometimes long, and are colourless. 
It is remarkable that whilst the upper promycelium issues from the 
apex as usual, the lower one is emitted from a point close to the stalk. 
The sporidia are oval and colourless, measuring 15 — 14 x 8 — 7/x, 
and are borne on short sterigmata. No secondary sporidia were formed. 

Memories. — Saccardo mentions 2 species of Puccinia on species of 
Clematis, viz., P. stromatica, Berk, et Curtis, and P. insidiosa, Berk. 
In the absence of measurements it is impossible to determine whether 
the species I have described is identical with either. The general 
characters of the spores of P. insidiosa are unlike those I have described. 
The spores of P. stromatica ai'e somewhat similar; but the sori are 
said to be diffuse and ruddy. I am inclined to think that the species 
I have described is distinct, and I have named it after Dr. G. Watt. I 
regret being unable to give figures of the spores, as I obtained the 
specimens after this paper had been sent to press. 



110 A.Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese [No. 2, 

N. B. — Since the publication of Part II of this List I have been 
able to follow the complete life history of the Puccinia there described 
under the name P. helvetica, Schroter, and there is no doubt that it is a 
new species. Aecidial fructification is entirely suppressed. I Lave 
given a full description of it under the name Puccinia Collettiana in the 
Scientific Memoirs by Medical Officers of the Army of India, Part V, 
1889. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Uronnjces Vossiae, uredospore. 2, ditto, teleutospore. 3. Phragmi- 
dium subcorticium, teleutospore, x 220. 3. a, ditto, aecidiospore. 4 Phragmidium 
Rubi, teleutospore. 5. ditto, germinating, with sporidial formation. 6. ditto, 
uredospores. 7 Melampsora Salicis Capreae, transverse section through teleutospore 
bed, x 220. 8. ditto, through uredo bed, x 220. 9. Puccinia Fagopyri, teleutos- 
pore, and germinating uredospore. 10. Puccinia nitida, three teleutospores and 
uredospore. 11. Puccinia argentata, two teleutospores and uredospore. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Melampsora. Sancti-Johannis, transverse section through teleutospore bed, 
x 150. 2. ditto, transverse section though leaf bearing uredo bed and spermogonia, 
x 220. 3. ditto, natural ajjpearance of wholly involved very young shoot. 4, 
ditto, surface view of teleutospore bed. 5. Melampsora Leptodermis, transverse sec- 
tion though young teleutospore bed, x 220. 6. ditto, though uredo bed, x 220. 
7. Puccinia Leptodermis. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Aecidium complanatum, natural appearance. 2. Aec. brevius, natural 
appearance. 3. A. complanatum, transverse section though peridium. 4. ditto, pe- 
ridial cells seen flat. 5. ditto, lowermost cells of row of aecidiospores, showing inter- 
calary lamellae. 6. A . brevius, peridial cells seen flat. 7. ditto, transverse section 
though peridium. 8. A. complanatum, aecidiospores. 9. Aec. brevius, aecidiospores. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Chrgsomyxa Piceae, transverse section though fruit body, x 150. 2. 
Goleosporium Gampanulae, transverse section though teleutospore bed, x 220. 3. 
Goleosporium Glematidis, transverse section through teleutospore bed on leaf of G. 
inontana, x 220. 4. Coleoporium Plectranthi, transverse section through teleutos- 
pore bed, x 220. 5. Col. Glematidis, promycelium with sporidial formation (0. 
inontana). 6. Caeoma Mori, sterile and fertile aecidospores. 7. Puccinia Iridis, 
germinating uredospore. 8. Uredo Gomphrenatis, uredospore. 9, Uredo cronar- 
tiiformis, uredospore. 10. Goleosporium Gampaimilae, uredospore. 

N. B. — Unless otherwise specified all figures are x 350. 



A. BARCLAY, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1890, Vol. LDCTUI . 



PI. III. 




A.Barclay, ELe2. 



LitbK.D Chandra. 



A. BARCLAY, Journ. Asiat. Soc.Bengal.1890, Vol. LLX,PtII. 



PL IV- 











rw o 








^rxiSjc-.-, — 



^«X 

V 



J 





A. "Barclay, del. 



LitVbyK D. Chandra. 



A. BARCLAY, Jo-urn. Asiat. Sqe. Bengal, 1890, Vol. LDC,Ft.IJ. , 



PLY. 




A. Barclay, del 



LiLli: by A. C. Sing-ha 



A ■. BARCLAY, Joum. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 189 0. Vol. L IX, Pt.i 



PI. VI 



■^mmm^ 



f#S±><^V ft ill J i: (°% 



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A, Barclay,, del,. 



LitVbyA.C-Sing-lia. 



1890.] occurring in the Neighbourhood of Simla. Ill 



INDEX. 

I = Vol. LVI, Pt. II, No. 3, 1887. 
II = „ LVIII, Pt. II, No. 2, 1889. 
Ill = „ LIX, Pt II, No. 2, 1890. 
Aecidium brevius, III, p. 102. 
Cedri, n. s., Ill, 104. 
,, Complanatum, n. s., Ill, 100. 
„ Compositarum Martins, I, 373. 

,, infrequeus, n. s., IIT, 105. 
„ Jasmini, n. s., I, 363. 
„ leucospermum, D. C, I, 361. 
,, Pioeae, n. s., Ill, 104. 
„ Plectranthi, n. s., Ill, 104. 
„ Saniculae, n. s., I, 352. 
„ Rtrobilanthis, n. s., I, 369. 

Thalictri flavi, D. 0., I, 362. 
„ Thomsoni, Berk, III, 104. 
,, Urticae, Scam. v. Him., I, 368. 
Caeoma Mori, n. s., Ill, 97. 

,, Smilacis, n. s., Ill, 95. 
Chrysomyxa Himalense, n. s., Ill, 93. 

„ Piceae, n. s., Ill, 94. 

Coleosporium Campanulae, Pers., Ill, 90. 
,, Clematidis, n. s., Ill, 89. 

,, Plectranthi, n. s., Ill, 89. 

Gymnosporangium Olavariaeforme, Jacq., I, 370. 

,, Cunninghamiantim, n. s., Ill, 92. 

Melampsora Leptodermis, n. s. , III, 86. 

„ Sancti-Johannis, n. s., Ill, 84. 

,, Salicis Capreae, Pers., Ill, 88. 

Monosporidiura Andraohnis, n. s., I, 371. 
,, Euphorbiae, n. s., I, 364. 

Pliragmidium incompletum, n. s., Ill, 83. 

,, qninqueloculare, n. s., III. 82. 

„ Eubi, Pers., Ill, 81. 

,, suboorticium, Schrank, III, 79. 

Puccinia Acetosae, Solium., II, 240. 
,, Andropogi, Schw., II, 246. 
„ Anthistiriae, n. s., II, 246. 
,, argentata, n. s., Ill, 106. 
,, Arundinellae, n. s., II, 245. 
,, Cariois, Schm., II, 244. 
„ Caricis filicinae, n. s., II, 250. 
,, Chrysopogi, n. s., II, 247. 
„ Circaeae, Pers., II, 235. 
„ Collettiana, n. s., Ill, 110. 



112 



A. Barclay — A Descriptive List of the Uredineas, &c. [No. 2, 



Puccinia coronata Corda, II, 248. 
„ Fagopyri, n. s. ( III, 107. 

,, flosculosorum, Alb. et Schw., II, 238. 
„ Fragariae, n. s., I, 359, II, 244. 

Galii, Pers., II, 239. 
,, Gentianae, Strauss, III, 108. 
„ Geranii silvatici, Karst., II, 236. 
Graminis, Pers., I, 367, II, 249. 
,, helvetica, Schrt. (see P. Collettiana). 

Iridis, D. C, III, 105. 
,, Leptodermis, n. s., Ill, 109. 

Menthae, Pers., II, 242. 
„ nitida, n. s., Ill, 107. 
,, Pimpinellae, Strauss, I, 356, II, 244. 
Polliniae, n. s., I, 369, II, 243. 
Rosae, n. s., II, 233. 
,, Roscoeae, n. s., II, 237. 

,, Saxifragae ciliatae, n. s., II, 234. 

,, Urticae, n. s., II, 234. 
„ Violae, Solium., I, 354, II, 244. 
„ Wattiana, n. s., Ill, 109. 
Uredo Apludae, n. s., Ill, 99. 
,, Bupleuri, n. s., Ill, 98. 
„ Cronartiiformis, n. s., Ill, 98. 
„ Deutzise, n. s , III, 100. 
„ Eupatoriae, D. C, III, 98. 
,, Gomphrenatis, n. s., Ill, 99. 
Uromyces Cunningliamianus, n. s., Ill, 76. 
Mclntirianus, n. s., Ill, 79. 
Solidaginis, Niessl., Ill, 77. 
Strobilanthis, n. s., Ill, 78. 
Valerianae, Schum., I, 352, III, 77. 
Vossiae, u. s., Ill, 76. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 113 

VIII. — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. — By George 
King, M. B., LL. D., F. R. S., C. I. E., Superintendent of the Boyal 
Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

{Continued from p. 408 of Vol. LVIII of 1889.) 

[Received and read 5th February, 1890.] 

Order IX. BIXINE^E. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate minutely stipulate or exstipulate 
leaves. Flowers regular, 1-2-sexual. Sepals 4 or 5 (rarely 2 to 6) 
imbricate, free, or connate and bursting irregularly; usually deciduous. 
Petals 4 or 5, or absent, imbricate or contorted, deciduous, often with 
basal scales. Stamens hypogynous or sub-pei'igynous, (united into a 
column in Eyparosa) : anthers 2-celled with porous or longitudinal 
dehiscence. Disc thick, often glandular. Ovary free, usually 1-celled, 
the placentas parietal. Styles and stigmas free or united. Fruit dry with 
valvular dehiscence, the seeds along the middle of the valves ; or fleshy, 
indehiscent. Seeds arillate, albumen fleshy, embryo axile straight or 
curved: cotyledons foliaceous. Distrib. Chiefly tropical: genera 30: 
species about 170. 

Tribe I. Bixinece. Petals broad, contorted, without 
basal scales : anthers elongate, opening by termi- 
nal pores or short slits. 

Capsule with parietal placentas, 2-valved, 

softly muricate ... ... ... 1. Bixa. 

Tribe II. Flacotirtice. Petals small and imbricate, 

or absent. Anthers short, opening by slits. 

Flowers hermaphrodite : petals 4 to 6. 

Stamens numerous ... ... 2. Scolopia. 

,, 5 or 6 ... ... 3. Erythrospermum. 

Flowers dioecious : petals 0. 

Ovary 2 to-8 celled ... ... 4. Flacourtia. 

Tribe III. Pangice. Flowers dioecious, petals with 
an adnate basal scale or appendage : fruit large, 
indehiscent. 
Sepals free. 

Sepals 5, imbricate ; Petals 5. Stamens 

5 to 8 : Stigmas 3 to 6 ... ... 5. Hydnocarpus. 

Sepals 4. Petals 8, in 2 rows ; Stamens 

20 to 30, Stigma 1 ... ... 6. Tarahtogonos. 



114 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Sepals combined into a cup, its mouth entire 
at first, but irregularly toothed ou expan- 
sion. 

Flowers large : stamens numerous, free 7. Pangium. 
Flowers small : stamens united in a 

column bearing 5 anthers ... 8. Ryparosa. 

1. Bixa, Linn. 

A tree. Leaves simple ; stipules minute. Flowers in terminal 
panicles, 2-sexual. Sepals 5, imbricate, deciduous. Petals 5, contorted 
in bud. Anthers opening by 2 terminal pores. Ovary 1-celled ; style 
slender, curved, stigma notched ; ovules many, on 2 parietal placentas. 
Capsule loculicidally 2-valved, placentas on the valves. Seeds many, 
funicle thick, testa pulpy ; albumen fleshy ; embryo large, cotyledons flat. 

1. B. Obellana, Linn. A small tree. Leaves cordate, acuminate, 
glabrous; length 5 to 7 in., breadth 3 to 5 in., petiole 15 to 2*5. 
Floivers in short terminal branched cymes, 2 in. in diam., purple or 
white. Capsule compressed-ovoid, softly prickly, 1"5 in. long; seeds co- 
vered with coloured pulp. Bl. Bijdr. 55. Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 31. Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, p. 107. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 190. 

Cultivated widely in the tropics on account of the dye (Arnatto) 
yielded by the testa of its seeds. 

2. Scolopia, Schreber. 

Trees, spinous in India, spines often compound. Leaves alternate, 
entire ; stipules minute or 0. Flowers small, racemed, axillary, 2-sexual. 
Sepals 4-6, slightly imbricate in bud. Petals 4-6, subsimilar, imbricate 
in bud. Stamens many with a row of glands outside them ; anthers 
ovoid, opening by slits, connective produced into a terminal appendage. 
Ovary 1-celled ; style erect, stigma entire or lobed ; ovules few, on 3 or 4 
parietal placentas. Berry 2-4-seeded. Seeds with long funicles, testa 
hard ; cotyledons foliaceous. — Distrib. Species about 15 ; Australian, 
Asiatic, and African. 

S. EHiNAKTHERA, Clos. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV, Vol. 8, p. 252. A 
tree; young branches puberulous. Leaves sub-coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate 
to lanceolate, shortly acuminate, obscurely and minutely glandular-tooth- 
ed, the base usually rounded, glabrous, shining ; nerves about 7 pairs, 
faint; length 35 to 5 in. ; breadth 1-75 in. to 2"5 ; petiole biglandular at 
the apex, '35 long. Racemes axillary and terminal, pubescent, bracteolate, 
3-4 in., long. Flowers on tomentose bracteolate pedicels. Sepals 4, ovate- 
lanceolate, tomentose externally. Petals 4, larger than the sepals, rotund, 



1890.] 6. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 115 

tomentose on edges and along midrib. Stamens indefinite, connective 
glabrous. Ovary cylindric. Stigma hemispheric. Fruit pisiform, 2-6 
seeded. Hook fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 190; Miquel PI. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, 107, 
Phoheros rhinanthera, Benn. PL Jav. Rar. 187, t. 39. P. macrophylla, 
W. & A. Prodr. 30. Flacourtia inermis, Wall. Cat. 6673 G, H, only. 
Malacca, Griffith ; Penang, Curtis. Distrib. Java, Borneo. 

2. S. Roxburghii, Clos. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV, Vol. 8, 250. 
A glabrous shrub or small tree with spiny stem. Leaves sub-coriaceous, 
shining above, ovate, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, shortly acu- 
minate, sub-entire or faintly and remotely crenate ; the base rounded 
or slightly narrowed, 3 to 5-nerved ; lateral nerves about 3 pairs, bold • 
length 4*5 to 6'5 in., breadth P75 to 3'5 in. ; petiole biglandular at the 
apex, "35 in. long. Bacemes pubescent, axillary, about 1 in. long, 2-6- 
flowered, bracteolate. Flowers on tomentose pedicels. Sepals and petals 
5 or 6 each, densely tomentose externally, broadly ovate. Stamens in- 
definite, the connective ciliate. Ovary ovate : style cylindic : stigma 
3-lobed. Fruit baccate, the size of an olive. Seeds few. Hook. fil. PI. 
Br. Ind. I, 190 : Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, 107. Phoheros Roxburghii, 
Benn. PI. Jav, Rar. 192. Ludia spinosa, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 507. Fla- 
courtia stigmarota, "Wall. Cat. 6678, in part. 

Penang, Curtis ; Perak, King's Collector. Distrib. Burrnah, Su- 
matra. 

3. S. CRENATA, Clos. in Ann. Sc. Nat., Ser. IV, Vol. 8, 250. A 
tree, glabrous except the inflorescence. Leaves coriaceous, shining above, 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, obtusely or sharply acuminate, obscurely 
glandular-crenate ; the base narrowed, rarely rounded, obscurely 3-5 
•nerved ; lateral nerves about 5 pairs, faint ; length 2 to 5 in., breadth 
1 to 1'75 in., petiole "25 to '35 in. Bacemes axillary or terminal, pube- 
scent or tomentose, bracteolate, 1 to 3 in. long. Flotvers pedicelled. 
Sepals and petals 4, rarely 5 or 6, the former tomentose and smaller 
than the petals. Connective of anthers glabrous. Ovary globular, smooth. 
Style cylindric. Stigma discoid. Fruit globose, about '75 in. in diam. 
Hook fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 191. Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. I pt. 2, p. 167. S. 
pseudo-crenata, acuminata, chinensis, loAiceolata, and crasssipes, Clos. 1. 
c. S. sceva, Hance in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 4, xviii, 182. Phoheros crenatus, 
W. & A. Prodr. 29 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 11. P. lanceolatus and P. 
Wightianus, W. and A. Prodr. 30. P. acuminatus, FLookerianus, and 
Amottianus, Thwaites Enum. 17 and 400. 

Penang, Curtis ; Perak, King's Collector. Distrib. Brit. India and 
Ceylon, China, Philippines. 

In the young state this is thorny. It is a very variable species 
indeed, and too near S. rhinanthera. 
16 



116 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

3. Erythrospermum, Lamarck. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, quite entire. Flowers racemed, 
fascicled or panicled, 2-sexual. Sepals 4-6, imbricate in bud. Petals 
4-6, usually small. Stamens 4-6 ; anthers lanceolate-sagittate, connec- 
tive dilated. Ovary 1-celled ; style short, stigma entire or 3-4-fid ; 
ovules many, on 3-4 parietal placentas. Capsule coriaceous, 3-4-valved ; 
valves bearing the seeds on the middle. Seeds few, testa coriaceous or 
fleshy ; embryo incurved. Distrib. Species about 8, of which 6 are 
Mascarene, one is from Ceylon, and the following Malayan. 

E. Scortechinii, King n. sp. A small glabrous tree, the branchlets 
lenticellate. Leaves thickly membranous, broadly ob-laoceolate, abrupt- 
ly shortly and bluntly acuminate, faintly crenate-serrate, the base slight- 
ly narrowed ; nerves 5 to 6 pairs, thin, anastomosing - 25 in. from the 
margin ; length 4 to 6 in., breadth 2 to 2'5 in. ; petiole "5 in. ; Stipules 
caducous. Racemes two to four in a lax terminal panicle, 3 to 4 in. 
long in flower, and twice as long in fruit. Ovary glabrous, 12 — 20 ovuled ; 
style glabrous ; stigma 3-lobed. Capsules on thin pedicels *5 in. long, 
globular, smooth, "35 in., in diam., crowned by the conical style with 
3-cleft stigma, 3-valved, 1-seeded. Seed sub-globular with red pulp. 

Perak. Scortechini. 

This species was collected only once by Father Scortechini ; and 
he found no flowers. He describes it as a tree 30 to 40 feet hio-h. 
No species of the genus has hitherto been described from any 
Malayan province, Ceylon being the nearest country in which one is in- 
digenous. 

4. Flacourtia, Commers. 

Trees or shrubs, often spinous. Leaves toothed or crenate. Flow- 
ers small, dioecious, rarely 2-sexual. Sepals 4-5, small, imbricate. Petals 
0. Stamens many ; anthers versatile. Ovary on a glandular disk ; 
styles 2 or more, stigmas notched or 2-lobed ; ovules usually in pairs 
on each placenta. Fruit indehiscent ; endocarp hard, with as many cells 
as seeds. Seeds obovoid, testa coriaceous ; cotyledons orbicular. Dis- 
trib. About 12 species, natives of the Old World, some being cultivated 
in various tropical countries. 

Flacourtia Rdkam, Zoll. et. Moritzi Verz. 33. A tree; the young 
branches puberulous and lenticellate. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
membranous, shortly acuminate, slightly and remotely crenate-serrate, tho 
base narrowed, glabrous except the puberulous petiole and midrib ; nerves 
7 to 8 pairs ; length 4 to 5'5 in., breadth 2 to 2 - 5 in., petiole -3 in. Ra- 
cemes three times as long as the peiioles, axillary, pubescent, bracteolate, 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Mayalan Peninsula. 117 

4 to 8-flowered. Flowers dioeceous, pedicelled. Sepals 4, reniform, 
tomentose internally. Male flower with a circle of glands outside the 
numerous stamens ; pistil none. Female flower with a sub-entire flattish 
fleshy disc at the base of the globular glabrous ovary : styles 6 to 8, 
distinct to their bases, stout, spreading : stigmas discoid with a mesial 
groove. Fruit sub-globular, - 5 to "75 in. long, its pericarp succulent, 
when dry 6-8 ridged : Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 192, Clos in Ann. Sc. Nat. 
Ser. iv. Vol. 8, p. 216., Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 104. F. cataphracta, 
Bl. (not of Roxb.) Bijdr. 55, (probably). 

Perak. Common at low elevations. Malacca, Griffith. Distrib. 
Burmah, Sumatra and the Malayan Archipelago generally; Philippines. 

This species is badly represented in collections and is not well under- 
stood, all published descriptions of it being very brief. Clos diagnoses 
it by its having 5 sepals ; but I do not find that this character holds at 
all. It approaches F. inermis, Roxb. very closely in foliage and fruit. 
According to Roxburgh, who originally described F. inermis from plants 
from the Moluccas cultivated at Calcutta, its flowers are hermaphrodite ; 
and in that respect they differ from those of the other species of the genus. 
The only authentic specimens of F. inermis which I have seen were 
cultivated in the Bot. Garden, Calcutta, and these are undoubtedly her- 
maphrodite. The styles are moreover very short and united, and the 5 
stigmas form a radiating star on the apex of the ovary, each stigma being 
cuneate-emarginate. The stigmas of F. Ruham are quite different ; in- 
asmuch as they are discoid and the styles are distinct to the very base. 
Porbes's Sumatra specimens No. 1206 a appear to belong to inermis, 
and they are the only uncultivated ones which I have seen. The fruit of 
Unlearn as well as of inermis is eatable, although sour. I have not seen 
an authentic specimen of Blume'sF. cataphracta; but I can readily believe 
that it is F. Ruham, which is a common Malayan plant. The plants issued 
as Wall. Cat. 6673 belong (as regards many, of the sheets) in my 
opinion to this, and not to F. inermis, Roxb. 

2. Flacourtia Cataphracta, Roxb. in Willd. Sp. PL iv. 830 ; Cor. 
PI. iii. t. 222 ; PI. Ind. hi. 834. A small tree, often thorny when young. 
Branchlets glabrous, lenticellate. Leaves membranous, oblong or ob- 
long-lanceolate, bluntly acuminate (the older sometimes blunt) obscurely 
crenate-serrate, narrowed to the base ; both surfaces glabrous, shining ; 
the 3-4 pairs of nerves thin, sub-erect ; the reticulations minute ; length 
3 to 4 in., breadth l - 25 in., petiole 3 in. Flowers in axillary racemes 
shorter than the leaves, small, (45 in. diam.) ; ovary flask-shaped ; 
stigmas 4-6, capitate. Fruit the size of an olive, purple. Hook. fil. PL 
Br. Ind. I, 193, Clos. . in Ami. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV, Vol. 8, p. 216 (not of 
Roth, Blume, or Dalzell). F. Jangomas, Gmel. Syst., Miq. PL Ind. 



118 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [ISTo, 2, 

Bafc. Vol. I, pt. ii, 105. Stigmarosa Jangomas, Lour. Roumea Jangomas, 
Spreng. Spina spinarum, Rumph. Arab. Cap. 43, p. 38, xix, t. 1, 2. 

In all the provinces. Disfcrib. British India, China. Often cul- 
tivated. 

5. Hydnocarptjs, Gsertner. 

Trees. Leaves alternate, serrate or entire ; transverse venules nu- 
merous ; stipules deciduous. Flmvers solitary, or in irregular axillary 
few-flowered racemes or fascicles, monoecious or dioecious. Sepals 5, 
equal or unequal, imbricate in bud. Petals 5, with a scale opposite 
each. Fl. d" ; Stamens 5 — 8 ; anthers reniform, connective broad. Ovary 
or rudimentary. Fl. $ ;' Stamens as in the <? but without pollen, or 
reduced to staminodes. Ovary 1 — celled ; stigmas 3 — 6, sessile or subses- 
sile, spreading, dilated, lobed ; ovules many, on 3 — 6 parietal placentas. 
Berry globose, many-seeded, l'ind hard. Seeds many, imbedded in pulp ; 
testa crnstaceous, striate ; albumen oily ; cotyledons very broad, flat. 
Distrib. Species about 12, tropical Asiatic. 

1. Htdnocarpus castanea, Hf. and Th. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 197. A glab- 
rous tree 50 to 60 feet high. Branches and young shoi'ts brown. Leaves 
coriaceous, narrowly elliptic to oblong, gradually narrowed to the shortly 
acuminate apex ; the base ixnequal, rounded at one side, contracted at the 
other ; both surfaces shining and pale brown when dry ; nerves 4 — 9 
pairs, sub-erect, thin but prominent as are the reticulations ; length 7 
to 14 in., breadth 2 - 5 to 4 - 5 in. ; petiole thickened at both ends and bent 
at the apex, '75 to 1 in. long. Flowers in axillary clusters of 2-6, male 
and female alike and about equal in number, both on tawny-pubescent 
pedicels 1"25 in long. Sepals obovate, imbricate, shorter than the petals, 
the exposed parts tomentose. Petals '6 in. long, linear-oblong, the scales 
linear-obtuse, short. Stamens with thick subulate filaments ; anthers 
ovate-cordate ; rudimentary ovary small, hispid. Female flowers like 
the male, the stamens barren. Ovary ovoid, acuminate, tomentose : 
stigmas sessile ; ovules numerous. Fruit on a pedicel 1*25 to 1'54 in. 
long, globular, 1 in. to 15 in. diam., minutely rugose, densely covered 
with short fulvous tomentum ; stigma persistent, hemispheric. Seeds 
large, angular. Kurz F. Flora B. Burmah, I, 77. 

Malacca ; Perak ; common. Distrib. Burmah. 

2. Hydnocarpus nana., King n. sp. A shrub or small tree ; the 
branches and young shoots glabrous or (var. pubescens) pubescent. Leaves 
subcoriaceous, from ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, inequilateral, 
subfalcate, shortly acuminate, remotely and minutely mucronate-serrulate, 
narrowed and unequal at the base, shining and glabrous except the 
midrib and nerves which, on both surfaces, are usually more or less 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, 119 

pubescent ; nerves 5 to 8 pairs, spreading or sub-erect, thin but pro- 
minent beneath; length 2'5 to 5 in., breadth "75 to 2'5 in., petiole '25 to 
'35 in. ; stipules persistent, linear-lanceolate, pubescent, about as long as 
the petioles. Male inflorescence small, supra- axillary, 1 to 4-branched, 
uniparous, tomentose, bracteolate, cymes not much longer than the 
petioles : flowers '25 in. in diam. Sepals 5, rotund, the 3 external slight- 
ly imbricate, pubescent ; the 2 inner much imbricate, glabrescent. Petals 
5, smaller than the sepals, fleshy, with long white silky hairs externally, 
and each internally with a small oblong scale. Filaments short, thick, 
sericeous, the connective reniform ; the anther cells small, remote from 
each other. Ovary 0. Female -flowers solitaiyysupra-axillary, on glabrous 
pedicels '5 in. long. Sepals and petals as in the male : stamens without 
pollen : ovaiw ovoid, tomentose ; stigmas 3, large, flat, bifid, reflexed. 
?Fruit on a pedicel '5 in. long, solitary, axillaiy, depressed-globular, 
minutely rugose, and velvetty tawny-tomentose ; about 1 in. in diam., 
or less ; pericarp dry, thin. Seeds 3 or 4, plano-convex, 5 in. long. 

Penang, Curtis, 854 : Perak ; King's Collector, Scortechini, "Wray. 

This varies considerably as to size of leaf and fruit and in the amount 
of pubescence. In some specimens of the male plant the leaves towards 
the apices of the branches are much reduced in size. The form which has 
larger more pubescent leaves may be separated as a variety, and 
farther acquaintance with it may prove that it is sepai'able as a species. 

Var. pubescens. Young parts, branchlets, and lower surfaces of 
adult leaves pubescent. 

Perak, at Goping, King's Collector, ~No. 761. 

3. Htdnocaepus Curtisii, King, n. sp. A glabrous shrub or small 
tree. Young branches slender, pale brown when dry. Leaves coriaceous, 
shining on both surfaces, oblong-lanceolate, rarely ovate, slightly inequi- 
lateral, gradually narrowed to the acuminate apex ; the base unequally 
narrowed, rarely rounded ; nerves 7 to 11 pairs, thin, spreading ; reticula- 
tions obscure on the upper surface ; length 6 to 12 in., breadth 2"25 to 3 in. ; 
petiole less than '5 in., thick. Male flowers in small, axillary, branch- 
ed, bracteolate, uniparous cymes not much longer than the petioles, 
•75 in., in diam. ; pedicels scurfy-tomentose, - 75 in. long. Sepals re- 
flexed, ovate, blunt, imbricate, pale, minutely pubescent, shorter than 
the petals. Petals 5, narrowly oblong - , blunt, concave at the apex, '65 in. 
long, glabrous ; the gland nearly as long, linear. Anthers much 
longer than the filaments, cordate at the base. Ovary 0. Female flowers 
on shorter, grooved, pedicels ; ovary elongate-ovoid, tawny-tomentose : 
the stigmas 3, fleshy, bifid, spreading. Fruit on a stout pedicel 
nearly "5 in. long, globose with long apical papilla, minutely rugose aud 
velvetty, vertically ridged ; the stigmas persistent ; nearly 1/5 in. long and 
1 iu. in diam. Seeds few, plano-convex, 4 in. long. 



120 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2. 

Penang, Curtis, 800, 1534. Perak ; King's Collector, Scortechini. 
Wo specimen that I have seen has female flowers showing anything 
besides the ovary. Complete female flowers are much wanted. 

4. Hydnocarpus Scortechinii, King n. sp. A tree, all parts except 
the sepals glabrous. Branchlets pale brown when dry, angular. Leaves 
sub-sessile, coriaceous, shining on both surfaces, slightly inequilateral, 
elliptic or elliptic-oblong, tapering to the acuminate apex, the edges slight- 
ly recurved when dry ; the base rounded, slightly unequal ; nerves 7-8 
pairs, thin, spreading ; the reticulations minute and distinct on both 
surfaces : length 5 to 7 in., breadth 2'5 to 3"5 in., petiole about "2 in. 
Cymes small, monoecious, axillary or extra- axillary, on the young branches, 
about three times as long as the petioles, densely bracteolate, 2-3 branch- 
ed. Male flowevs on pedicels "75 in. long. Sepals elliptic, blunt, their 
ajjices incurved, puberulous. Petals smaller than the sepals but of the 
same shape ; the gland nearly as long, linear. Anthers narrow, elongate ; 
filaments short, conical. Ovary none. Female flowers like the males, 
but on short pedicels and the stamens barren ; ovary ovoid below, its 
upper half cylindric, ridged, pale-coloured, glabrous ; stigmas large 
fleshy, reflexed, shortly bifid. Fruit (young) ovoid, minutely rugose, 
glabrous. 

Dinding Islands ; Scortechini, Curtis. 

This species bears a general resemblance to H. Curtisii. But it differs 
from that species in having broader leaves on shorter petioles, much 
broader and shorter petals, and a glabrous ovary. Ripe fruit of this is 
unknown. 

5. Htdnocarpus cucurbitina, King, n. sp. A tree 60 to 80 feet high ; 
very young branches and leaves with minute ferruginous mealy tomen- 
tum ; otherwise glabrous. Leaves thinly coriaceous, slightly inequilateral 
and contacted at the base on one side, elliptic-oblong, tapering to either 
end, the apex with a short rather blunt acumen, the edge very slightly 
recurved when dry ; both surfaces, but especially the lower, shining and 
with the transverse veins and minute reticulations very distinct ; main 
nerves 5 to 6 pairs, sub-erect, thin ; length 3'5 to 5 in., breadth l - 5 to 
2*25 in., petiole "25 in. Cymes diceceous, (the female flowers few) 
axillary, three times as long as the petioles, bracteolate, 3 to 6-branched. 
Male flowers on pedicels "35 in. long, about "3 in. in diam. Sepals broad- 
ly ovate, blunt, pubescent-tomentose externally. Petals ovate-rotund, 
glabrous, thin, each with a fleshy scale with white ciliate edges and 
nearly as large as itself. Anthers ovate-cordate, glabrous ; the filaments 
short, conical ; Ovary rudimentary, sericeous. Female flowers like the 
males, but on slightly shorter pedicels and with smaller barren stamens- 
Ovary cyclindric, densely sericeous-tomeutose : stigmas elongate, fleshy, 



1890.] G. King — Materials j 'or a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 121 

bifid at the apex, not reflexed when young. Fruit narrowly obovoid, 
cylindric, mamillate at the apex and contracted at the base ; minutely 
rugose, smooth, dark brown when ripe and from 3 to 5 in. long ; carpo- 
phore and pedicel about - 5 in. each, or more. Seeds one or two, obovoid, 
smooth, about 1 in. long. 

Perak, up to elevations of 1,000 feet. Common. 

Distinguished from every hitherto described species of this genus 
by its elongate cucumber-shaped fruit. The scales of the petals are 
also much larger and broader than is usual in Hydnocarpus. 

6. Hydnocarpus Wrati, King, n. sp. A small sub-glabrous tree. 
Young branches with pale brown, minutely lenticellate, puberulous bark. 
Leaves sub-coriaceous, elliptic, shortly and abruptly acuminate, the 
edge slightly recurved when dry ; the base rounded, sometimes narrow- 
ed and unequal ; the reticulations on both surfaces very prominent ; upper 
surface glabrous, shining, minutely pustulate when dry ; the lower of a 
pale brown when dry, glabrous except the pubescent midrib and 8-9 pairs 
of bold sub-erect nerves ; length 8 to 10 in., breadth 3'5 to 5 in. ; petiole 
less than 5 in., stout. Male flowers nearly 5 in. in diam., in very minute, 
axillary, pedicelled, few-flowered cymes. Sepals 5, slightly imbricate, 
rotund, pubescent, larger than the petals. Petals 5, of the same shape 
as the sepals but smaller, each with a fleshy roughly cuneate scale the 
apex of which is irregularly toothed and ciliate. Stamens 15, the fila- 
ments glabrous, much thickened at the base ; anthers broadly ovate, 
cordate. Female flowers unknown. Fruit narrowly ovoid, tapering at 
both ends, often 3 in. long, and P75 in. in diam., minutely fulvou?- 
velvetty; the apical mamilla - 75 in. long with its apex depressed and 
crowned by the 3 fleshy bifid stigmas; one-celled, several-seeded. Pedi- 
cel short, stout. Seeds embedded in a little pulp, elongate, plano-convex, 
•75 in long. 

Perak. King's Collector, No. 3800 ; Wray, No. 2608. 

This species has more stamens than are usual in the genus Hydno- 
carpus. In this respect it appears to form a connecting link with 
Taraktogenos : but in shape the anthers do not agree with those of that 
genus. 

6. Taraktogenos, Hassk. 
Trees with entire alternate leaves and minute fugaceous stipules. 
Flowers in more or less dense, short, axillary, few-flowered cymes ; a 
few hermaphrodite, but the majority staminiferous only. Staminiferous 
flower ; sepals 4, in decussate pairs, much imbricate, rotund, concave : 
petals 8, in two rows, smaller than the sepals, imbricate, each with a 
gland at its base ; glands less than half as large as the petals, fleshy, 



122 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

cuneate, plano-convex, ridged, the apex often irregularly toothed and 
with 2 or 3 cylindric pits. Stamens 20 to 32, the anthers deeply cordate. 
Female flowers like the males, but the sepals often only 3, the petals 
6, and the stamens 16 or 17 ; ovary elongate-ovoid, sulcate, divided 
above into 4 oblong, divergent, reflexed lobes, each bearing a stigmatic 
surface internally; 1-celled with 4 multi-ovulate parietal placentas. 
Fruit large, globular or ovoid, with hard fibrous or woody rind, and 
several large seeds embedded in a scanty pulp. Seeds with thick hard 
testa, copious albumen, and straight central embryo ; the cotyledons 
large, cordate, foliaceous, 3-nerved. Species probably about 8 : all 
Malayan. 

Note. — This genus was founded by Hasskarl (Retzia, i. 127) on the 
plant named Hydnocarpus heterojjliylJus by Blume (Rumphia, iv, 22, t. 
178 B., fig. 1, and Mus. Bot. i, 16). Until now that plant has been 
the only known species. But the following have been discovered by 
Messrs. Kunstler and Wray in Perak. And from the similarity in 
externals to Sydnocarpus, and from the imperfect nature of the Herba- 
rium materials of the latter, it appears to me extremely probable that 
several things now referred to Hydnocarpus really belong to Tarakto- 
genos. In the Calcutta Herbarium, there ai'e imperfect materials of 
of, at least, 8 undescribed species which belong either to one or other of 
these two genera. 

1. Taraktogenos Scortechinii, King, n. sp. A large glabrous 
tree ; young branches with dark-coloured bark. Leaves coriaceous, shining, 
inequilateral, oblong-lanceolate, oblong or elliptic, with a short abrupt ra- 
ther blunt acumen and slightly waved edges ; the base slightly narrowed 
and unequal, 3-nerved, ; the upper surface smooth, the lower rough from 
the prominent reticulations and 4 to 5 pairs of ascending nerves ; length 
3'5 to 7 in., breadth 1*5 to 2'75 in. ; petiole '5 to '75 in. Cymes tricho- 
tomous, 1 in. in diam., on pedicels as long as the petioles, solitary, axillary, 
few-branched, uniparous. Male floiuers "5 to - 6 in. in diam. ; pedicels "25 
to '35 in. Petals densely sericeous externally ; the basal scales less than 
half their length. Stamens 20 to 24, filaments hirsute, anthers sagittate. 
Female floiuers and fruit unknown. 

Perak; Scortechini, No. 833; Wray, 1169. 

Var. gracilipes, King; petioles longer ('75 to 1 in.) and more slen- 
der; leaves smaller, 2'5 to 4 in. long, by P25 to 1*5 in. broad. 
Perak ; Bujong-Malacca ; Scortechini, No. 1894. 
2. Taraktogenos Kunstlert, King, n. sp. A sub-glabrous tree 40 to 
60 feet high. Toting branches fulvous-pubernlous. Leaves coriaceous, un- 
equal-sided, oblong-lanceolate to ellijjtic, shortly acuminate ; the base nar- 
rowed and unequal, 3-nerved ; both surfaces shining, the lower rough from 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 123 

the prominent nerves and reticulations ; lateral nerves 3 to 5 pairs on the 
narrower and 4 to 7 pairs on the wider side, sub-erect, piominent ; length 
4'5 to 6 in., breadth 1:5 to 3 in. ; petiole "3 to - 5 in., puberulous. Cymes 
dense, many flowered. Male flowers as in the last, the scales half as 
long as the petals, their apices erose, glabrous. Stamens 32 ; the filaments 
short, subulate, sericeous ; anthers elongate, deeply cordate. Female 
flowers like the males, but sepals 3, petals 6, and stamens 17 only. Ovary 
ovoid, glabrous, deeply sulcate, -with 4 radiating reflexed oblong stigmas, 
1-celled, with 4 multi-ovulate parietal placentas. Fruit solitary, glo- 
bular, smooth, 2'5 in. in diam. ; the pericarp thick, the outer layer fibrous, 
the inner woody. Seeds embedded in scauty pulp, plano-convex, '75 in. 
or more in length. 

Perak ; in dense forest at low elevations ; King's Collector, ISTos. 
6042 and 8183 ; Wray, 3389. 

3. Taeaktogenos tomentosa, King, n. sp. A tree 60 to 80 feet high. 
Young branches fulvous-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, often inequilate- 
ral, ovate-oblong, abruptly and very shortly acuminate, the base rounded 
and slightly unequal ; the reticulations prominent on both surfaces, 
upper surface smooth, shining; the lower fulvous-tomentose; lateral 
nerves 6 to 7 pairs, bold, sub-erect ; length 5 to 7 in., breadth 2 - 5 to 3 
in. ; petiole *25 to - 5 in , tomentose. Cymes woody, dense, short. 
Fruit ovoid, smooth ; when ripe 3 in. long ; the pericarp nearly - 5 in. thick, 
the outer layer fibrous, the inner thin and woody. 

Perak ; at an elevation of 500 feet ; King's Collector, No. 7795. 

Mowers of this are unknown. It is readily distinguished from the 
former two species by its tomentose leaves, but in other respects it 
much resembles them. 

I subjoin a description of the Burmese species referred to Hydno- 
carpus heterophyllus by Kurz. 

Taratogenos Kurzii, King. A tree 40 to 50 feet high. Youngest 
branches, leaves and inflorescence tawney-pubescent; otherwise glabrous; 
older branches grey, minutely lenticellate. Leaves sub-coriaceous, lance- 
olate or oblong-lanceolate, rarely elliptic, abruptly and very shortly and 
bluntly apiculate ; the base narrowed and equal-sided ; both surfaces 
shining, the reticulations minute and distinct ; main nerves 6 to 7 pairs, 
sub-erect ; length 7 to 10 in., breadth 2 to 35 in., petiole - 75 to 1 in., thick- 
ened at the apex. Cymes axillary or extra-axillary, from the smaller 
branches, on thick peduncles, nearly as long as the petioles, with many 
very short branches at their apices, many-flowered. Male flowers - 3 in. 
in diam., on pedicels less than - 5 in. long. Sepals 4, imbricate, ovate- 
rotund, blunt, concave, pubescent externally. Petals 8, broadly ovate, 
blunt, with ciliate edges, each with a flat fleshy pubescent gland with 
17 



124 G. King- — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

white ciliate apex. Stamens 24 ; anthers elongate, deeply cordate ; the 
filaments short and with long white hairs. Female flowers unknown. 
Fruit globular, as large as an orange, on a thick peduncle *25 in. 
long ; the rind minutely granular, tawny-velvetty, the outer layer 
thick and fibrous, the inner thin. Seeds numerous, irregularly oval, 
embedded in pulp. Hydnocarpus heterophyllus, Kurz (not of Blume) 
F. Flora B. Burmah i. 77. Wall. Cat. (indeterminatae) No. 7508. 

Burmah ; Griffith, (Kew, Dist. 4363), Falconer, Brandis, Kurz, 
Gallatly. Chittagong ; Lister, Schlich. Sylhet, Wall. Oat., 7508. 

This is the plant referred to in Hooker's Fl. B. Ind. i. 197 as "too 
immature for description. '' Since that remark was written, better 
material was got from Burmah, on which Kurz described the species in 
his Forest Flora as Hydnocarpus heterophylla, Bl., with Blume's descrip- 
tion of which it, however, manifestly disagrees. Kurz had modified the 
description of the genus Hydnocarpus to admit this plant. Female 
flowers of it I have never seen : but the males agree with those o£ 
Taraktogenos. 

7. Pangium, Reinw. 

A tree with entire, rarely 3-lobed, ovate-cordate, acuminate leaves. 
Flowers diceceous, axillary, solitary, large. Calyx globose, sepals 2-3, 
concave. Petals 5-6, each with a large sericeous scale at its base. 
Male FL, stamens 20 to 25 ; anthers ovate, innate ; ovary 0. Female 
FL, staminodes 5 or 6; ovary ovoid, 1-celled, with 2 parietal multi- 
ovulate placentas ; stigma sessile, obscurely 2-4 lobed. Fruit large, 
ovoid, indehiscent, many-seeded, pulpy. Seeds large, ovoid, angled, 
rugose, with a large elongate hilum, copious oily albumen, and broad 
foliaceous cotyledons. 

P. edule, Reinw. in Syll. PI. Soc. Ratisb., ii. p. 13. Leaves 6 to 8 
in. long, by 3'75 to 5'5 in. broad. Pipe fruit with crustaceous pericarp, 
brown with white dots, 9 in. long by 6 in. in diam. ; seeds nearly 2 in. 
long. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, p. 109. Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. 205, t, 
43. Blume Rumphia iv, 20, t. 178 ; Mus. Bot. i, p. 14. 

Perak ; King's Collector. Distrib. Malayan Archipelago. 

8. Rtparosa (Rtparia), Blume. 

Trees or shrubs with entire, alternate, elongate, petiolate leaves 
finely reticulate and more or less glaucescent beneath. Flowers rather 
small, dioecious ; the males in long axillary racemes ; the females in 
shorter racemes, solitary, or in pairs. Calyx globose in bud, 3 to 5-cleft. 
Petals 5, imbricate, coriaceous ; in the female flower each with a large 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 125 

sericeous scale at its base. Male flower ; filaments united in a column, 
with 5, ovate, 2-celled, extrorse anthers at its apex. Female flower; 
staminodes 5, alternate with the petals. Ovary 1-celled, with 1 to 3, 
biovulate, parietal placentas. Stigmas 2 to 3, sessile, broad, emarginate. 
Fruit baccate with little pulp ; the pericarp coriaceous, tomentose. 
Seeds 1 or 2, sub-globular, smooth. 

Note. — This genus was first published by Blume in his Bijdragen 
(p. 600) as Byparosa, and in that work he published only the single 
species B. ccesia. In a footnote to the preface of his Flora Javae (p. 
viii), the same author referred to the genus (apparently by inadver- 
tence) as Byparia instead of Byparosa ; and the name Byparia has 
been adopted by most subsequent authors. Blume regarded the genus 
as E uphorbiaceous, in which view he was followed by Bndlicher (Gen. 
5836), Hasskarl (PL Jav. Ear., p. 267), and Baillon (Etud. Euph., p. 
339). Mull. Arg. (in DC. Prod. XV, ii., p. 1260) excluded the genus 
from Euphorbiaceae ; and, in their Genera Plantarum, the late Mr. 
Bentham and Sir J. D. Hooker, (G. P. iii., 257), also exclude it; but, 
having seen no specimens either of it or of Bergsmia, they make no 
suggestion as to the true position of Byparosa or of the relation of 
Bergsmia to it. Kurz (Journ. Bot. for 1873, p. 233, and For. Fl. 
Burm. I. 76) was the first to refer Byparosa to Bixineae. But Kurz 
made the mistake of describing in the latter work, as " Ryparia caesia," 
a plant which agrees neither with Blume's description nor with his 
specimens of Byparosa caesia. The name of Kurz's plant I have there- 
fore altered to B. Kurzii. In 1848, Blume published, in Rumphia IV, 
p. 23, t. 178 C, fig. 2, a new genus called Bergsmia which, as Kurz also 
pointed out (Journ. of Bot. for 1873, p. 233), is nothing more or less 
than his older Byparosa. Only one species (B. javanica) was known to 
Blume. To this Miquel added (Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 389) two species, 
namely, B. Sumatrana and B. ? acuminata. I have seen neither of 
these ; but the cymose inflorescence of B. Sumatrana leads me to believe 
that it must be a Hydnocarpus, while the second (B. ? acuminata) was 
referred doubtfully to Bergsmia by its author himself. The collections 
brought, within the past year or two, from Perak by the collectors of 
the Calcutta garden contain copious suites of specimens of Byparosa 
and, from an examination of these, I have no doubt that Byparosa be- 
longs to Bixineae, aud that Bergsmia must be reduced to it. Besides 
the seven species described below, there are in the Calcutta Herbarium 
imperfect materials belonging to several additional species from Perak, 
and to some from Sumatra. Wall. Cat. No. 7847 B. (from Penang), and 
Beccari's No. 702 (from Sumatra), are also clearly species of Byparosa. 

1. Ryparosa Kurzii, King. A tree or shrub. Young shoots ad- 



126 G, King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

pressed ferruginous-pubescent. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-oblong, shortly 
and bluntly acuminate, the base slightly narrowed ; upper surface 
shining, glabrous except the puberulous midrib ; lower glaucous, the 
reticulations distinct ; nerves 7-8 pairs, spreadiug, prominent beneath ; 
length 8 to 12 in., breadth 4 to 5'5 in. ; petiole 15 in., thickened in 
its upper fourth, pubescent. Male racemes 5 to 10 in. long, ferrugin- 
ous-tomentose, the petals reflexed : female racemes shorter and sub- 
glabrous. Fruit globose, the size of a cherry, lenticellate, 2-seeded. 
B. ccesia, Kurz P. PL Burm., i, 78, not of Bl. 

Andamans ; Kurz, King's Collector. Nicobars, Kurz. 

2. Ryparosa Wiuti, King, n. sp, A tree 60 to 80 feet high, glab- 
rous except the inflorescence. Leaves coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate to ob- 
long-lanceolate or elliptic, the apex sub-acute ; slightly narrowed to the 
base ; upper surface shining ; lower dull yellowish green when dry, the 
midrib and 4 pairs of sub-erect nerves prominent below as are the trans- 
verse veins ; length 6 to 10 in., breadth 2'5 to 4 - 5 in. ; petiole 1 to 1-25 
in., slightly winged at the apex. Bacemes solitary or in pairs, axillary or 
from below the leaves, 6 to 9 in. long, longer in fruit. Male flowers 
pedicelled. Calyx with 3 broad ovate teeth, pubescent externally. Petals 
5, oblong-ovate, pubescent externally, each with a triangular sericeous 
scale half as long as itself. Staminal tube pubescent ; anthers 5, ovate, 
reflexed. Female flower ; sepals and petals as in the male; disc annular 
with 5 conical staminodes. Ovary rugulose, jmbescent, globular, 1- 
celled. Stigmas 2, sub-bifid, spreading. Fruit globular, crowned by the 
stigmas, rugose, pubescent, "5 to 75 in., 1-seeded. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Wray ; rather common. 

3. Ryparosa Hullettii, King, n. sp. A small nearly glabrous 
tree. Leaves membranous, obovate-elliptic, with a very short abrupt 
acumen, the base narrowed ; both surfaces shining, the midrib and 3-4 
pairs of spreading nerves prominent on the lower, as are the reticula- 
tions ; length 5 to 7 in., breadth 3 in. ; petiole 1*5 in., thickened in its 
upper fourth. Male racemes a foot or more long, jouberulous. Male 

flowers ; calyx membranous, with 3 broadly ovate teeth. Petals 5, ovate ; 
scale small, sericeous. Staminal tube glabrous ; anthers 5, ovate, reflexed. 
Female flower and fruit unknown. 

Singapore : on Bukit Timah, R. H. Hullett. 

Distinguished from the other species by its thin obovate leaves. 

4. Ryparosa Scortechinii, King, n. sp. A slender tree ; the branch- 
lets and inflorescence rusty, otherwise glabrous. Leaves large, thinly coria- 
ceous, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, shortly and abruptly acuminate, 
gradually narrowed from the middle to the base ; both surfaces glabrous, 
the upper shining, the lower dull, pale ; the midrib and 5 or 6 pairs of 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 127 

nerves very prominent ; length 10 to 15 in., breadth 4 to 6 in. ; petiole 
2 to 2 - 5, thickened and bent at the apex. Racemes in tufts from tubercles 
on the stem and large branches, the male 8 to 12 in. long. Calyx split- 
ting into 3 ovate segments, tomentose. Petals 4, oblong ; the gland 
large, rotund, sericeous. Female racemes shorter ; sepals and petals as 
in the male ; ovary tomentose, 4-angled ; styles 2, discoid. Fruit angled 
when young : when ripe transversely oblong, 1'5 in., by 1 in., velvetty 
rusty-tomentose with green or white dots ; seeds two, plano-convex. 

Perak : Scortechini, Kunstler, Wray ; common. 

The male flowers have been found only by Scortechini from whose 
field notes the above description of them has been taken. 

5. Rtparosa Kunstleri, King-, n. sp. A glabrous tree, the branch- 
lets smooth. Leaves coriaceous, ovate-oblong, obovate-oblong to oblong, 
shortly and abruptly acuminate, the base narrowed ; upper surface shin- 
ing ; lower dull, pale, much reticulate, the midrib and 5-7 pairs of nerves 
very prominent ; length 5 to 8 in., breadth 2'5 to 3'5 in. ; petiole 125 to 1*75 
in., swollen and bent towards the apex. Racemes axillary, solitary, rarely 
2-3 from an axil, the male 6 to 8 in. long, the female half as long ; flowers 
pedicelled. Male fl. Calyx thin, pubescent outside, with 3 ovate broad 
teeth. Petals 5, oblong-lanceolate, pubescent externally, each with a 
large sericeous gland at its base ; staminal tube glabrous, the anthers 
ovate-oblong. Female flower. Sepals and petals as in the male ; annular 
disc at base of ovary small ; staminodes none. Ovary ovoid, angled, 
tomentose, 1-celled, with 4 parietal bi-ovulate placentas ; stigmas ob- 
ovate, radiating. Fruit globular, yellowish, velvetty, about 1*5 in. diam. ; 
seeds 5 or 6, oblong, compressed, striate, about 75 in. long.' 

Perak, at elevations up to 800 feet ; common. A tree 40 to 100 feet 
in height, with shorter and (in proportion) broader leaves than R. fasci- 
culata, 4 stigmas and more globular pedicellate fruit. 

6. Rtparosa fasciculata, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree 30 to 60 feet 
high. Young branches lenticellate. Leaves thinly coriaceous, narrowly 
oblong, acuminate, the base narrowed, shining above, pale beneath ; 
midrib, 5 to 7 pairs of lateral nerves, and the bold sub-erect transverse 
nerves and reticulations very distinct especially beneath ; length 9 to 15 
in., breadth 2 - 25 to 3 25 in. ; petiole 1 to 1*5 in., grooved, thickened in its 
upper fourth. Racemes in fascicles of 4-7 from tubercles on the large 
branches and stem. Petals rotund, much imbricate and inflexed. Fe- 
male flower with annular disc bearing 5 conical staminodes, the petals 
with hairy scales at their bases ; stigmas 3, large, reniform. Fruit sessile, 
rusty-tomentose, pyriform, the apex mammillate and crowned for some 
time by the remains of the stigmas, about 6-seeded, 1'5 to 2 in. long. 

Perak at elevations up to 800 feet ; common. 



128 G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

7. Rtparosa caesia, Bl. Bijdr. 600 ; Byparia, Fl. Javae (praef. VIII). 
A small teee, the brancklets and inflorescence ferrugineous-silky. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong, shortly acuminate, the base slightly narrowed ; 
upper surface shining ; lower pale, rather densely adpressed-sericeous ; 
nerves 5 to 6 pairs, ascending ; length 6 to 9 in. ; breadth 2 to 3 in. ; 
petiole 1'25 in., stout, thickened in its upper fourth. Bacemes solitary, 
supra-axillary, the female longer than the leaves. Male flowers ; sepals and 
petals 4, tomentose, the latter with a small basal hairy scale. Staminal 
tube short, glabrous ; anthers 4, broadly ovate, reflexed. Fruit crowned 
by the 2 shortly-stalked fleshy radiating reniform emarginate stigmas, 
globose, ferruginous- tomentose, '5 to '7 in. diam. Hassk. PL Javan. 
Ear. 267 : Baillon Euphorb. 339. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. 2, p. 361. 
DC. Prod. XV, 2 p. 1260. Kurz in Journ. Bot. 1873, p. 233. 

Java, Blume. Sumatra; Teysmann, Forbes, at an elevation of 3,500 
feet. 

Blume describes the lower sui'faces of the leaves as " tenuiter 
strigosis " ; but the hairs, although adpressed, are not stiff but silky. 
This is the only species in which the hairs on the lower surface of the 
leaves are at all conspicuous. The leaves of the Andaman plant referred 
to B. caesia by Kurz are nearly glabrous beneath. 

Order X. PITTOSPORE^. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate or subverticillate, quite entire 
(very rarely toothed) ; exsfcipulate. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, 
terminal or axillaiy. Sepals 5, imbricate. Petals 5, hypogynous, imbri- 
cate. Torus small. Stamens 5, opposite the sepals ; anthers versatile. 
Ovary 1-celled, with 2-5 parietal placentas, or 2-5-celled by the pro- 
jection of the placentas ; style simple, stigma terminal 2-5-lobed ; 
ovules many, parietal or axile, anatropous. Fruit capsular or indehis- 
ceDt. Seeds usually many, albumen copious ; embryo small, radicle 
next the hilum. — Distrib. Genera 9 ; species about 90, chiefly Aus- 
tralian. 

1. Pittosporum, Banks. 

Erect trees or shrubs. Sepals free or connate below. Petals erect, 
claws connivent or connate. Stamens 5, erect ; anthers 2-celled, in- 
trorse, bursting by slits. Ovary sessile or shortly stalked, incompletely 
2-3-celled ; ovules 2 or more on each placenta. Capsule 1-celled, woody, 
2- rarely 3-valved ; valves placentiferous in the middle. Seeds smooth, 
imbedded in pulp. Distrib. Species about 50, subtropical Asiatic, 
Australian, and Oceanic. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 129 

Pittospobum perbugineum, Ait. DC. Prod. I, 346. A tree 40 to 60 
feet high. Young branches leaves and inflorescence softly ferrugi- 
nous-pubescent. Leaves membranous, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate at base and apex, the edges minutely undulate ; when 
adult glabrous except the midrib and larger nerves ; upper surface shin- 
ing, the lower dull with the minute reticulations distinct ; nerves 7 to 8 
pairs, not prominent, spreadiDg ; length 2 to 3 in., breadth 1 to 1"5 in. ; 
petiole slender, rusty-tomentose, '5 in. long. Flowers, *25 in. long, green- 
ish-white, in short terminal corymbs. Sepals lanceolate, pubescent. 
Petals linear, the apices reflexed, pubescent, 3-nerved. Ovary cylindric, 
rusty-tomentose ; style short, glabrous, excentric ; capsule globose, when 
ripe compressed, rugose, with 6 to 8 black flat seeds. Hook fil. PI. Br. 
Ind. i., 199. Putterl. Monogr. Pittosp. 7. Bentk PI. Austral, i. 112. 
Bot. Mag. 2075. 

At elevations of from 800 to 1500 feet; common. Distrib. Burmah., 
the Malayan Archipelago, Philippines, Queensland. 

There is some variability in leaf in different individuals of this 
species, some having leaves narrowly lanceolate, others ovate-lanceolate. 

Okder XI. POLYGALE^E. 

Annual or perennial herbs, erect or scandent shrubs, or timber 
trees. Leaves alternate (rarely whorled) or occasionally reduced to 
scales or 0, simple, quite entire. Stipules 0. Flowers irregular, 2-sexual, 
3-bracteate. Sepals 5, unequal, 2 inner often petaloid (wing sepals), 
deciduous or persistent, imbricate in bud. Petals 5 or 3, distinct, un- 
equal, the inferior usually keel-shaped. Stamens 8 (in Salomonia 4-5, 
in Trigoniastrum5)hypogynous, filaments united into a sheath, more rarely 
distinct ; anthers opening by terminal pores, rarely by slits. Ovary free, 
1-3-celled ; style generally curved, stigma capitate ; ovules 1 or more 
in each cell, anatropous. Fruit generally a 2-celled, 2-seeded, loculici- 
dal capsule ; or indehiscent and 1-seeded, or (in Trigoniastrum) of 3 
indehiscent carpels. Seed usually strophiolate, albnminous, rarely exal- 
buminous. Distrib. The whole world except New Zealand, chiefly in 
warm regions ; genera 16 ; species 450 — 500. 

Herbs or (more rarely) erect shrubs. Capsule loculicidal, 2-celled. 
Stamens 8, united; 2 interior sepals alasform 1. Polygala. 
Stamens 4-5, united ; sepals petaloid, near- 
ly equal ... ... ... 2. Salomonia. 

Climbing shrubs. 

Stamens 8, united ; fruit 1-celled, inde- 
hiscent, samaroid ... ... 3. Securidaca. 



130 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Trees or erect shrubs. 

Stamens 5, united ; fruit of 3 sarnaroid 

carpels ... ... ... 4. Trigoniastrum, 

Stamens 8, distinct ; fruit 1-celled, not 

winged ... ... ... 5. Xanthophyllum. 

1. Poltgala, Linn. 

Herbs or more rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate. Sepals usually 
persistent ; 2 inner larger, usually petaloid. Petals 3, united at the 
base with the staminal sheath, the inferior keel-shaped and generally 
crested. Stamens 8, filaments united for their lower half into a split 
sheath ; anthers opening by pores. Ocary 2-celled, ovules 1 in each 
cell, pendulous. Capsule 2-celled, loculicidal, 2-seeded. Seeds almost 
always strophiolate and albuminous. Distrib. conterminous with the 
order, except Tasmania. About 250 species. 

Sect. I. CnAMiEBUXUS, (Tourn. genus). Shrubs with large hand- 
some flowers. Calyx deciduous, the lower sepal large, concave-cucullate. 
Keel crested. Seeds with a large strophiole, exalbuminous. 

1. Poltgala venenosa, Juss. in Poir. Diet. V. 493. A glabrous shrub 
4 to 10 feet high. Leaves membranous, lanceolate or oblanceolafce to 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, entire, narrowed to the short petiole ; 
primary nerves 7 or 8 pairs, the secondary nerves nearly as prominent, 
the reticulations open, rather prominent ; length 5 to 8 in., 'breadth 
1*5 to 2'5 ; petiole '2 in. Racemes axillary, pendulous, 1 to 3 in. 
long, often much elongated in fruit. Flowers more than '5 in. long. 
Capsule reniform, striate, more or less 4- winged, 4 in. in diam. DO. Prod. 
I, 331. Bl. Bijdr. 59. Miq. PL Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, p. 126. Chamcebuxus 
venenosa, Hassk. PL Jav. Bar., 294. PL Jungh., I, 126. 

Var. robusta. Miq. 1. c. ; Hassk. PL Jungh. 1. c. Leaves large, ellip- 
tic-oblong to oblong. 

In all the Provinces at low elevations. Distrib. Malayan Archi- 
pelago. 

A common shrub with handsome flowers ; the inner sepals white 
with pink veins ; the petals white, spotted with pink and the keel pink. 

Sect. II. Herbs. Flowers small. Calyx deciduous after flowering. 
Keel not crested, Seeds albuminous. 

2. Poltgala triphtlla, Ham. in Don Prodr. 200 ; var. glaucescens 
Hf. PL Br. Ind. I, 199. A glabrous, weak, erect or ascending herb. 
Leaves thinly membranous, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, sub-acute, 
contracted into the petiole; main nerves about 7 pairs, thin; length 1*5 
to 2 in., breadth '75 in., petiole '5 to '75 in. Racemes axillary, 2 to 4 in. 
long, (or more) slender. Floivers 1 in. long. Lateral sepals petaloid, 



1890.] Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 131 

as large as the corolla. Keel hooded. Capsule sub-orbicular, entire, 
narrowly 2-winged. Wall. Cat. 4182 (species). 

Perak. At low elevations. 

Sect. III. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base. Calyx persistent. 
Keel crested. Seeds albuminous. 

3. Poltgala leptalea, DO. Prod. I, 325. A perennial glabrous 
herb, the root-stock woody. Stems erect, rigid, boldly striate, few- 
leaved. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate, '5 to '75 in. long. Racemes 
1 to 3 in. long, elongating with age, slender. Flowers '2 to '25 
in. long. Capsule ovoid, emarginate at the apex, narrowly winged ; 
Hook. fil. PL Br. Ind. I, 202. Benth. PI. Austral, i. 139 ; Hassk. in Miq. 
Ann. Mus. i. 173. P. oligochylia, DO. I. o. 325 ; Wall. Cat. 4188. P. 
discolor, Ham. in Don Prodr. 199. 

Mcobar Islands. Distrib. British India, Ceylon. 

4. Polygala brachystachta, Bl. Bijdr. 69. A slender, prostrate 
or sub-erect herb. Branches puberulous, terete below, angled above, 
4 to 6 in. long. Leaves with very short petioles, linear- lanceolate, bristle- 
pointed, glabrous, *4 in. long, and "05 in. broad. Hacemes much longer 
than the leaves, few-flowered, slender, axillary or extra-axillary ; pedi- 
cels nearly as long as the flowers. Flowers "15 in. long ; lateral sepals 
obovate-oblong. Keel narrow below ; the apex suddenly dilated, 3-lobed. 
Capsule sub- orbicular, the apex emarginate, the edges ciliolate. Hassk. 
in Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 157 ; Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. ii, p. 125. 
P. chinensis, Linn., var. brachystachya. 

Malacca, Griffith. Distrib. Java, Sumatra. 

5. Polygala telephioides, Willd. Sp. PI. iii, 876. A prostrate 
annual with a woody root. Stems 2-4 in. long, pubescent or glabrous. 
Leaves glabrous, often imbricate, fleshy, sessile, obovate or oblong, 
obtuse or acute, the margins recurved, the base slightly narrowed, the 
midrib prominent ; nerves obsolete ; length '5 to "65 in. Flowers '1 in. 
long, in short, extra-axillary racemes. Capsules '1 in. long, sub-orbicular, 
notched at apex, not winged. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 205. DC. Prod. 
I, 332 ; W. & A. Prod. I, 36, ? P. serpylhfolia, Poir. Diet. V, 499 ; DC. 
1. c. 326. P. buxiformis, Hassk. in Miq. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 161. 

Nicobar Islands. Distrib. Peninsular India, Ceylon, Malayan Ar- 
chipelago, Philippines, China. 

2. Salomonia, Lour. 

Leafy diffuse annuals, or (Sect. Epirhizanthes) parasites with leaves 

reduced to scales. Flowers minute, in dense terminal spikes. Sepals 

nearly equal, 2 interior somewhat larger. Petals 3, united at the bas e 

with the staminal tube; the inferior keel-shaped, galeate, not crested. 

18 



132 G, King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Stamens 4-5, filaments united for their lower half into a sheath ; anthers 
opening by pores. Ovary 2-celled, each cell with one pendulous ovule, 
Capsule much compressed laterally, 2-celled, loculicidal, margins tooth- 
ed. Seeds albuminous, not or scarcely strophiolate. Distrib. Species 
about 8, natives of Eastern tropical Asia and tropical Australia. 
Sect. I. Salomonia, DC. Stems leafy. 

1. Salomonia cantoniensis, Loui\ Fl. Ooch. Ch. 14. A diffuse, much- 
branched, glabrous, annual ; stem and branches winged. Leaves shortly 
petiolate, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, length '25 to '4 in. Spikes numerous, 
terminal, dense above but lax below, 1-3 in. long ; bracts minute, 
fugacious. Flowers '05 in. long. Sepals linear. Capsule flat, reniform, 
its edges with bold recurved triangular teeth. Seeds black, estrophio- 
late; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 206. DO. Prod. I, 334; Benth. Fl. 
Hongk. 44 ; Miq. Flor. Ind. Bat. I, pt. ii, 127 ; Hassk. in Miq. Ann. 
Mus. Lugd. Bat. 1, 144. S. subrotunda, Hassk. 1. c. 146. 

In all the provinces except Nicobars and Andamans ; in swampy 
places. Distrib. Brit. India, Malayan Archipelago. 

2. Salomonia oblongifolia, DO. Prod. I, 354. An erect, simple 
or little-branched, glabrous annual, 3-6 in. high : stem and branches 
very slightly winged. Leaves elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, sessile, *15 to 
•4 in. long. Brads linear, often persistent. Spikes terminal, 1-3 in. 
long, naked below. Flowers crowded above, "05 in. long. Sepals nearly 
equal, lanceolate. Capsule reniform, teeth pointed, spreading. Seeds 
black, estrophiolate. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 207; Hassk. in Miq. 
Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 147 ; Arn. Pug. Ind. IV ; Deless. Ic. Sel. Ill, t. 
19. S. sessiliflora, Ham. in Don Prodr. 201. S. obovata, Wight 111. i, t. 
22 B. S. canarana, rigida, ? Homeri, ? uncinata and ? setosa-ciliata, 
Hassk. 1. c. 147, 148, 149 ? S. stricta, Sieb. et Zucc. Abh. d. k. Baier. 
Akad. d. Wiss. IV, 2, 152. 

In all the provinces except Nicobars and Andamans, in swampy 
places. Distrib. Brit. India, Malayan Archipelago. 

Sect. II. Epirhizanthbs, Blume (genus). Parasitic leaves none, 
or reduced to scales. 

3. Salomonia aphtlla, Griff, in Trans. Linn. Soc. xix, 342. A 
brownish-purple, erect, little-branching, parasitic herb, 3-6 in. high. 
Leaves reduced to a few distant, brown scales. Spikes terminal, dense, 
1-3 in. long. Bracts minute, persistent. Flowers pale brown, "04 in. 
long. Sepals ovate. Capsule transversely ovate, with a single apical 
tooth. Seeds black, strophiolate, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 207. S. 
parasitica, Griff. Notul. IV, 538. S. tenella, Hook. fil. in Trans. Linn. 
Sec. xxiii. 158. Epirhizanthes, Bl. Oat. Hort. Buitenz. and in Flor. 
Bot. Zeit. 1825, p. 133 ; Beuter in DO. Prod. XI, p. 44. 



1890.] G. "King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 133 

Perak ; in dense Bamboo Forests. Distrib. Java, Borneo, Tenas- 
serim. 

3. SECURIDACA, Linn. 

Shrubs, almost always scandent. Flowers in terminal or axillary, 
usually compound, racemes. Sepals deciduous, 2 inner (wings) larger 
and petaloid. Petals 3, lateral nearly or quite distinct from the galeate 
crested keel, superior petals 0. Stamens 8, filaments united : anthers 
2-celled, dehiscing by oblique pores, Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Fruit 
a 1-celled samara, 1-seeded ; wing broad, coriaceous. Seeds exalbuminous, 
estrophiolate. Distrib. Species about 25 ; most numerous in tropical 
America, rarer in tropical Africa and Asia. 

Securidaca bracteata, Benn. in Hook. fil. El. Br. Ind. I, 208. A 
powerful climber; branches terete, puberulous. Leaves elliptic, shortly 
and bluntly acuminate, the margins revolute when dry, base rounded 
or slightly narrowed ; upper surface shining, lower densely covered 
with minute pale pubescence ; nerves 5-6 pairs. Flowers in racemes or 
panicles ; bracts ovate, acuminate, pubescent, deciduous. Outer sepals 
nearly equal, small, ovate, very hairy, ciliate ; wings large, rotund, 
pubescent externally. Lateral petals truncate; keel with a recurved, 
plaited crest. Ovary orbicular ; style curved. Stigma large. Samara 
3-3| in., the nucleus smooth, sub-globular, '4 in. in diam. ; the wing 
obliquely oblanceolate, membranous, with prominent transverse curving 
arched nerves ; the upper edge thickened entire, the lower erose. 

Malacca, Maingay ; Perak, Wray. 

Not having seen any specimen with perfect flowers, I have copied 
the description of the sepals and petals from Bennet. 

4. Trigoniastrum, Miquel. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves hoary beneath. Flowers in slender 
terminal panicles. Sepals 5, nearly equal, the two outer larger. Petals 
5, imbricate, unequal, the two lower partially united to form a keel ; the 
odd petal the largest, saccate at the base and with a large hairy gland 
in its concavity. Stamens 5 or 6, the filaments united into a group be- 
tween the ovary and the keel. Ovary densely hairy, 3-locular ; ovules 
pendulous, solitary in each cell. Fruit of 3 samaroid, ultimately almost 
distinct, carpels. Seeds 1 in each carpel, not strophiolate. 

Trigoniastrum hypoleucum, Miq. El. Ind. Bat. Suppl. I, 395. A 
slender tree, 30 to 60 feet high ; young branches hoary-pubescent ; the 
older with dark brown, lenticellatc bark. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, shortly 
and bluntly acuminate, narrowed to the base ; both surfaces shining ; 
the, upper glabrous; the lower. pale, very minutely scurfy-pubescent, 



134 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

the reticulations and 6 pairs of nerves bold and prominent ; length 4 to 
5 in., breadth P25 to 1"75 in. ; petiole "2 to *3 in. Panicles axillary and 
terminal, slender, spreading. Flowers "25 in. in diam. ; shortly pedicellate. 
Sepals 5, pubescent, slightly unequal. Ovary hairy. Samaras 2 in. 
long ; the nucleus 1 in. to 125 long, triangular, flat ; the wing thinly 
membranous, pale yellow, oblong, its apex blunt, oblique, venation 
vertical, the areolae wide. Isopteris penangiana, Wall. Cat. 7261. 

Penang. Malacca. Perak ; common. 

The pubescence on the under surfaces of the leaves is so minute 
that, without a good lens, it is not seen. 

5. Xanthophyllum, Roxb. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves coriaceous or sub-coriaceous, usually yellow- 
isb green. Sepals 5, nearly equal. Petals 5 or 4, tbe inferior keeled, 
not crested. Stamens 8, distinct, 2 attached to the base of petals, the 
others hypogynous. Ovary often surrounded by a hypogynous disc, 
stipitate, 1-celled ; style more or less filiform, ovules various in insertion 
and number. Fruit 1-celled, 1-seeded, indehiscent. Seeds exalbumi- 
nous, estrophiolate. Distrib. Species about 27, mostly Malayan, a few 
Indian and one in Queensland. 

Ovules 4. 

Leaves membranous or sub-coriaceous (coriace- 
ous in No. 2) small : flowers less than *4 in. 
long. 

Fruit not verrucose. 

Ovary glabrous, fruit shining 
Ovary tomentose 

Nerves of leaves 3 to 4, young 

fruit tomentose ... 
Nerves of leaves 4 to 5, fruit tomen- 
tose, branches very slender ... 
Fruit verrucose. 

Fruit verrucose only when ripe, glab- 
rous ; leaf -nerves 9 to 10 pairs 
Fruit verrucose from its youngest state. 
Nerves of leaves 4 to 5, ovary vil- 
lous ; fruit glabrous, vertically 
grooved 
Nerves of leaves 4 to 5 ; ovary vil- 
lous, fruit puberulous not verti- 
cally grooved 



1. Andamanicum. 

2. Griffithii. 

3. Maingayi. 

4. glaucum. 

5. Palembanicum. 

6. eurhynchum, 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 135 



7. Wrayi. 



8. Gtirtisii. 

9. Kimstleri. 

10. Hooherianum. 

11. venosnm. 



Nerves of leaves 10 to 13 ; ovary 

villous, ripe fruit glabrous not 

vertically grooved 

Leaves coriaceous, shining on both surfaces ; 

flowers large, - 4 to - 6 in. long, (small in 

No. 8). 

Leaves 3 to 5 in. long, nerves 5 to 6 pairs 
„ 4 to 9 in. „ „ 8 to 10 „ 
„ 9 to 11 in. „ „ 6 to 8 „ 
,, 9 to 14 in. ,, „ 14 to 16 pairs 
Ovules 6 to 14. 

Shrubs or trees with glabrous leaves. 

Leaves shining on both surfaces, drying 

brown. Flowers large, in short racemes. 

Ovary cottony ... ... 

Ovary glabrous. 

Leaves 2 to 2'25 in. long, nerves 3 pairs 
„ 2'5 to 4 in., nerves 5 to 6 pairs... 
,, 4 to 6 in., nerves 5 to 6 pairs... 
Leaves dull white below, not shining, green- 
ish above when dry : flowers large, ovary 
tomentose 
Leaves shining on both surfaces, drying yel- 
lowish or greenish. 

Leaves not cordate ; panicles small, 

not spreading 
Leaves minutely cordate at base ; pa- 
nicles large, wide-spreading 
Trees with leaves pubescent beneath, and tomentose 
inflorescence. 

Pubescence sulphureous; ovary glabrous... 
„ rufous; ovary tomentose 

Doubtful species. 
Fruit many-seeded 3 in. in diam. 

1. Xanthophtlltjm Andamanicum, King, n. sp. 
high, glabrous except the inflorescence, branches dark brown. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, drying a pale greenish passing into brown, elliptic to 
elliptic-oblong, rarely sub-obovate, sub-acute, the base cuneate ; upper sur- 
face smooth, shining; the lower dull, pale, minutely reticulate; main nerves 
7 to 8 pairs, rather prominent : length 3 to 4 in., breadth 1*25 to 1*75 
in. ; petiole *3 to "4 in. Flowers - 3 in. long, their pedicels about as long. 
Panicles extra- axillary or terminal, 1'5 to 3 in. long, lax, few-branched, 



12. stipitatum. 

13. Scortechinii. 

14. ellipticum. 

15. obscurum. 



16. pulckrwrn. 



17. affine. 



18. bullatum. 



19. sulphur atum. 

20. rufuin. 

21. insigne. 

A tree 20 to 30 feet 



136 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, [No. 2, 

slender. Sepals rotund, pubescent, edges ciliolate. Petals broadly ovate, 
glabrous, keel pubescent. Filaments flat and pubescent at the base, 
otherwise glabrous. Ovary ovoid-elongate, glabrous, 4-ovuled ; style 
rather flat, pubescent ; disc small, glabrous. Fruit globose, "5 in. in 
diani., smooth ; pericarp thin, crustaceous. 

Andaman Islands ; Heifer, Kurz, King's Collector. Burmah, Kurz. 

This is not unlike X. Griffithii in its leaves : but it differs in its 
glabrous ovary and fruit. 

2. Xanthophtllum Gripfithii, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 210. A 
tree 40 to 50 feet high ; glabrous, except the inflorescence and young 
fruit. Branchlets robust, dark brown, polished, terete. Leaves coria- 
ceous, elliptic-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, the edges 
slightly revolute, the base acute ; upper surface dark (when dry) and 
shining ; the lower pale, sub-glaucous, the minute reticulations and 3-4 
pairs of main nerves distinct ; length 3 to 5 in., breadth 1 to 1*5 in., 
petiole thick, dark-coloured, '35 in. long. Flowers about - 35 in. long, in 
tomentose axillary racemes shorter than the leaves, or in terminal few- 
branched panicles : pedicels short, stout. Sepals broadly ovate, blunt, 
dark brown, tomentose externally. Petals oblong, blunt, glabrous except 
the pubescent keel. Lower half of filaments thickened, hairy. Ovary 
sessile, tomentose, with 4 ovules from its base. Style cylindric, sparsely 
pilose. Fruit (young), globular, tawny- tomentose. 

Malacca and Perak. Distrib. Burmah (at Mergui). Ripe fruit of 
this is unknown. 

3. Xanthophyllum Maingayi, Hook. fil. in Fl. Br. Ind. I, 210. A 
tree 20 to 40 feet high. Branches very slender with pale brown bark, the 
youngest puberulous. Leaves membranous, lanceolate or elliptic-lan- 
ceolate, cordate-acuminate, the base narrowed ; both surfaces smooth, 
the lower pale but not glaucous ; nerves 4-5 pairs, the reticulations fine, 
not prominent : length 2 to 3 in., breadth '65 in. to 1 in. ; petiole 
slender, about - 25 in. Bacemes axillary and terminal, sometimes branch- 
ed, the rachises tawny-tomentose, 2 to 3 in. long ; flowers white, - 35 in. 
long. Sepals rhomboid, unequal, pubescent. Petals much longer than 
the sepals, spreading, glabrous except the pubescent keel. Filaments 
much curved, with a hairy thickening above the base. Ovary shortly 
stipitate, ovoid, ridged, tawny-tomentose ; ovules 4, parietal. Fruit 
globose, "5 in. in diam., minutely tomentose ; pericarp moderately thick, 
puckering when dry. 

Penang, Malacca and Perak ; at low elevations. 

4. Xanthophtllum glaucum, Wall. Cat. 4199. A tree 20 to 30 
feet high. Young branches terete, smooth, pale, the very youngest 
brown and slightly angled. Leaves sub-coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate to 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of tlie Malayan Peninsula. 137 

elliptic-lanceolate, sub-acute, the base narrowed into the petiole ; upper 
surface sbining ; lower dull, sub-glaucous ; nerves 8 to 10 pairs, not pro- 
minent, reticulations minute ; length 3 to 4 in., breadth 1 in. to 1'4 in. ; 
petiole rather thick, less than "25 in. Floivers 25 in. long, otherwise as 
in X. Grifjithii. Fruit globose when quite ripe, slightly wai'ted, and 1 
in. in diam. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Iud. I, 209 ; Hassk. in. Miq. Ann. Mus. 
Lugd. Bat. I, 193. 

Trang. King's Collector No. 1427. Distrib. Chittagong, Burmah. 

This differs from X. OriffitMi chiefly by having many more nerves 
in its leaves. 

5. Xanthophyllttm Palembanicum, Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 
317. A glabrous tree 30 to 40 feet high; branchlets slender, pale. 
Leaves membranous, drying pale green, lanceolate, rarely elliptic, caudate- 
acuminate, the base narrowed ; acute or cuneate ; upper surface shining, 
the lower dull, pale but not glaucous, main nerves 4 to 5 pairs, slightly 
prominent, reticulations minute ; length 3 to 4'5 in., breadth 11 to 13 
in. ; petiole "2 in., slender. Flowers '4 in. Racemes axillary, few- 
flowered, slender, shorter than the leaves. Sepals unequal, rhomboid, 
spreading, flat, puberulous externally. Petals spathulate, glabrous except 
the pubescent keel. Filaments thickened and pubescent in the lower 
half. Ovary shortly stipitate, villous ; the annular disc surrounding it 
small ; style sparsely villous. Ovules 4, from near base of ovary. Fruit 
globose, "75 in. in diam., glabrous, boldly verrucose and with several 
irregular vertical grooves ; pericarp "1 in. thick, crustaceous. 

Perak, rather common. Distrib. Sumatra. 

This is not unlike X. Maingayi, but is at once distinguished from 
that by its deeply grooved fruit. 

6. Xanthophtllum eubhynchttm, Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 
277. A glabrous tree 30 to 50 feet high ; branchlets terete, brown. 
Leaves drying pale green, sub-coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate tapering at 
both ends, to elliptic with rounded base and apex shortly acuminate ; 
both surfaces smooth, the upper shining, the lower dull slightly paler ; main 
nerves 4 to 5 pairs, prominent beneath ; length 4 to 5'5 in., breadth T75 
to 2"5 in., petiole "3 in. Floivers "25 in. long, the pedicels not longer 
than the calyx. Racemes shorter than the leaves, pubescent, axillary 
and solitary or in terminal few-branched panicles. Sepals unequal, ovate- 
oblong, blunt, spreading, minutely tomentose externally. Petals spathu- 
late, glabrous except the pubescent keel. Filaments slightly flattened 
and pubescent in the lower half. Ovary villous, 4-ovuled. Style slight- 
ly curved, villous. Fruit globose, -75 in. in diam., puberulous, rather 
minutely verrucose, not vertically ridged ; pericarp crustaceous, brittle, 
•2 in. thick. 



133 G. Kiug — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Perak, Pangkore. Distrib. Sumatra. 

This comes very near X. Palembanicum, but is distinguished from 
that species by its more robust branches, longer leaves, and velvetty fruit 
which is not vertically ridged. The two are, however, closely allied. 

7. Xanthophyllum Wrayi, King, n. sp. A shrub 3 to 8 feet high, 
the young branches puberulous. Leaves sub-coriaceous, drying a pale yel- 
lowish green, elliptic to oblong, more or less acuminate, the base rounded 
or narrowed ; upper surface shining; lower slightly dull, pale and rather 
minutely reticulate ; the main nerves 10 to 13 pairs, prominent, forming 
ai'ches '2 in. within the edge ; length 6 to 10 in., breadth 225 to 45 in. 
petiole '3 to '6 in. Flowers "35 in. long, their pedicels shorter than the 
calyx, in terminal or axillary racemes or small panicles less than a third 
of the length of the leaves. Sepals ovate, blunt, puberulous. Petals 
oblong, obtuse, puberulous in the upper, pubescent in the lower, half. 
Filaments flat, pubescent. Ovary on a glabrous stalk, densely villous, 
4-ovuled, the disc glabrous. Fruit globose, '75 in. in diam. ; when young 
sericeous, when ripe quite glabrous and boldly verrucose. 

Penang, Curtis ; No. 677. Perak, King's Collector, Wray. 

This is not unlike X. affine, Korth, but is distinguished from that 
species by its sericeous ovary and deeply warted fruit. In its fruit this 
resembles X. Palembanicum and eurynchum ; but it differs from both in 
its much larger aud more numerously veined leaves. 

8. Xanthophylum Curtisii, King-, n. sp. A glabrous tree, 30 to 50 
feet high. Young branches rather robust, dark brown, glabrous. Leaves 
coriaceous, drying brown, ovate-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, the base 
rounded or cuneate ; both surfaces smooth, dull ; the lower paler, minute- 
ly z'eticulate ; main nerves 5 to 6 pairs, not much more prominent than the 
secondary nerves ; length 3 to 5 in., breadth 1 to 1*3 in., petiole '4 in. 
Flowers '4 in. long, the pedicels about as long as the calyx. Panicles axillary 
or terminal, few-branched, nearly as long as the leaves. Sepals nearly 
equal, rotund, tomentose. Petals oblong, obtuse, glabrous except the 
broadly obovate pubescent keel. Filaments with an ovoid pubescent 
swelling near the base. Ovary sessile, ridged, pubescent, 2 to 4-ovuled, 
thick walled, surrounded by a fleshy glabrous slightly angled but not 
wavy disc. Style conical, pubescent. Fruit (very young) globose, 
tomentose. 

Penang, Curtis ; No. 1591 Singapore, Murton. 

The leaves of this dry of an olivaceous brown colour. 

Ripe fruit is unknown. Curtis' No. 1486 from Penang, of which I 
have seen no very complete specimen, is probably a variety of this with 
leaves more attenuated to both base and apex, and with longer more 
spreading panicles. 



1890.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 139 

9. Xanthophylum Kunstleri, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree 50 to 
80 feet high ; the branchlets robust, dark brown, sub-glaucous. Leaves 
large, coriaceous (with a yellowish green tinge when dry) elliptic to 
elliptic-oblong, the apex very shortly and rather suddenly acuminate, 
the edges (when dry) undulate, the base rounded or slightly narrowed 
to the stout petiole ; both surfaces shining ; nerves sub-horizontal, 8 to 10 
pairs, prominent beneath as are the secondary nerves and reticulations ; 
length 4'5 to 9 in., breadth 2'25 to 4'25 in., petiole '6 to '75 in. Floivers 
'6 in. long, shortly pedicellate, in axillary racemes less than half as long 
as, or in terminal few-branched spreading panicles longer than, the 
leaves. Sepals slightly unequal, ovate-rotund, fleshy, thickened along 
the midrib, minutely tomentose en both surfaces ; the edges thin, cilio- 
late. Petals oblong-obtuse, glabrous except the pubescent keel. Fila- 
ments with a pubescent ovoid swelling above the base. Ovary almost 
sessile, surrounded by a shallow wavy fleshy disc, ovoid, grooved, to- 
mentose, 4-ovulate: style conical, slightly curved, pubescent. Fruit 
globose, '65 in. in diam. (young) deciduously tomentose; pericarp thick, 
spongy, the calyx persistent. 

Perak. At low elevations, not common. King's Collector (Kunstler). 
Penang, Government Hill, Curtis, No. 1590. 

10 Xanthophylldm Hook erianum, King, n. sp. A glabrous large- 
leaved shrub ; young branches rather stout, sub-glaucous. Leaves coria- 
ceous, (drying yellowish) elliptic-oblong with a rather abrupt bluntish 
acumen 1 in. long, the edges slightly revolute when dry, the base slight- 
ly narrowed to the petiole ; both surfaces smooth, the lower slightly paler ; 
main nerves 6 to 8 pairs,, thin but rather prominent beneath a3 are the 
reticulations; length 9 to 11 in., breadth 3 to 4 in.; petiole '75 in. 
Floivers '4 in. long, the pedicels about as long as the calyx. Sepals 
nearly equal, broadly ovate, minutely tomentose on both surfaces, the 
edges thin, ciliolate. Petals oblong, obtuse, glabrous except the pubes- 
cent keel. Filaments flat, puberulous. Ovary sessile, ovoid, tomentose, 
4-ovuled ; style flat, grooved, pubescent, slightly curved. Fruit un- 
known. 

Perak, King's Collector ; No. 5997. 

11. Xanthophyllum venosum, King, n. sp. A glabrous long-leaved 
tree 20 to 30 feet high ; yotmg branches rather robust, with very dark 
brown bark. Leaves (drying pale yellowish-green), coriaceous, oblong, 
sub-acute, the edges recurved when dry, gradually but slightly narrowed 
in the lower fourth to the rounded or minutely cordate base ; both sur- 
faces shining, the lower slightly paler ; main nerves 14 to 16 pairs, 
horizontal near the base, sub-ascending towards the apex, prominent 
on the lower surface and forming bold arches '2 in, from the margin, 
19 



I id G. King — Materials for a Mora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2 r 

secondaiy nerves and minute reticulations distinct ; length 9 to 14 in., 
breadth 2"5 to 3 - 25 in., petiole '75 to I in. Flowers '4 in. long-, their 
pedicels longer than the calyx. Panicles axillary, fow-bvanched, 3 to 
G in. long. Sepals nearly equal, broadly ovate, fleshy with thin edges, 
puberulous. Petals oblong, obtuse, glabrescent, the keel pubescont. 
Filaments Hat, puberulous. Ovary surrounded by a shallow glabrous 
wavy disk, ovoid, minutely tomontose, grooved, 4-ovulod ; stylo pubes- 
cont, slightly curved. Fruit globose with a conical apox, deeply rugose, 
vorrucoso ; diam., "35 in. (young). 

Pcrak, King's Collector; Nos. 10G14 and 10804. 

Ripe fruit oC this is unknown. This species, in leaf characters, 
approaches the Bornean X. cordatum,_ Korth. ; but the fruit of that is 
.smooth ; of this the fruit is deeply corrugated-rugose as in X. Palem- 
banicum and eurhynchum. 

12. XANTUOrYiiTiUM stipitatcm, A. W. Bonn, in Hook. Fl. Br. Ind. 
1.210. A tree with slonder, smooth, brown branches. Leaves sub- 
coriaceous, ovato or elliptic, shortly and obtusely caudate-acuminate ; 
upper surface dull, the nerves obsolete ; lower shining, the 3 to 4 pairs 
of nerves indistinct ; length P75 to 2"25 in., breadth -75 to 1 in., petiole 
'15 in. Racemes slonder, axillary, longer than the leaves, pubescont. 
Flowers - 4 iu long, shorter than their slender pedicels. Sepals sub- 
equal, oblong, obtuse, glabrescent. Petals twice as long as sepals, 
spathulate, oblong. Filaments thickened and hairy in their lowor 
half. Ovary stipitato, cottony ; stylo sparsoly hairy ; ovules 8 to 10. 

Malacca. 

Hitherto known only by specimens from Malacca ; fruit not col- 
lected. 

13. XANTnornvLLUM Scoetechinit, King, n. sp. A tall glabrous 
tree. Leaves thinly coriaceous, drying brown, ovate, obtusely acuminate, 
the baso slightly cuncato, shining on both surfaces ; nerves 3 pairs, sub- 
erect, not prominent; length 2 to 2'25 in., breadth 1 in., petiole "35 in. 
Flowers handsome, "G in. long, their pedicels '35 iu. liacemes axillary, 
solitary, 2 in. long, few-flowered. Sepals fleshy, glabrous with ciliolato 
edges ; the thrco outer ovate blunt, the two inner rotund. Petals broad- 
ly obovate, clawed, glabrescent, the keel pubescent. Filaments as long 
as the potals, flat, pubescent ; anthers short, ovate. Ovary shortly 
stalked, olongatcd-ovoid, ridged, glabrous, 6-ovuled ; style little curved, 
glabrous; stigma capitate: disc small, annular, glabrous. 

Perak, Father Scortechini, No. 2070. 

Of this distinct and handsome species fruit is as yet unknown. 

14. Xanthophtllum ellipticum, Korth. in Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. 
Bat. I, 270. A glabrous tree 30 to (30 feet high; branehlets slender, 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 141 

pale. Leaves drying pale brown, sub-coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate to 
elliptic, shortly and bluntly acuminate, the base narrowed or rounded; 
above shining ; below dull, the reticulations distinct ; nerves 5 or 8 
pairs ; length 2 - 5 to 4 in., breadth 1*2 to P75 in., petiole - 25 in. 
Flowers "25 in. long. Racemes axillary, shorter than the leaves, the 
pedicels longer than the flowers. Sepals ovate, fleshy, glabrous, con- 
cave, unequal. Petals thin, spathulate, much longer than sepals, gla- 
brescent. Ovary glabrous, shortly stipitate ; the stalk surrounded by a 
shallow entire, undulate, annular disc ; 10-ovulate ; style glabrous. Fruit 
globular, '5 to '75 in. in diam., when ripe smooth, pulpy; pericarp 
thin, leathery. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Xnd. I, 211. 
Malacca, Perak. 

15. Xanthophyllum obscurum, A. W. Benn. in Hook. fil. FJ. Bi*. 
Ind. I, 211. A large tree ; branches stout, glabrous, lenticellate. Leaves 
coriaceous, elliptic, blunt, narrowed in the lower third to the stout petiole, 
drying to a dark brown ; both surfaces shining ; the lower slightly paler ; 
main nerves 5 to 6 pairs, thin, rather prominent as are the intermediate 
nerves; length 4 - 25 to 4' 75 in., breadth 2 to 2'25 in., petiole '4 in. 
Racemes axillary, 1 to 115 in. long, few-flowered. Flowers '6 in. long, 
the pedicels short. Sepals oblong, blunt, the edges ciliate, the 3 outer 
small. Petals glabrous, oblong, sub-spathulate. Ovary ovoid, glabrous, 
ovules 8 to 10 ; style glabrous. 

Singapore ; Maingay, Hullett. 
Fruit of this is unknown. 

16. Xanthophyllum pulchbum, King, n. sp. A glabrous shrub or 
small tree, the young branches rather robust, the bark very pale. Leaves 
coriaceous, shortly petiolate, elliptic, acute or very shortly and bluntly 
acuminate, the edges recurved when dry, base rounded ; upper surface 
shining ; lower dull, pale yellow, glaucous, the 5-6 pairs of nerves and 
the fine reticulations very prominent ; length 4 to 8 in., breadth 2'25 to 
4 in. ; petiole stout, - 2 in. Flowers '6 in. long, on short thick pedicels, 
in dense, solitary, axillary, rufous-tomentoae racemes half as long as 
the leaves, or less ; bracts broadly ovate, concave, deciduous, coloured. 
Sepals nearly equal, ovate-rotund, with fleshy tomentose midribs and 
thin minutely ciliate edges, coloured. Petals oblong, blunt, glabrous 
except the pubescent keel. Filaments rather short, broad, flat, puberu- 
lous. Ovary ovoid, pointed, tomentose, surrounded by a thin, rather 
deep, glabrous disc; style glabrescent, slightly curved ; ovules 12. Fruit 
globose, "75 in. in diam., minutely tomentose when ripe, pericarp 
thin. 

Perak : rather common. A handsome bush or treelet with yellow- 
ish flowers tinged with pink. 



142 G King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

In leaf characters this comes near to the Sumatran X. vitellinum, 
Blume : but the two differ in flower and fruit. 

17. Xanthophtllum affine, Korth. in Miq. Ann. Lugd. Bat. I, 
271. A shrub or tree; young branches glabrous, pale brown. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous (drying of a more or less yellowish pale green, especial- 
ly beneath), elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, shortly and bluntly acuminate, 
the base cuneate : upper surface smooth, shining, lower dull pale and 
yellowish ; main nerves 5 to 8 pairs, ascending, prominent beneath ; 
length 4 to 7 in., breadth 1'8 to 2'5 in., petiole 3 to '4 in. Floivers 
•35 in. long, the pedicels nearly as long. Panicles axillary or 
terminal, few-branched, minutely tomentose, the axillary half as 
long, the terminal as long as, the leaves. Sepals un-equal, ovate- 
rotund to rotund, blunt, tomentose externally. Petals oblong, ob- 
tuse, pubescent near the base or wholly glabrous, the keel al- 
ways pubescent. Filaments flat, puberulous. Ovary shortly stipitate, 
glabrous, from 8 to 14-ovuled. Style short, flat, pubescent. Pise 
annular, fleshy, glabrous, often wavy. Fruit globose, "5 to 1*25 in. in 
diam., smooth ; pericarp thin, crustaceous. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 209. 

In all the provinces ; common. Distrib. Malayan Archipelago 
generally. Tenasserim. 

This occurs as a bush and also as a tree. It varies a little as to 
colour and shape of leaves, and as to the pubescence on the petals. But, 
when its commonness is considererd, its characters are really remarkably 
constant, that of the size of the individual alone excepted. 

18. Xanthophyllum bullatum, King, n. sp. A shrub or small tree 
with large, sub-sessile leaves ; young branches robust, pale, puberulous, 
lenticellate. Leaves coriaceous, drying a pale greenish-yellow, elliptic- 
oblong, sub-obovate, shortly and bluntly acuminate, the edges sub- 
recurved ; slightly narrowed to the cordate, sub-auriculate, slightly 
unequal base ; bullate, especially in the lower half, shining and glabrous on 
both surfaces, the lower a little paler; main nerves 18 to 2?, bold on 
lower surface and sometimes puberulous as in the strong midrib ; length 
11 to 18 in., breadth 4 to 65 in.; petiole - 25 in., very stout, glandular. 
Flowers '4 in. long, the pedicels twice as long as the calyx. Panicles ter- 
minal, many-branched, spreading, pubescent ; bracts deciduous, ovate. 
Sepals unequal, rotund, fleshy, concave, tomentose, the edges of the 
inner two thin and ciliate. Petals ovate-rotund, glabrous, not much 
larger than the sepals. Filaments flat, fleshy, glabrous. Ovary glabrous, 
ovoid, 8-ovuled, surrounded by a glabrous fleshy annular wavy disc ; 
style glabrous ; stigma conical, pubescent. Fruit globose, glabrous, 
•75 in. in diam, (? ripe;) pericarp thick, crustaceous. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 143 

Perak, on low Hills. 

This resembles X. adenotus, Miq., but differs in venation of leaves 
and in inflorescence. 

19. Xanthophyllum sulphureum, King, n. sp. A tree 100 (or even 
150) feet high ; branches with very dark brown bark, the youngest 
minutely tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, drying bright yellowish-green, 
elliptic-oblong, sometimes sub-obovate, acuminate, the edges recurved 
when dry, the base cuneate ; upper surface glabrous, shining ; lower sul- 
phureous, softly but minutely pubescent especially on the midrib and 6 
to 7 pairs of prominent ascending nerves ; length 55 to 7"5 in., breadth 
2 to 2'5 in., petiole "5 to '65 in. Floivers '4 in. long, the pedicels about 
as long as the calyx. Panicles tomentose, with ovate deciduous bracts, 
compact, many-branched, axillary or terminal, less than half the length 
of the leaves. Sepals unequal, ovate-rotund, minutely tomentose on 
both surfaces, the edges ciliolate. Petals oblong, obtuse, glabrous 
except the pubescent tips ; the keel obovate, vertically 9 to 10-ridged, 
tomentose. Filaments flattened, glabrous. Ovary shortly stipitate, gla- 
brous, ovate, 8-ovuled, surrounded at the base by a fleshy glabrous much 
waved annular disc. Style villous in its lower, glabrous in its upper, 
half. Fruit (young) globose, sulphureous, glabrous, faintly rugose. 
Perak, on low hills. 

Not unlike X. rufum, A. W. Benn. in general aspect : but with 
smaller flowers, glabrous ovary and fruit, and leaves intensely sulphu- 
reous beneath. 

20. Xanthophyllum rufum, A. W. Benn. in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 
210. A tree 40 to 50 feet high. Branchlets stout, terete, pale scurfy- 
pubescent, the youngest rufous-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to 
ovate or obovate-elliptic, very shortly and suddenly acuminate, narrow- 
ed in the lower third to the stout short petiole, the edges recurved when 
dry ; upper surface glabrous, dull ; lower paler, covered with short soft 
pubescence especially on the midrib and 7-8 pairs of bold semi-erect 
nerves ; length 4 - 5 to 6"5 in. (acumen - 5 in.,) breadth 2'25 to 2'75 in., 
petiole '5 in. Panicles terminal or from the axils of the uj)permost 
leaves, lax, few-branched, 3 to 7 in. long, densely tomentose, the ends 
of the branches and sepals rufous. Flowers - 6 in. long, on short pedicels 
in the axils of ovate sub-persistent bracts. Sepals unequal, ovate to sub- 
re niform, densely tomentose on both surfaces, fleshy, concave Petals 
more than twice as long as the sepals, oblong, obtuse, glabrous except 
the tomentose keel. Filaments glabrous, flat at the base. Ovary sur- 
rounded by a shallow fleshy disc, sessile, ovate, pointed, ridged, tomen- 
tose as is also the conical style ; ovules 12 to 16. Fruit 75 in. in diam., 
(? mature) globose, with 4 vertical rufous pubescent ridges; pericarp 
thick, crustaceous, 



144 G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Malacca; Perak. Distrib. Sumatra. (Beccari, P. S. No. 643.) 
21. Xanthophtllum instgne, A. TV". Benn. in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 211. A glabrous tree with pale branchlets. Leaves drying brown, 
coriaceous, elliptic, obtuse, the base slightly narrowed ; upper surface 
shining ; lower dull, pale, the (3-S pairs of nerves and rather wide reticu- 
lations prominent ; length 4"5 to 6'5 in., breadth 3 to 3"5 in. ; petiole stout, 
'6 in. Racemes 3 to 4 in. long, axillary, sometimes terminal and panicled. 
Flowers "6 to "75 in. long; sepals unequal, sub-orbicular, puberulous. 
Petals spathulate, glabrous except the pubescent claw ; keel adpressed- 
sericeous, its claw pubescent. Stamens 3, the filaments flat at the base 
and rising from an annular entire undulate disc which surrounds the 
ovary. Ovary ovoid, ridged, glabrous, ovules 16 ; style little curved, 
glabrous. Fruit globose, 3 in. in diam., minutely rugose, pericarp "5 in., 
thick ; seeds oblong, 1 in. long, embedded in pulp. 
Malacca ; Maingay, No. 343. Miller. 

Order XII. PORTULACE^]. 
Herbs, rarely undershrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire ; 
nodes with scarious or hairy appendages, rarely naked. Intforesc 
various. Sepals 2, imbricate. Petals 4-5, hypogynous or perigynons, 
free (or united below), fugacious. Stamens 4-co , inserted with (rarely 
upon) the petals, filaments slender; anthers 2-celled. Ovary free, or 
^-inferior, 1-celled ; style 2-8-fid, divisions stigmatose; ovules 2-oo , on 
basal funicles or a central column, amphitropal. Capsule with trans- 
verse or 2-3-valvular dehiscence. Seeds 1- oc, compressed; embryo 
curved round a mealy albumen. Distrib. Cosmopolitan, chiefly Ameri- 
can : genera 15, species about 125. 

1. Poetulaca, Linn. 

Diffuse, usually succulent, annual or perennial herbs. Leaves with 
scaly or hairy nodal appendages. Flowers terminal, surrounded by a 
whorl of leaves, solitary or clustered. Sepals connate below, the free 
part deciduous. Petals 4-6, perigynons or epipetalous. Ovary ^-inferior ; 
style 3-8-fid ; ovules oc. Capsule crustaceous, dehiscing transversely. 
Seeds oc, reniform. Distrib. Tropical regions, chiefly American ; 
one or two are cosmopolitan weeds extending to temperate regions ; 
species 16. 

1. Poktulaca oleracea, Linn. An annual glabrous, sub-succulent, 
prostrate herb, 6 to 12 inches long ; sometimes with minute scarious 
appendages at the nodes. Leaves flat, cuneate-oblong, rounded or 
truncate at the apex, '25 to 125 in. long : petiole very short. Flowers in 
few-flowered terminal heads or in dichotomous cymes, sessile, surrounded 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 145 

by a few ovate, pointed scarious bracts : petals 5, eqnal to the sepals, 
yellow : stamens 8 to 12 : style 3-8-cleft : seeds punctate : Roxb. Fl, 
Ind. II, 463; W. & A. Prodr. 356. P. kevis, Ham. in Wall. Cat. 6841. 
Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 246. P. suffruticosa, Thw. Enum. 24 (not of 
Wight). 

In the Andamans, and probably in all the Provinces, in waste places. 
Distrib. All warm climates. 

2. Portulaca quadrifida, Linn. An annual with diffuse filiform 
stems, rooting at the nodes ; nodal appendages copious, pilose. Leaves 
flat, opposite, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, almost sessile ; length "2 
to '35 in. Flowers solitary, terminal ; calyx tube partly immersed in 
the extremity of the axis, surrounded by long silky hairs and by about 
4 bracteoles : petals 4, yellow ; stamens 8 to 12 ; style filiform, deeply 
4-fid. Seeds minutely tuberculate. DC. Prod. Ill, 354. Wight 111. ii, t. 
109. Hook, fil Fl. Br. Ind. I, 247. Oliver Fl. Trop. Africa, I, 149. P. 
ineridiana, L. Roxb., Fl. Ind. II, 463. P. geniculata, Royle 111. 221. 
P. anceps, Rich. Fl. Abyssin., I, 301. 

Penang, in the Fort ; Curtis. Distrib. Throughout the Tropics of 
Asia, S. Africa. 

Order XIII. HTPERICINE^E. 
Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves opposite, often punctate with 
pellucid glands or dark glandular dots, entire or glandular-toothed ; 
stipules 0. Flowers solitary or cymose, terminal, rarely axillary. Sepals 
and petals each 5, rarely 4; petals contorted in bud. Stamens inde- 
finite, or rarely definite, 3- or 5-adelphous, rarely free or all connate ; 
anthers versatile. Ovary 3- 5-carpellary, I- or 3-5-celled; styles as many, 
filiform, free or united ; ovules few or numerous, on parietal or axile 
placentas, anatropous, raphe lateral or superior. Fruit capsular or bac- 
tate. Seeds exalbuminous, sometimes winged ; embryo straight or 
curved. Distrib. Temp, countries and mountains of warm regions ; 
genera 8, species about 210. 

1. Cratoxylon, Blume. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves entire, usually papery. Inflorescence axil- 
lary or terminal, cymose. Sepals and petals each 5, Stamens 3- or 5- 
adelphous, with fleshy hypogynous glands alternating with the bundles. 
Ovary 3-celled ; styles distinct; ovules 4-8 in each cell. Capsule 3- 
valved, seeds winged. Distrib. Tropical Asia ; species about 12. 

Sect. I. Ancistrolobos, Spach. Petals sub-persistent, inappendi- 
culate. Stamens 3-delphous ; glands more or less cucullate. 

1. Cratoxylon polyanthum, Korth. Verhand. Nat. Gresch. Bot. 175, 
t. 36. A large shrub, or tree 30 to 40 feet high, all parts glabrous ; 



146 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

young branches pale brown, compressed. .Leaves membranous, minutely 
pellucid-punctate, elliptic-oblong, almost equally acute at base and 
apex ; above shining, below rather dull ; nerves about 7 to 10 pairs, 
pale ; reticulations minute ; length 1*5 to 3'5 in., breadth "75 in. to 1'25 
in., petiole '1 in. Flowers slightly supra-axillary, solitary or in 1 to 
3-flowered cymes, - 5 in. in diam. Sepals elliptic, obtuse, as long as tho 
petals. Petals oblanceolate, veined. Hypogynous glands large, fleshy. 
Capsule slightly exceeding the persistent sepals. Seeds obliquely winged. 
Hook. fil. PL Br. lnd. I, 257. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. ii, p. 516. 
All the Provinces. Distrib. British India, China, Philippines. 
Var. 1. Ligustrintjm, Blume Mus. Bot. II, 16 (sp.) ; leaves narrow- 
ed at both ends, acute. C. lanceolatum, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Supp. I, 500. 
Ancistrolobus ligustrinus, Spach. Suit. Buff. V, 361. A. hrevipes, Turcz. 
Bull. Mosc. 1658, I, 333. Hypericum pulchellum, Wall. Cat. 4821. H. 
carneum, Wall. Cat. 4820. 

Andamans, Malacca, Penang. 

Var. 2. Wightii, Bl. 1. c. 18. (sp.) Leaves broadly oval, mostly 
obtuse. Ancistrolobus sp. Wight 111. I, 111. Hypericum Jiorridum, 
Wall. Cat. 4822. Elodea sp. Griff. Notul. IV, 569. 
Perak, King's Collector. 

Sect. II. Tkidesmis, Spach. Petals not persistent, with a basal 
squamule. Stamens 3- or 5-adelphous. 

2. Cratoxtlon arborescens, Blume Mus. Bot. II, 17. A tree 15 to 
50 feet high, all parts glabrous. Young branches robust, the bark pale 
brown, often ridged. Leaves coriaceous, broadly oblanceolate, obovate- 
elliptic or oblong-obovate, very shortly acuminate ; dull on both surfaces, 
the lower pale, yellowish-brown with black dots ; nerves numerous, 
obsolete; length 3 to 4"5 in., breadth 1*25 to 2 in.; petiole '25 in., stout. 
Cymes in large terminal panicles usually longer than the leaves. 
Flowers 3 in. in diam. Sepals unequal, ovate-rotund, veined. Petals 
about as long as the sepals, broadly cuneate, conspicuously veined and 
with a laciniate basal scale. Capsule longer than the persistent sepals. 
Seeds winged all round. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 258; Kurz Fl. 
Burm. I, 84; G. coccineum, Planch. Hypericum arborescens, Vahl. 
Symb. II. 86, t. 43. H. coccineum, Wall. Cat. 4823. Ancistrolobus 
glaucescens, Turcz. Bull. Mosc. 1858, 1, 383. Vismia ? arborescens, Choisy 
Prod. Hyp. 36. 

In all the Provinces. Distrib. Malayan Archipelago : Burmah. 
Var. Miquelii, branches more slender than in the typical form ; 
leaves thinner in texture, oblanceolate, acuminate. A small tree 15 to 
20 feet. C. cuneatum, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. ii, 517. 
Penang, Perak. Distrib. Sumatra. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. Ii7 

3. Cratoxtlon formosum, Benth. and Hook. fil. Gen. PL I, 166 A 
shrub or tree 20 to 6 feet high, all parts quite glabrous, young branches 
pale. Leaves membranous, broadly elliptic to elliptic-oblong, acute or 
rounded, the base slightly narrowed ; upper surface shining ; lower dull 
pale, glaucescent and with numerous minute black dots ; main nerves 6 
to 8 pairs, little more prominent than the secondary ; length 3 to 4 in., 
breadth 1'75 to 2'25 in. ; petiole - 25 in., thin. Gijm.es axillary, or from 
above the scars of fallen leaves, 2-3 flowered Flowers "75 in. long, their 
pedicels *5 in. Sepals elliptic, pointed, faintly veined, -2 in. long, nearly 
equal, not accrescent. Petals thin, prominently veined, elliptic, with a 
narrow scale above the slender claw ; Hypogynous glands small, oblong 
or quadrate, ciurnson. Tubes of staminal bundles long, slender, exserted- 
Capsules cylindric, acute, '6 in. long. Seeds "3 in. long, with an obtuse 
obovate unilateral wing. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 258 ; Kurz Fl. 
Burm. I, 84. Tridesmis formosa, Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 179, t. 
37 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, pt. ii, p. 517. T. ochnoides, Spach Suit. Buff. 
V, 359. Flodea formosa, Jack in Hook. Journ. Bot. I, 374. 

In all the Provinces. Disti'ib. Siam, Philippines, Malayan Archi- 
pelago. 

4. Cratoxtlon Maingati, Dyer in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 258. A 
tree 30 feet high; all parts glabrous : young branches with pale brown, 
ridged, bark. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic, acuminate at apex and base 5 
both surfaces shining, the lower paler ; main nerves obscure, about 6 
pairs ; length 2 to 35 in., breadth 1 to 1'5 in., petiole - 25 in. Cymes 
axillary, or from above the scars of fallen leaves, few-flowered. Floivers 
about '5 in. long, their pedicels '25 in. Sepals oblong, unequal. Petals 
elliptic, clawed, veined, the basal scale acute. Capsule - 5 in. long, 
narrowly cylindric. Seeds - 25 in. long, with oblong unilateral wing. 

Penang ; Maingay. 

Apparently an uncommon tree, since only Maingay has as yefc 
collected it. 

Order XIV. GUTTIFER^E. 

Trees or shrubs with yellow or greenish juice. Leaves opposite, 
coriaceous or membranous, rarely whorled or stipulate. Flowers axil- 
lary or terminal, solitary, fascicled, subracemose or panicled, white, yellow 
or red, regular, dioecious, polygamous or hermaphrodite. Sepals 2-6, 
imbricate or in decussate pairs. Petals 2-6 (rarely more, or 0), usually 
much imbricated or contorted. Male fl. : Stamens usually indefinite, 
hypogynous ; filaments free or variously connate, monadelphous or in as 
many bundles as there are petals ; anthers various. Female fl. : 
Staminodes various. Ovary l-2-oo -celled ; style slender, short or 0; stigmas 
20 



148 G. King — Material? for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

as many as the cells, free or connate, sometimes peltate ; ovules 1-2 or co , 
axile, or erect from the base of the cell. Fruit usually baccate and in- 
dehiscent. Seeds large, albumen ; embryo consisting of a large radicle 
(tigellus) with small or obsolete cotyledons, or of thick free or con- 
solidated cotyledons with a very short inferior radicle. A large tropical 
family, common in Asia and America, rare in Africa, of 24 genera and 
320 species. 

Tribe I. Garcinece. Cells of ovary 1-ovuled ; stig- 
ma sessile or sub-sessile, peltate, entire or with 
radiating lobes. Fruit baccate, indehiscent: em- 
bryo with cotyledons minute or nndistinguish- 
able. 

Calyx of 4 or 5 sepals ... ... 1. Garcinia, 

Tribe II. Calophylleae. Ovary with 1 to 4 erect 
ovules : style 1, slender : stigma peltate, 4-fid. 
Fruit fleshy, usually indehiscent. Embryo with 
2 distinct cotyledons. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Ovules solitary, style 1, stigma peltate ... 2. Calophyllum, 
Ovules 4 ; style 1, 4-fid. with a stigma 

above each segment ... ... 3. Kayea. 

Ovary 2-celled, 4-ovuled. 

Style 1, stigma peltate ... ... 4. Mesua. 

1. Garcinia, Linn. 

Trees, usually with yellow juice. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, very 
rarely stipulate. Flowers solitary, fascicled, or panicled ; axillary or 
terminal ; polygamous. Sepals 4-5, decussate. Petals 4-5, imbricate. 
Male fl. : Stamens oo, free, or collected into a ring, or an entire globose 
or conical 4-5-lobed mass, often surrounding a rudimentary ovary ; 
anthers sessile, or on short thick filaments, 2 rarely 4-celled, adnate or 
peltate, dehiscing by slits or pores, or circumsciss. Female or herma- 
phrodite pl. : Staminodes 8- oo, free or connate. Ovary 2-12-celIed ; 
stigma sessile or sub-sessile, peltate, entire or lobed, smooth or tuber- 
cled ; ovules solitary in each cell, attached to the inner angle of the cell. 
Berry with a coriaceous rind. Seeds with a pulpy aril. Distrib. Tropi- 
cal Asia, Africa, and Polynesia ; species about 100. 

Subgenus I. Garcinia proper. Sepals 4, decussate : petals 4, 
imbricate. 
Sect. 1. Stamens of male flower occupying both 

sides of 4 pedicelJed fleshy processes ; anthers 

sessile, 2-celled, the cells more or less orbicular 



1890.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 149 



(4-celled in cuspidata) dehiscing longitudinally, 
the connective thick ; rudimentary stigma hemis- 
pheric, entire, discoid and flat, or concave (in Mer- 
guensis and rostrata) ; the style long, cylindric species 1 to 7. 
Sect. 2. Stamens of male flower in a 4-lobed mass 
surrounding the rudimentary ovary : anthers 2- 
celled, oblong, dehiscing longitudinally. 

Rudimentary stigma 6 to 8-lobed ... species 8 to 10. 

Rudimentary stigma none ... ... species 11 to 13. 

Sect. 3. Stamens in a single un-lobed mass ; an- 
thers 2-celled. 

Stamens of male flower in a cone : rudy. stig- 
ma large convex ... ... ... 14. Malaccensis. 

Staminal recejjtacle stipitate : anthers broad- 
ly oblong, curved, dehiscence longitudinal ; 
rudy. stigma broad, discoid ... ... 15. Maingayi. 

Stamens in whorls on a thin annular fleshy 

receptacle ... ••>• ... 16. atro-viridis. 

Stamens of male flower on a flat or convex 
sessile receptacle. 

Anthers bent round the apex of the con- 
nective (horse-shoe-shaped) dehiscing 
along the convexity : rudy. stigma 
Leaves white beneath 



,, green „ 
Anthers thick, cuueate, with flat broad 
tops, the connective large, cells de- 
hiscing longitudinally. 

Rudy, stigma large, discoid 
,, „ none 

Anthers with small connective, cells sub- 
orbicular, dehiscing longitudinally : 
rudy. stigma 
Anthers with the connective lengthened 
transversely and bearing at its extremi- 
ties the small oval anther cells : rudy. 
stigma 
Sect. 4. Anthers 4-celled 

Sect. 5. Anther cells surrounding the central con- 
nective, often confluent, their dehiscence cir- 
cumscissile : rudy. stigma 



17. opaca. 

18. calycina. 



19. costata. 

20. Griffithii. 

21. Forbesii. 



22. Bancana, 
species 23 to 26. 



species 27 to 30. 



150 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Sub-genus II. Xanthochymus. 

Sepals and petals 5, all imbricate ... species 31 to 36. 

Subgenus I. Garcinia proper, sepals 4, decussate : petals 4, im- 
cate. 

1. Garcinia eugeni^folia, Wall. Oat. 4873. A small tree; the 
young branches thin, 4-angled, rather pale when dry. Leaves sub-coria- 
ceous, elliptic, tapering to each end, the apex with a short blunt tail ; 
upper surface sbining ; the lower dull, pale, opaque; nerves thin, spread- 
ing, less than "1 in. apart, very indistinct on either surface; length 2 to 
3 - 5 in., breadth "9 to 1'35 in., petiole "2 to - 25 in. Male flowers "2 in. in 
diam., in axillary or terminal, minutely bracteate, 3- to 6-flowered fas- 
cicles ; pedicels '2 in. long. Sepals 4, orbicular, the outer pair small, 
the inner pair as large as the petals. Petals 4, orbicular, thin with a 
circular thickened coloured fleshy spot near the base : Stamens numer- 
ous, forming with the rudy. stigma a dense convex mass ; anthers nu- 
merous, on both sides of 4 fleshy processes, orbicular-oblong, 2-celled, 
the dehiscence vertical : rudy. stigma large, hemispheric, the style 
cylindric. Female flower : '25 in. in diam., in pedunculate 3-flowered 
cymes, sometimes several from same axil, pedicels "25 to "35 in. Sepals 4 ; 
the outer pair small, fleshy, ovate-orbicular ; the inner pair thin, nearly 
as large as the petals, slightly keeled at the base ; petals as in the male : 
Staminodes and disk absent. Stigma large, hemispheric, sub-papillose, 
entire, covering nearly the whole of the ovary. Fruit in fascicles of 2 to 
4, globular, "75 in. in diam., smooth, brown, crowned by the papillose 
stigma ; calyx not persistent. Hook. hi. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 268 ; Pierre Fl. 
Forest. Coch-Chine, fasc. VI, p. vi, in part; G. brevirostris, Scheff. Obs. 
Phyt. II, 41. 

Penang : Wallick, Curtis, No. 669. Tenasserim and Andamans ; 
Heifer, 855. Perak ; King's Collector Nos. 8604, 5954, Wray No. 461. 

There are two specimens in the Calcutta Herbarium of G. breviros- 
tris, Scheffer, named by the author himself ; and they agree absolutely 
with Wallich's No. 4873. This species is quite distinct from Griffith's 
No. 858 (Kew Dist.) from Malacca, which Pierre not only reduces here, 
but of which he figures (tab. 90 E. F.) the flowers as the flowers of this. 
This species does not appear to be a common one. Specimens of other 
things appear to have been so much confounded with it, that I forbear 
to quote more synonyms than G. brevirostris. 

2. Garcinia merguensis, Wight 111. 122, Ic. 116. A tree 30 to 
40 feet high ; young branches thin, terete, dark brown when dry. 
Leaves ovate-elliptic to lanceolate, bluntly caudate-acuminate, the base 
cuneate ; upper surface when dry shining, dark brown ; the lower dull 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 151 

pale brown, the midrib distinct on both ; nerves indistinct, thin, spread- 
ing, about "075 in. apart : length 3 to 35 in., breadth 11 to 1*4 in., 
petiole '25 in. Male flowers - 15 in. in diam., in rather dense axillary 
minutely bracteolate 3- to 6-flowered cymes longer than the petioles : 
pedicels '2 in., buds globose : sepals 4, fleshy, the outer pair small, ovate- 
orbicular, sub-acute ; the inner pair orbicular, all concave ; petals 4, 
orbicular, fleshy, concave, covering the stigma in bud : anthers numerous 
on both sides of 4 fleshy processes, sessile, oblong, dehiscing suturally ; 
rudy. style long, cylindric, thick : stigma discoid, smooth, flat. Herma- 
phrodite flowers ; sepals 4, the outer pair as in the male ovate-orbicular, 
thin: petals 4, ox'bicular-reniform, fleshy, not covering the stigma: 
stamens numerous on both sides of 4 triangular fleshy pro-cesses ; 
anthers sessile, sub-orbicular, dehiscing vertically by the sutures : 
stigma sessile, very large, hemispheric, convex, smooth, covering the 
anthers when young. Female flowers ; sepals 4, the outer pair much 
smaller than the inner, all thin and concave : petals 4, orbicular, about 
the same size as the inner sepals, concave, thinly coriaceous, with a 
thickened coloured patch at the base : staminodes and disk : stigma 
semi-hemispheric, almost covering the whole ovaiy. Fruit pedicelled, 
globular, '75 in. in diam., smooth, covered by the concave smooth 
stigma. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 267 ; Kurz PL Burin., I, 89 : Pierre 
Flora Forest. Coch-Chin. fasc. VI, p. vi, tab. 68, 69, 91, D.. 

Malacca ; Griffith, Maingay, No. 155, Kew Distiib. Perak ; Scor- 
techini Nos. 244a and 812, King's Collector, No. 2660, Wray, 1075. 
Penang ; Curtis, No. 900. 

Maingay No. 155 is the type of Pierre's species G. fulva, but, in 
spite of very careful dissection of many of the flowers of this most 
puzzling plant, I cannot see my way to adopting that as a species 
separable from G. merguensis, Wight. 

3. Garcinia rosteata, Benth. and Hook fil. Gen. Plantar. I, 174. 
A tree 30 to 40 feet high. Young branches terete, pale, slender. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, with a rather short blunt acumen, 
the base much narrowed : both surfaces shining, the lower rather pale, 
midrib prominent : nerves very numerous, thin, sub-horizontal, rather 
distinct when dry, especially on the lower surface ; length 2'5 to 3'5 in., 
breadth 1/25 to 1*75 in., petiole - 2 in. Male flowers 15 in. in diam., in 
slender, pedunculate, lax, often dichotomous, 3- to 9-flowered cymes which 
are in fascicles of 2 to 4 in the axils of the leaves ; buds depressed- 
globose, 1 in. in dkm. ; the pedicels "25 to '35 in., slender: sepals 4, 
orbicular, concave, the outer pair small, fleshy, the inner thin as large as 
the petals: petals 4, orbicular, concave, thin, each with a fleshy coloured 
circular patch near its base: stamens numerous; anthers sessile, on both 



152 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

sides of 4 thick fleshy processes ; cells 2, orbicular-oblong seated on 
the apex of the thick connective, dehiscing along the convexity: stigma 
very large, d:scoid, smooth, depressed in the centre, covering the 
stamens. Hermaphrodite flowers in 3-flowered, axillary, solitary, sessile, 
bracteolate cymes ; sepals as in the male ; petals 4, orbicular- reniform, 
not covering the stigma, otherwise as in the male ; anthers in 4 masses 
as in the male, 4-celled ; stigma snb-sessile, covering the whole ovary, 
large, discoid, smooth, entire. Fruit solitary, or 2 or 3 from an axil, 
ovoid, sub-orbicular, "5 to '65 in. long and rather less in diam, smooth, 
crowned by the discoid sub-concave stigma. Pierre Fl. Forest. Coch- 
Chine, fasc. VI, p. v, tab. 91, B. Discostigma rostratum, Hassk. Cat. PI. 
Hat. Bogor. 213. Hook. fil. Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV, 486. 

Malacca; Griffith, No. 855, Maingay 156 Perak : Scortechini 1962, 
King's Collector Nos. 8486, 10762. Distrib. Java. 

This is readily distinguished by its small flowers on slender pedicels, 
and by its flattened buds : also by the sub-horizontal, close, rather 
distinct, venation of the leaves. 

4. Garcinia cuspidata, King, n. sp. A tree 60 to 70 feet high ; the 
young branches terete, dark-coloured. Leaves elliptic-ovate, shortly 
sub-spathulate, cuspidate, the base narrowed; upper surface shining, 
the lower dull; nerves sub-horizoutal, distinct beneath when dry, "1 in. 
apart, anastomosing with an intramargiual nerve; length 2"5 to' 325 in., 
breadth IT to 1'5 in., petiole '3 in. Male flowers To in. in diam., in 
shortly pedunculate, axillary, 6 to 9-flowered, spreading cymes ; buds 
pyriform ; pedicels slender, *3 to "6 long ; sepals 4, equal, reflexed, or- 
bicular, thin, concave ; petals 4, reflexed, covering the stamens and 
stigma in bud, thin, orbicular, concave, a little larger thau the sepals : 
stamens numerous, on both sides of 4 fleshy processes, filaments very 
short and thick : anthers with 4 globular cells, each dehiscing by a long 
vertical suture ; style short, cylindric ; stigma capitate, small, quite 
concealed by the stammal masses. Female flowers and fruit unknown. 

Perak, at low elevations : King's Collector, No. 10865. 

Collected only once by the late Mr. Kunstler. The leaves a good 
deal resemble those of G. rostrata, Hassk. ; but the nerves are slightly 
more distinct, and the flowers have a different androecium, although 
externally they much resemble those oiO. rostrata, Hassk. 

5. Garcinia Wrayi, King, n. sp. A small spreading tree ; young 
branches very slender, terete, dirty yellow. Leaves thinly coriaceous, 
ovate or elliptic, the apex produced into a long sub-spathulate point, 
the base cuneate ; upper sui'face shining, the lower dull, pale ; nerves 
slender, sub-horizontal, 05 in. apart, invisible on the upper and faint 
on the lower surface even when dry ; length 2 to 2'5 in., of which 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 153 

the apical tail is sometimes as much as '75 in., breadth '8 to 1*2 in. ; 
petiole '2 in. Male flowers 15 in. in diam., in axillary fascicles of 2 or 
3 ; buds globose, pedicels "15 in. ; perianth reflexed, sepals 4, the outer 
less than half as large as the inner pair, all orbicular, sub-coriaceous and 
concave ; petals 4, ovate-orbicular, blunt, with a thickened spot near 
the base, covering the stamens in bud ; stamens numerous, on both 
surfaces of 4 fleshy processes ; anthers sessile, globular-oblong, the con- 
nective rather thick, 2-celled, dehiscence vertical ; rudy. style cylindric, 
convex, smooth. Female flowers axillary, solitary, pedicels as in the 
male ; sepals 4, orbicular, thin, concave, about the same size as the petals 
and neither sepals nor petals quite covering the stigma in bud : petals 
4, orbicular, concave, with a coloured thickened spot near the base ; 
disk lobed, shallow, fleshy : staminodes none ; ovary cylindric ; stigma 
hemispheric, smooth, entire, enveloping the whole of the ovary, ulti- 
mately becoming discoid and slightly depressed in the middle. 

Perak ; on Ulu Batang Padang and on Gunong Batu Pateh, at 
elevations of 4,500 feet and upwards. Wray, Nos. 267, 362, 1527 ; 
Scortechini, No. 3236. 

I have not seen ripe fruit of this, but (from the appearance of a 
young one) it is probably ovoid. In its leaves, this species rather re- 
sembles O. merguensis and rostrata. 

6. Garcinia diversifolia, King, n. sp. A tree 40 to 60 feet high ; 
young branches rather thick, 4-angled, yellowish. Leaves lanceolate 
and sub-acute, to elliptic and shortly and bluntly cuspidate, the base 
always cuneate ; upper surface shining, the lower dull, slightly pale 
when dry ; midrib prominent on both surfaces ; the nerves numerous, 
about '05 in. apart, spreading, straight, visible on the upper, invisible 
on the lower surface ; length of the lanceolate form 3'5 to 4'5 in., 
breadth 15 to 1*75 in.; length of the elliptic form 2 - 5 to 4'25 in. ; 
breadth 1*4 to 2'75 in., petiole '2 to - 4 in. Male flowers "75 in. in diam., 
in 3 to 6-flowered, bracteolate, axillai-y cymes ; buds globular- ovoid ; 
pedicels unequal, from "2 to :4. in. ; bracteoles orbicular, fleshy: sepals 4, 
orbicular, fleshy, concave, the outer pair small, united by their bases and 
sometimes irregularly denticulate, inner pair as large as the petals: 
petals 4, ovate-orbicular to orbicular, fleshy, concave ; stamens very 
numerous, occupying both sides of 4 fleshy processes : anthers sessile, 
2-celled, the connective thick, bifid, bearing at its upper part the two 
sub-orbicular suturally-dehiscent cells: rudy. pistil with cylindric style 
thickened upwards : the stigma large, hemispheric, entire, sub-papillose. 
Female flowers in cymes like the males but fewer-flowered and often 
terminal, perianth as in the male ; staminodes apparently none ; ovary 
depressed-globose, smooth: stigma sessile, discoid, entire, its suiface 



154 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

minutely lobulose. Fruit (unripe) sub-globular, '6 in. in diam., crowned 
by the stigma. 

Perak ; at elevations of 3000 to 3,-500 feet, King's Collector, No. 
6920, Wray, No. 1209. 

7. Garcinia Cadelliana, King, n. sp. A tree about 30 feet liigli ; 
the young branches, slender, terete, brownish yellow. Leaves thinly 
coriaceous, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, sub-acute, the base very cuneate ; 
both surfaces shining; main nerves 10 to 12 pairs, inter-arching very near 
the margin, thin, slightly prominent on both surfaces when dry ; length 
3 - 5 to 5'5 in., breadth 15 to 2 - 5 in. ; petiole - 25 to - 35 in., stout. Male 
flowers - 25 in. in diam., in dense 3 to 8-flowered axillary fascicles, buds 
globose, pedicels '1 in , bracteolate at the base, stout; sepals 4, slightly 
unequal, small, orbicular, fleshy, the edges thin : petals 4, obovate-orbi- 
cular, fleshy, concave : stamens numerous, on both sides but especially 
on the inner sides of 4 fleshy processes opposite the petals ; anthers 
oblong, sessile, 2-celled, the dehiscence longitudinal ; style cylindiic, 
as long as the staminal bundles ; stigma large, hemispheric, papillose, 
entire. Female flowers and fruit unknown. 

Andamans ; King's Collector, No. 371. 

8. Garcinia speciosa, Wall. PL As. Rar iii. t. 258. A tree 40 to 
60 feet high ; the young brauches slightly 4-angled, yellowish when dry. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong or elliptic-oblong, sometimes ob-lan- 
ceolate, shortly acuminate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces shining, 
the midrib, main and intermediate nerves all rather prominent ; length 
5 to 8 in., breadth 2 to 3'75 in. ; petiole "5 to '6 in. Male flowers l - 5 
to 2 in. in diam., terminal in fascicles of 4 or 5, or solitary ; peduncles 
longer than the petioles. Sepals 4, fleshy, concave, slightly unequal, 
1 pair ovate and 1 pair reniform. Petals 4, yellow, larger than the 
sepals, rotund, slightly clawed. Stamens numerous, in 4 short, thick, 
diverging, oval masses confluent at the base ; filaments short ; anthers 
oblong with longitudinal dehiscence. Style short, thick, columnar ; rudy. 
sticma large, convex, with 6 shallow, broad, blunt lobes. Female flowers 
solitary, terminal, on short thick pedicels ; perianth larger than in the 
male ; ovary sub-globular, the stigma large, convex, the margin 6 to 8- 
lobed. Flower unknown. Unripe fruit ovoid, sub-globose, apiculate, 
the hardened stigma and the thickened sepals persistent. Wall. Cat. 
4855, 4852 E. Garcinia affinis, Wall. Cat. 4854. Choisy Guttif., Ind. 
23; Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif., 171; Kurz For. Fl. Burma. I, 
88 ; Pierre Fl. Forest. Coch-Chine, fasc. IV, p. xiv, tab. 79, excl. figs. 
H. and I. 

Andaman Islands ; Kurz. Distrib. Tetmsserim. 

This arboreous species is no doubt very closely allied to the shrubby 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 155 

G. Kurzii, Pierre. And it appears probable that, although its head- 
quarters are Burmah and Sylhet, G. speciosa does occur on the Ancla- 
mans. M. Pierre relies, as a diagnostic mark of his G. Kurzii, on its 
having solitary male flowers, whereas those of G. speciosa are fascicu- 
late. But in Calcutta Herbarium specimens of the same set which M. 
Pierre would refer to his G. Kurzii, the flowers are sometimes solitary 
and sometimes clustered. Another mark which M. Pierre relies on is 
that the peduncles of the flowers of G. speciosa ai'e described by Wal- 
lich as two or three times as long as the leaf petioles, whereas in G. 
Kurzii, the peduncles are shorter than the petioles. The female flower 
of G. speciosa is described in the Flora of British India as unknown, 
and M. Pierre says the same of the female flower of his G. Kurzii. 
Wallich's specimens of G. ajjinis from Sylhet have advanced female 
flowers, and it is from these that I have described the female flower 
(figured by Pierre, tab. 79, fig. G.) : for affinis appears to me in no way 
distinct from speciosa. Wallich was no doubt mislead by the size of the 
rudimentary stigma in the male flowers of speciosa into considering 
these as hermaphrodite, and it is probable that he never saw true female 
flowers. This view is supported by the fact that he does not describe 
either ovary or fruit. Pierre (1. c. t. 79, figs. H. and I.) gives drawings 
of what he believes to be the male and female flowers of G. speciosa. 
But in his text (fasc. VI, p. xiv), he states that the flowers thus 
figured were, iir the specimen from which he took them, unattached to 
any leaf-twig and were mixed with flowers of other species. They are 
therefore altogether doubtful even for M. Pierre. 

9. Garcinia Kurzii, Pierre, Flor. Forest. Coch. -Chine, fasc. VI, 
p. xiv, t. 78 B. A shrub with the branchlets and leaves of G. speciosa, 
but the leaves less acuminate and with longer petioles. Flowers as in 
speciosa, but the stamens less numerous and the rudimentary stigma 
discoid and flat. Ripe fruit unknown. 

Andaman Islands ; Kurz, King's Collector. 

This differs from G. speciosa chiefly in being a shrub, and in its 
rudimentary stigma being flat and discoid, instead of convex. Both 
this and speciosa differ but little from G. cornea, Roxb., a species indi- 
genous to Amboina. 

10. Garcinia Hombroniana, Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochin-Chine, fasc. 
VI, p. xii, t. 79, figs. D. E. F. J. A tree, with rather stout, 4-angled 
branches, yellowish when dry. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, slight- 
ly inequilateral, sub-acute or very shortly and abruptly blunt-acuminate ; 
the base cuneate, slightly unequal : upper surface slightly glossy, the 
under rather dull ; nerves numerous, ascending, not prominent on either 
surface ; the midrib bold on both ; length 35 to 5 on., breadth 2 to 2' 75 

21 



156 Q-. "King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

in., petiole - 5 in. Male flowers about 1 in. in diam., terminal, in fascicles 
of 3 to 6, pedicels '2 to "4 in. Sepals thinly coriaceous, concave, the 
outer pair orbicular ; the inner ovate-oblong, blunt. Petals ovate-orbi- 
cular, twice as long as the sepals. Stamens numerous ; the filaments united 
in a fleshy, slightly 4-lobed, annulus on which the broad, oblong, vertically 
dehiscing anthers are inserted ; rudimentary stigma slightly protruding 
above the mass of stamens, flat, 8-lobed. Female flower terminal, soli- 
tary, with sepals and petals like the male ; staminodes absent. Ovary 
globose ; the stigma large, convex, recurved at the edge when young, 
when adult with 8 shallow crenations. Fruit sub-globular, not mam- 
millate, about 1 in. in diam. ; the pericarp rather thin, sub-crustaceous ; 
sepals persistent. Seeds about 6, oblong, with soft juicy arillus. 

Malacca ; Griffith, No. 857 (Kew Dist.). Perak ; Scortechini (1 speci- 
men). Nicobar Islands ; Kurz, Jelinek. 

This species, which has been established by M. Pierre, comes (aa 
his own description and figures show) very near to G. cornea, Linn. It 
differs chiefly from cornea by its broader leaves, stouter branchlets and 
8-lobed stigma. Curtis's Penang specimen No. 690, probably belongs 
to this species. 

11. Garcinia mangostana, Linn. A glabrous tree 20 to 30 feet, 
high ; young branches cylindric, slightly grooved, the bark smooth, 
green. Leaves thickly coriaceous ; shining on both surfaces, elliptic- 
oblong, acute or shortly acuminate, the base cuneate ; nerves sub- 
horizontal, numerous, interarching with a double intra-marginal nerve, 
rather prominent beneath when dry ; length 6 to 10 in., breadth 2*5 to 
4'25 in., petiole "75 to 1 in. Male flowers 1*5 in. in diam., in terminal 
fascicles of 3 to 9 ; pedicels *5 to - 75 in., with several orbicular, concave, 
scarious bracts. Sepals 4, unequal, coriaceous, rotund, concave. Petals 
4, larger than the sepals, ovate, fleshy, yellowish tinged with greenish red, 
Stamens indefinite, in a 4-lobed mass ; filaments short : anthers oblong, 
ovate, recurved, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 0. Dish fleshy, as long 
as the stamens, its apex conical. Hermaphrodite flowers 2 in. in diam., 
solitary or in pairs at the apices of the young branches, and usually on 
different trees from the male flowers ; pedicel '5 in. long, stout, woody. 
Calyx and corolla as in the male, but larger. Stamens many ; filaments 
slender, connate below ; anthers irregular and mostly abortive. Ovary 
globular, 4 to 8 -celled; stigma sessile, 8-rayed ; ovules solitary. Fruit 
as large as a small oi'ange, smooth, dark purplish brown ; pericarp 
thick ; seeds oblong, flattened, with large white juicy arillus. Bl. 
Bijdr. 213 ; DO. Prod, i, 560 : Roxb. PI. Ind. ii, 618 : Bot. Mag. t. 4847 : 
Clioisy Guttif. Ind. 33: Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif. 170: Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. I, pfc. ii, p. 506: Hook. fii. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 260 : Kurz For. Fl. 



2890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, 157 

Burm. I, 87; Lanessan Mem. Garcin. 15: Pierre Flor. Forest. Cochin- 
Chine t. 54. 

Wild and cultivated in the Malayan Peninsula and Archipelago : 
cultivated also in Burma, Ceylon and a few places in the S. of India. 

12. Garcinia microstigma, Kurz, Journ. Bot. 1875, p. 324; For, 
Flora Burmah, I, 91. A shrub 4 to 6 feet high : young branches ob- 
scurely 4-angled, the bark dark-coloured. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-ob- 
long or lanceolate, sub-acute, the base cuneate ; rather dull on both 
surfaces when dry, the midrib distinct beneath ; main nerves 7 to 8 
pairs, thin, interarching '1 to '2 in. from the margin ; length 3 to 4 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 23 in., petiole '5 to '75 in. Male floivers '3 in. in diam., 
in 2 to 3-flowered, few bracteoled, axillary cymes ; buds globose ; pedi- 
cels - 2 to '25 in. long ; sepals 4, the outer pair ovate-acute, fleshy, keel- 
ed, the edges thin, longer than the inner obovate-orbicular, very con- 
cave, thinner pair : petals 4, obovate-oi'bicular, fleshy, concave, aboiit 
the same size as the inner sepals and barely covering the stamens ; stamens 
about 20, on a single convex receptacle, filaments short ; anthers red, 
broadly ovate, 2-celled, the dehiscence longitudinal : rudy. stigma 0. 
Female flowers (fide Kurz) on shorter pedicels than the male and pro- 
bably solitary, terminal. Fruit globose, 1*5 to 2 in. in. diam., the 
pericarp smooth, thin, red, the sepals persistent at its base, and its 
apex bearing the very minute discoid sessile entire stigma ; seeds 2 or 
more. Pierre Fl. Forest. Coch-Chine, fasc. VI, p. xix. 

South Andaman ; Kurz. 

13. Garcinia Penangiana, Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochin-Chine, fasc. 
vi, p. xxxvii, No. 46a. A slender tree 20 to 30 feet high ; the young 
branches glossy, pale brown when dry, slightly 4-angled. Leaves ob- 
long-lanceolate, shortly and rather bluntly acuminate, the base cuneate ; 
upper surface shining, the lower slightly dull and paler, both, (but especi- 
ally the lower) with a reddish tint when dry ; the midrib stout : nerves 
close, straight, sub-horizontal, faintly visible ; length 4'5 to 7 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 2'5, or even 3 in. ; petiole "5 in. or less. Male flowers 1 
in. in diam., in terminal fascicles of 3 to 6, pedicels about - 5 in. Sepals 
4 ; the outer pair rotund, fleshy, very concave ; the inner pair larger, 
thinner, elliptic, obtuse. Petals 4, rather longer than the inner sepals, 
oblong, blunt, creamy-white. Stamens indefinite, the filaments united 
in a slightly 4-lobed short fleshy mass : anthers short, broad, with 
longitudinal dehiscence ; pistil 0. Female flowers terminal, solitary, 
larger than the male and on shorter stouter peduncles. Style short, 
thick : ovary globular ; the stigma large, convex, hemisphei'ical, corru- 
gated, and deeply 4-lobed ; stamens none. Pipe fruit globular, more 
than 175 in, in diam., crowned by the persistent stigma, the thickened 



158 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

sepals persistent at its base ; pericarp thin, crustaceous. Seeds few, ovate. 
G. cornea, Wall. Oat. 4852 D. ; Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 260 (in pari). 
G. fascicular -is, Wall. Cat. 4853, Pierre 1. c, p. xvi. 

Penang; Porter (Wallieh's Collector), Curtis. Perak ; King's 
Collector, Scortechini. 

This plant, first distinguished as a species by M. Pierre, seems 
to be rather common in Penang and Perak. Ripe fruits are as yet un- 
known : those in Mr. Kunstler's specimens No. 3583 (noted by him as 
unripe) measure 1'25 in. in diam. A fruit on one of Scortechini's 
specimens measures half an inch more. Mr. Kunstler notes the tree 
as occurring at elevations of 300 up to 3,000 feet. The foregoing de- 
scription of the flower does not quite agree with that of M. Pierre, 
which was drawn up from specimens without female flowers and with 
buds only of the male flowers. 

14. Garcinia malaccensis, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 261. A tree; 
the branchlets rather stout, 4-angled. Leaves brown when dry, elliptic, 
shortly and abruptly acuminate, the base much narrowed, shining above, 
the lower surface rather dull ; midrib bold, prominent on both surfaces ; 
nerves numerous, faint, sub-horizontal, connected by oblique secondary 
nerves ; length 4 to 8 in., breadth 15 to 2 - 5 in. ; petiole "4 to "6 in., 
channelled. Male flowers 1 in. in diam., in terminal fascicles p£ 4 to 6 ; 
pedicels '35 to "65 in. long. Sepals orbicular, concave, fleshy. Petals 
twice as long as the sepals, dull red, broadly ovate, shortly clawed. 
Stamens very numerous, densely imbricated in a sub-cylindric or conical 
truncate mass formed of the fleshy conjoined filaments ; anthers adnate, 
broadly ovoid, 2-celled, the connective broad : stigma large, convex. 
Ovary abortive. Female flowers 15 to 2 in. in diam. terminal, solitary, 
red. Staminodes few or 0. Ovary globose, 8-celled ; stigma sessile, 
large, convex, enveloping half the ovary, much corrugated and deeply 
8-lobed. Fruit unknown. Pierre Flore Forest. Coch. -Chine, fasc. VI, 
p. xi, t. 78, fig. D. 

Malacca; Maingay (Kew Distrib. No. 149). Of this I have seen 
only Maingay's specimens. In its leaves, in the colour of its flowers, 
and in its 8-lobed stigma, this resembles G. mangostana. 

15. Garcinia maingayi, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 267. A tree 40 to 
60 feet high ; young branches thick, 4-angled, and dark-coloured when 
dry. Leaves oblong-elliptic, obtuse with short blunt apiculus, the base 
narrowed ; both surfaces shining, the lower pale brown when dry ; 
nerves 9 to 13 pairs, bold, spreading, prominent beneath as is the midrib ; 
length 45 to 7 in., breadth 2'25 to 3'25 in., petiole - 75 in. Male flowers 
1 to 1"25 in. in diam., waxy white, in terminal or axillary, 3 to 6- 
flowcred, shortly peduncled umbels ; pedicels '25 to '5 in, long. Sepals 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of tlie Malayan Peninsula. 159 

4, orbicular, fleshy, concave, the outer pair rather smaller than the 
inner. Petals 4, larger than the sepals, ovate-orbicular, fleshy, concave. 
Stamens very numerous, forming with the rudimentary pistil a dense 
globular mass ; the filaments slender, in several rows from a stipitate 
fleshy receptacle ; anthers oblong, curved, 2-celled, with extrorse longi- 
tudinal dehiscence ; rudy. pistil cylindric, with a broad discoid stigma. 
Female flowers solitary, terminal, sub-sessile ; sepals and petals as in the 
male but smaller ; staminodes few, slender ; ovary globose 4 to 6-celled ; 
the stigma large, convex, papillose, entire or very slightly 4-lobed. 
Fruit globular, 2 to 2'5 in. in diam. when quite ripe ; crowned by the 
large, flat, discoid, papillose, slightly 4-lobed stigma. Pierre Flore 
Cocb. -Chine, fasc. VI, p. xvii. 

Perak ; common. Malacca; Maingay (Kew Dist. 160 and 161). 
Pangkore ; Curtis No. 1610. 

In Scortechini's field-note on this species, the young branches are 
described as terete ; but, in the dried state, they are distinctly 4- 
angled. 

Var. stylosa ; stigma on a thick style "3 in. long. 

Perak. King's Collector, No. 5359. 

Only specimens with immature fruit are known, but these differ 
from the typical form in no respect except the stout style. 

16. Garcinia atroviridis, Griff. MSS. A graceful tree 40 to 60 feet 
high ; the young branches rather thick, sub-terete, yellowish-grey when 
dry. Leaves coriaceous, both surfaces shining ; narrowly oblong, very 
shortly but sharply acuminate, the base cuneate ; nerves numerous, spread- 
ing, straight, indistinct when fresh, but rather distinct when dry, anas- 
tomosing '05 to 1 in. from the edge with a fine intra-marginal nerve : 
length 4-5 to 8 in., breadth 1-25 to 2 in , petiole, -6 to -75 in. Male flowers 
1:25 in. in diam., in terminal clusters of few-flowered cymes, pedicels un- 
equal, from '25 in. to "75 in., long. Sepals 4, fleshy, concave ; the outer 
pair orbicular or transversely oblong ; the inner pair broadly oblong or 
orbicular, fleshy with thin edges, larger than the outer pair, streaked 
with red inside. Petals 4, orbicular-obovate, concave, fleshy, larger 
than the sepals, red. Stamens very numerous, forming with the large 
convex rudimentary stigma a globose mass ; filaments slender, nearly 
as long as the anthers, inserted in whorls on a thin annular fleshy recep- 
tacle : anthers narrowly oblong, 2-celled, extrorse, the dehiscence longi- 
tudinal. Rudy, style cylindric. Female floivers terminal, solitary, rarely 
geminate ; sepals and petals as in the male, but the petals smaller ; 
staminodes small, attached to a thin fleshy wavy annulus which sur- 
rounds the ribbed, sub-cylindric, 12- to 16-celled ovary. Stigma thick, 
fleshy, very convex, pileate, deep red, the edges undulate. Fruit (fide 



160 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Scortechini) globular, 3 in. in diam. yellowish-green, crowned by the 
sessile, concave, ribbed stigma. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 266 : Pierre 
Fl. Coch. -Chine, fasc. VI, p. xxiv, tab. 80, fig. C. 

Malacca; Maingay (Kew Dist. No. 154.) Perak; Scortechini, Wray. 
Wellesley Province, King's Collector. Penang, Curtis, No. 855. 

According to Mr. Curtis, the fruit is eaten by the Malays in cui'ries, 
and the tree is a very handsome one with pendulous branches. I have 
not seen fully ripe fruit, and the above description of it is taken from 
Fr. Scortechini' s field notes. 

17. Garcinia opaca, King. A tree 40 to 60 feet high ; the branchlets 
when dry, dull dirty yellow, striate. Leaves oblong, narrowed at each 
end, the apex sometimes shortly acuminate, the base cuneate ; upper sur- 
face slightly shining, lower surface opaque, whitish ; the rather numer- 
ous nearly horizontal nerves thin, little visible on either surface, the 
midrib bold and prominent on both; length 4 to 5 in., breadth P75 to 
2*25 in., petiole "6 in. Male flowers '75 in. in diam., in shortly pedicelled, 
2 to 3-flowered, ebracteolate, terminal or axillary cymes ; pedicels '25 
in., annulated ; sepals 4, obovate, concave, thin, veined ; petals 4, 
similar to the sepals but a little larger : stamens numerous, on a single, 
convex, fleshy receptacle ; anthers sessile, depressed-globular, with cir- 
cumscissile dehiscence : rudy. stigma 0. Female flowers solitary, termi- 
nal : sepals more coriaceous than those of the male flower ; staminodes 
; ovary cylindric ; stigma convex, smooth, the edge irregularly sub- 
crenate. Fruit solitary, terminal, ovate-globose, slightly mammillate, 
crowned by the broad flat stigma which has 4 broad shallow rounded 
lobes ; the sepals rounded, cartilaginous, persistent ; pericarp brown 
when dry, thin, crustaceous. Seeds several, ovoid, flattened on one side. 
G. cornea, Wall. Cat. 4852 E. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Scortechini. 

Distinguished by its leaves opaque and whitish beneath and with 
faint sub-horizontal nerves. In fruit this resembles G. Penangiana ; 
but it has a very different stigma. 

18. Garcinia calycina, Kurz, Journ. Bot. 1875, p. 324. A shrub 15 
feet higli ; young branches slender, slightly angled, pale brown when dry. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong to elliptic, abruptly and shortly 
caudate-acuminate or sub-acute, the base cuneate ; upper surface shin- 
ing, the lower rather dull and pale ; main nerves 7 or 8 pairs forming 
bold intra- marginal arches, the intermediate nerves very numerous, all 
slightly prominent beneath; length 3 to 5 in., breadth 1*25 to 2 in., 
petiole "3 to '5 in. Male flowers '15 in. in diam., axillary, solitary or in 
2- to 3-flowered fascicles ; buds globular, pedicels "15 in. long. Sepals 
and petals each 4, equal, orbicular, concave, the petals veined ; stamens 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 161 

under 20, in a single convex group, the filaments very short, the con- 
nective rather thick, the elongate 2-celled anthers bent like a horse shoe 
over the apex of the connective and dehiscing along the convexity ; rndy, 
stigma 0. Female flowers larger than the male, snbsessile, solitary, 
axillary ; sepals broadly ovate, the outer pair larger than the inner ; stami- 
nodes about 12, distinct, short, square; ovary hidden by the large hemi- 
spheric, lacunose, deeply 4-lobed stigma. Fruit (immature) ovoid-oblong, 
smooth, the sepals persistent at its base and the apex crowned by the 
sessile stigma. Pierre Flore Forest. Coch .-Chine, fasc. VI, p. xxxiii, 
tab. 87 D. 

Nicobar Islands ; Kurz. 

19. Garcinia costata, Hemsley MSS. in Herb. Kew. A tree 50 to 
70 feet high; young branches pale, flattened. Leaves thinly coriaceous, 
elliptic, acute, the base cuneate ; both surfaces rather dull, the lower paler ; 
nerves bold, spreading, 13 to 18 pairs, very distinct on the lower surface 
when dry ; length 6 to 14 in., breadth 3'5 to 6 in. ; petiole 1 to 1*5 in., 
stout. Male flowers 1 to l - 25 in. in diam., in shortly peduncled, 3- to 5- 
flowered, terminal cymes ; pedicels "25 to "5 in. Sepals 4, equal, orbicular, 
fleshy, concave. Petals larger than the sepals, pale yellow with a reddish 
tinge, orbicular-ovate, fleshy, concave. Stamens numerous, forming with 
the discoid stigma an oblong 4-angled mass ; filaments short, thick, in- 
serted on a fleshy receptacle ; anthers thick, cuneate with flattish tops, 
2-celled ; the cells large, curved, with extrorse longitudinal dehiscence ; 
rudimentary stigma large, discoid. Female flowers solitary, terminal, on 
short thick pedicels : sepals and petals as in the male : staminodes about 
12 : ovary with many vertical grooves ; stigma large, discoid, with 
radiating grooves corresponding to those of the ovary, the edge wavy. 
Fruit depressed-spheroidal, 3 in. in diam. by 2 in. high, with many deep 
vertical grooves, pale rose-coloured to crimson. 

Perak ; on Gunong Bubo at elevations of 2500 to 3000 feet, King's 
Collector ; Maxwell's hill, Wray. 

A remarkably fine species, at once known by its large deeply 
grooved eatable fruit. 

20. Garcinia Griffithii, T. Anders, in Hook. Fl. Ind. I, 266. A 
tree 60 to 100 feet high, the young branches sub-tetragonous, yellowish- 
green. Leaves large, coriaceous, bullate, oval to ovate-elliptic, sub-acute 
or rather blunt ; the base slightly narrowed, sometimes slightly cordate ; 
both surfaces shining, the lower paler; midrib stout; nerves 16 to 24 
pairs, bold, sub-horizontal ; length 9 to 16 in., breadth 4 to 8 in., petiole 
•6 in. Male flowers '75 in. in diam., in dense 3 to 10-flowered cymes 
from tubercles in the axils of leaves or of fallen leaves ; pedicels '25 in. 
Sepals 4, equal, orbicular, fleshy, concave. Petals . 4, oblong, blunt 



162 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

fleshy, red. Stamens from 25 to 40, in a square flat-topped mass : 
anthers nearly sessile, broadly oblong, the connective wide ; the cells 2, 
lateral, slightly curved, their dehiscence longitudinal ; rudy. ovary 9. 
Female flowers in few-flowered axillary cymes; pedicels thick, 2 in. long. 
Sepals and petals as in the male ; staminodes in 4 bundles of unequal 
length : ovary ribbed, 12-celled ; style very short ; stigma with many 
conical papillae, peltate, slightly depressed in the middle, its margins 
crenate, Fruit sub-globular, 2 to 3 in. in diam. when ripe, greenish 
yellow, crowned by the concave papillate stigma, very glutinous. Pierre 
Flore Ooch. -Chine, fasc. VI, p. xxvi, tab. 80, fig. B. 

Malacca; Griffith 861, Maiugay 153 (Kevv Distrib). Perak, com- 
mon. Pangkore, Curtis 1609. Distrib. Sumatra ; Forbes, No. 2994. 

21. Garcinia Forbesii, King, n. sp. A small tree, young branches 
subtetragonous, yellowish. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblanceolate to ovate- 
lanceolate, shortly acuminate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces slightly 
dull when dry, the lower slightly pale ; nerves spreading, anastomosing 
with an intra-marginal nerve, '15 in. apart, the intermediate rather bold, 
all distinct below when dry ; length 3 - 5 to 5 in. breadth l - 5 to 2 - 5 in., 
petiole "3 to "4 in. Male floivers '25 in. diam. in 3 or 4-flowered clusters 
from small axillary tubercles, buds sub-globose, pedicels "1 to '15 in. 
Sepals 4, equal, rather thin, pale-coloured, orbicular, concave. Petals 4, 
fleshy, orbicular, dark-coloured, concave. Stamens numerous, in a single 
convex mass, the connective small ; anthers sessile, sub-orbicular, 2-celled 
with longitudinal dehiscence ; rudy. ovary 0. Female flowers axillary, 
solitaiy, sessile : sepals 4, broadly ovate, blunt, fleshy, concave ; petals 4, 
orbicular, fleshy, concave, red to orange ; stigma sessile, convex, com- 
pletely covering the ovary, entire, its surface with prominent glandular 
papillfe. Fruit (young) ovoid, crowned by the stigma. 

Perak; Wray 3396. Sumatra; Forbes Nos. 2936 and 3152. 

22. Garcinia bancana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl., 494. A tree 60 
to 80 feet high ; young branches stout, nodular, not angled, black and 
shining when dry. Leaves coriaceous, large, broadly obovate-lanceolate ; 
the apex rounded, often slightly and bluntly mucronate : much narrowed 
in the lower third into the stout winged petiole ; upper surface shining, 
the numerous and very oblique nerves distinct ; lower surface dull, 
opaque, pale brown, the nerves obsolete ; midrib prominent in both ; 
length 5 to 7 in., breadth 2 to 3 in., petiole - 75 to 1'25 in. Male flowers 
•15 in. in diam., in crowded fascicles of 6 to 12, from short densely 
bracteolate tubercles in the axils of leaves or of fallen leaves ; pedicels 
unequal, '25 to - 5 in. long; bracteoles ovate, coloui'ed, 1 in. or less. 
Sepals 4, orbicular, concave, fleshy, the outer pair larger than the 
inner. Petals 4, ovate, blunt, fleshy, concave. Stamens numerous, in a 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 163 

convex sub-cylindric mass : the anthers snb-sessile, broad, with 2 small 
oval cells at the extremities of the transversely lengthened connective ; 
rudimentary pistil 0. Female floiver solitary ?, sub-sessile ; staminodes 
6 to 10, solitary or in two or three groups. Ovary sessile, globular, 
slightly grooved vertically : stigma hemispheric, with 8 triangular rays. 
Fruit ovoid, 1"25 in. long, and 11 in. diam. ; about 8-seeded. Miq. 
Ann. Mus. Lugd Bat. I, 208 ; Hook. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 263 ; Scheff. Obs. 
Phyt. pt. ii, 41 ; Pierre Flore Forest. Cochin-Chine fasc. VI, pp. xxvi 
and xxxviii. Garcinia Lamponga, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 494 ; Ann. 
Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 208 ; Pierre 1. c. G. Ilookeri, Pierre 1. c. p. xxvii. 
G. leucandra, Pierre, 1. c. xxvii. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Scortechini. Malacca ; Maingay (No. 158, 
Kew Dist.). Distrib. Banka, Sumatra. 

I have examined the type specimens of Miquel's G. bancana and 
Lamponga, and I believe them to belong to one and the same species. 
One of his Sumatran specimens of G. Lamponga bears, however, besides 
leaves of the shape described above, some that are broadly elliptic. 
Pierre reduces to this two more of Miquel's Sumatran species, namely, 
G. oxyedra and G. ? oxyphylla (Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 494, 495) ; but of 
these I have not seen Miquel's types. 

23. Garcinia Cowa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 622. A dioecious tree 30 to 
60 feet high : young branches slender, not angled, dark-coloured when 
dry. Leaves broadly lanceolate, acute at both ends, the apex sometimes 
acuminate, both surfaces rather dull when dry : the nerves thin but 
rather distinct when dry, numerous, rather straight, oblique ; length 
3'5 to 5 in. breadth 1 to 1"75 in. petiole - 3 to "5 in. Male flowers - 4 in. 
in diam., axillary or terminal, in fascicles of 3 to 8 ; pedicels "25 in. 
Sepals broadly ovate, fleshy, yellow. Petals twice as long as the sepals, 
obovate or oblong, blunt, yellow. Stamens numerous, on a convex fleshy 
receptacle, anthers 4-celled, stigma rudimentary. Female Jloivers - 8 in. 
in diam., terminal, in fascicles of 2 or 3, pedicellate like the males ; 
ovary sub-globose, 6 to 8-celled ; stigma sessile, flat, deeply divided into 
6 or 8, papillose, wedge-shaped rays ; staminodes in 4 clusters of 3 to 8, 
unequal. Fruit globular-depressed, not mammillate, with 4 to 8 vertical 
grooves, smooth, yellow, '8 to 1*5 in. in diam.; pericarp thin; seeds 
"5 to "75 in. long, oblong, with a soft arillus. DO. Prodr. i, 561; W. 
and A. Prodr. i, 101 ; Chois. Guttif. Ind. 34; Planch, and Triana Mem. 
Guttif . 186 ; Wall. Cat. 4863 ; Lanessan Mem. Garcin. 54 ; G. Box- 
burghii, Wight Ic. 104. Kurz For. Fl. Burm. I, 90. Oxycarpus Gangetica, 
Ham. in Mem. Wern. Soc. V, 344. 

Andaman Islands ? Distrib. Assam and base of the Khasia Hills, 
Chittagong, Burmah ; in tropical forests. 
22 



164 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No, 2, 

This is very near G. Kydiana but differs in the points noted under 
that species. 

24. Garcinia Kydiana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. II, 623. A diceceous tree, 25 
to 40 feet high ; the branchlets dark-coloured when dry, not angled. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, lanceolate, acuminate, the base acute, both sur- 
faces shining ; nerves thin but distinct when dry, rather few for this 
genus; length 3 to 5 in., breadth - 75 to 15 in. : petiole - 35 to - 5 in. Male 
flowers '75 in. in diam., in small axillary or terminal pedunculate umbels 
of 3 to 5, or solitary ; pedicels '25 in. long ; peduncles of the umbels '4 to 
'6 in. Sepals 4, equal, ovate, obtuse, fleshy, yellow. Petals twice as 
large as the sepals, broadly ovate, blunt, pale yellow. Anthers numerous, 
inserted into the slightly 4-lobed fleshy mass of conjoined filaments, 
square, 4-celled (a cell at each angle) pistil 0. Female flowers axillary 
and terminal, solitary, sessile. Se2)als and petals as in the male ; stami- 
nodes 4, small, 3 or 4-fid. Ovary globular, sessile, 6 to 8-lobed ; stigma 
sub-sessile, with 6 to 8 spreading glandular rays. Fruit 1 to 1*5 in. in 
diam., smooth, yellow, globular, depressed, with 6 to 8 deep vertical 
grooves near the apex, and with a nipple-like protuberance from the 
depressed apex on which is inserted the persistent stigma. Seeds 6 to 
8, oblong, - 85 in. long ; the arillus soft, acid, juicy. Kurz For. Fl. Burm. 
I, 90 ,in part ; Pierre Fl. Forest. Coch. -Chine, fasc. VI. p. xxix. Lanes- 
san Mem. Garcin. 59, in part; G. Boxburghii, Wight Ic. 113; G. Coiva 
Roxb. Hook. fil. Fl. B. Ind. I, in part. 

Andaman Islands. 

Of the true Roxburghian G. Kydiana, the only specimens that I 
have seen are from the Andamans. The Burmese specimens referred to 
this species by Pierre and others belong mostly to O. Coiva as Roxburgh 
described and figured it. But the two species are very closely allied. 
The chief points that separate Kydiana from Gowa are its larger flowers, 
the arrangement of the males in distinct pedunculate umbels, the females 
always solitary and sessile ; and, in the fruit, the curious nipple rising 
from the depressed apex, and the restriction of the vertical grooves to 
the neighbourhood of the apex. In the Flora of Br. India the two are 
united under G. Coiva. Griffith's Nos. 865 and 867, referred to Kydiana 
by Pierre, belong in my opinion to G. nigro-lineata, Planch. 

25. Garcinia nigro-lineata, Planch. MSS. A tree 20 to 50 feet 
high ; young branches not angled, their bark rather dark. Leaves thinly 
coriaceous, lanceolate and acuminate, or ovate-lanceolate and shortly 
catidate-acuminate, the base acute ; both surfaces shining, the lower 
ferruginous in some stages ; midrib rather stout ; main nerves rather 
distinct when dry, about T to T5 in. apart, the intermediate nerves 
almost as prominent ; length 3 to 4'5 in., breadth 1 to 1/5 in., petiole 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 165 

•2 to '4 in. Male flowers "25 in. in diam., in umbels of 3 to 8, on the 
apices of the branches, or from the axils of leaves or of fallen leaves ; 
pedicels "25 to '5 in., slender. Sepals orbicular, fleshy, concave. Petals 
longer than the sepals, oblong, obtuse, concave. Stamens about 20, 
forming a tetragonal mass inserted on a convex receptacle, the filaments 
very short ; anthers broad, cuneate with flat tops, 4-celled with vertical 
dehiscence, the connective thick ; pistil 0. Female flowers apetalous, 
solitary, or in clusters of 2 to 5, axillary ; ovary ovoid, 5 or 7-celled ; 
stigma large, convex with a central smooth depression, bearing many 
black papillee, and obscurely 5- to 7-lobed ; staminodes about 8 to 10, 
not branched, their heads flat. Fruit ovoid-globose, '5 to '75 in. in diam., 
orange-coloured, pulpy, with a thick fleshy apiculous crowned by the 
persistent stigma. Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 263. Pierre Flore Forest. 
Cock -Chine, fasc. VI, p. xxix, (excl. t. 81, fig. F.) G. parvifolia, Miq. 
Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 208. Rkinostigma parvifolium, Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. Supp. 495. 

In all the provinces ; in tropical forests. Distrib. Sumatra. 

This is one of the commonest species of the genus. The pulpy 
fruit is eaten by the aborigines. Griff. No. 854 and Maingay Nos. 152 
and 162 are the specimens on which Planchon founded the species. Griff. 
Nos. 865 and 867 (referred by Planchon and Triana and also by Pierre 
to O. Kydiana, Roxb.) in my opinion fall here, as also does O. umbellifera, 
Wall Cat. 4864, but Anderson reduces the latter to O. Coiva, Linn. Pierre's 
figure, (t. 81, fig. F.), which he names S. nigro-Hneata, does not represent 
the flowers of the type specimens in the Calcutta Herbarium which bear 
the numbers which Pierre quotes. I fear therefore that there must 
have been some confusion in the distribution of the Griffithian collec- 
tions. 

It is quite possible that the description which I have given above 
may cover two species. The specimens with lanceolate-acuminate leaves 
have rather more erect and fainter nerves than these with ovate-lanceolate 
caudate-acuminate leaves. But, although I have dissected a large num- 
ber of the male flowers of each, I cannot detect any tangible difference. 
Unfortunately I have been able to find very few female flowers. An 
examination of Miquel's type specimen of his Rkinostigma parvifolium 
leaves no doubt whatever that it is identical with Planchon 's O. nigro- 
lineata. 

I never find the petals l-eflexed : but Anderson, in Hook. fil. Fl. 
Br. Ind. (1. c), describes them, and Pierre (1. c), figures them, as reflexed 
from about the middle. 

26. Garcinia Kunstletu, King, n. sp. A shrub, 6 to 8 (rarely 15) 
feet high ; the young branches dark-coloured, not-angled. Leaves mem- 



166 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [Ko. 2, 

branous, oblanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, shortly but sharply 
acuminate, the base much narrowed ; smooth on both surfaces, the lower 
rather pale ; nerves indistinct, spreading, 9 to 13 pairs, some of the 
intermediate almost as distinct as the primary ; length 3'5 to 5 in., 
breadth P15 to 1"8 in., petiole "35 to '6 in. Male flowers about "15 in. 
in diam., in small axillary or terminal fascicles of 3 to 6. Sepals 4, orbi- 
cular, fleshy, concave, their edges thin. Petals 4, bi*oadly ovate, blunt, 
fleshy, concave. Stamens about 15, forming a convex mass ; the anthers 
transversely flattened, 4-celled, the connective broad ; rudimentary pistil 
0. Female flowers solitary ; sepals 4, orbicular, membranous, veined. 
Petals 0. Staminodes 4, with filaments half as long as the ovary, and flat 
scpiare heads. Ovary thick, cylindric, vertically grooved ; the stigma 
convex, with large prominent black-tipped conical papillae, and with about 
10 inconspicuous lobes. Fruit orange-yellow, depressed, sub-globose, 
nearly 1*5 in. in diam., smooth, the sepals persistent at its base for some 
time. 

Perak ; at low elevations, common : King's Collector, Scortechini, 
Wray. 

This is allied to the Burmese O. linoceroides, T. Anders. ; but has 
smaller flowers, fewer stamens and more acuminate leaves. 

27. Garcinia Scortechinii, King, n. sp. A tree 20 to 40 feet high ; 
branchlets yellowish, slightly angled. Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate- 
elliptic, occasionally ovate-lanceolate, shortly and rather bluntly acumi- 
nate, the base acute : both surfaces shining, the lower rather paler ; 
main nerves 5 or 6 pairs, spreading, anastomising "2 in. from the margin, 
very distinct on the under surface when dry, reticulations indistinct ; 
length 2'75 to 4-75 in., breadth 1-5 to 2'5 in , petiole '25 in. Male 
flowers "2 in. in diam., sessile or shortly pedicellate, in clusters of 3 to 6 
from small axillary tubercles ; sepals 4, orbicular, concave, thin, veined ; 
petals 4, broadly ovate, fleshy, concave ; stamens varying from 10 
to 20, inserted on a 4-angled receptacle ; anthers with circular peltate 
tops, the connective in the centre the cells circumferential, dehisc- 
ing along the edge ; filaments slender, shorter than the anthers ; 
rudimentary pistil 0. Female flowers nearly - 5 in. in diam., axillary, 
solitary, sessile or shortly pedicellate. Ovary globose ; stigma sessile, 
with large lobules, obscurely 4-lobed. Fruit globular, '6 to '75 in. in 
diam. ; the pericarp thick, leathery ; seeds about 4. 

Perak, common. Malacca; Griffith (Kew Distrib. 859). Penang, 
Curtis, 1249. 

This is not very different from Q Ghoisyana, Wall, to which indeed 
Pierre refers the Griffithian specimen 859. But Wallich's specimens of 
Q. Ghoisyana have leaves of so much thinner texture that, on the strength 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 167 

of this character alone, the two must be kept distinct. This species is 
readily known by its boldly 5 to -7-nerved leaves and bard, globular, 
small fruit. 

28. Gaecinia ueophtlla, Scortechini MSS. A tree ; the branchlets 
very slender, terete, yellowish. Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, 
caudate-acuminate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces shining, the lower 
pale ; nerves 4 to 5 pairs, ascending, distinct below when dry ; length 2*25 
to 3 in., breadth \7 to P2 in., petiole '15. Male flowers - 2 in. in diam., 
solitary or in pairs, from small bracteolate axillary tubercles : buds 
globose, pedicels 1 in. or less ; sepals 4, obtuse, sub-coriaceous, concave, 
subequal, ovate-orbicular; petals 4, orbicular, almost flat, very fleshy, 
much thickened near the base ; stamens about 12, in a single group, with 
flat circular tops, the connective in the middle, and the anther round 
the edge dehiscing circumferentially ; filaments thick, fleshy : rudy. 
stigma 0. Female jloivers axillary, solitary, sub-sessile : sepals and petals 
as in the male ; staminodes about 6, free : ovary cylindric ; stigma 
convex, boldly lobulate and deeply 4-cleft. Fruit ovoid-orbicular "4 in. 
long by '35 in. in diam., smooth, crowned by the sessile lobulate stigma. 

Perak ; Scortechini Nos. 32 a , 723. Distrib. Sumatra ; Beccari, 
No. 963. 

In the size and shape of the leaves, this has a superficial resena- 
bance to G. rostrata, eugenicefolia and merguensis ; but the nerves are 
only 4 or 5, while in these the nerves are numerous. Moreover the 
androecium of this is totally different. 

29. Gaecinia unifloea, King, n. sp. A small tree ; the young 
branches rather stout, terete, of a dirty yellow when dry. Leaves ovate- 
oblong to elliptic-oblong, the apex abruptly shortly and sharply acuminate, 
the base cuneate ; both surfaces dull, the lower pale and opaque ; main 
nerves 12 to 20 pairs, thin, but rather prominent, the secondary nerves 
almost as distinct ; length 5 - 5 to 7'5 in., breadth 2'5 to 4"25 in. ; petiole 
"75 to 1 in. thick, channelled. Male floiuers '75 in. in diam., solitary, sessile 
in the axils of fallen leaves, buds globular : sepals 4, sub-equal, obovate- 
orbicular, membranous, veined, concave ; petals 4, orbicular, concave, 
fleshy, smaller than the sepals ; stamens rather numerous, in an undi- 
vided globose mass ; anthers sessile, peltate, or sub-globose with flat tops, 
dehiscing by a circular infra- marginal slit. Female Jloivers solitary and 
axillary like the males, and with a similar perianth ; staminodes ; 
stigma convex, deeply papillose ; the ovary short, cylindric. Fruit un- 
known. 

Perak ; on Gunong Batu Puteh, at elevations of 3000 to 4000 feet, 
King's Collector 8081, Scortechini 364 b . 

30. Garcinia dumosa, King, n. sp. A shrub 3 or 4 feet high ; young 



168 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

branches 4-angled, yellow. Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate to 
oblong-lanceolate, shortly caudate-acuminate, the base acute ; both sur- 
faces shining, the lower pale, opaque ; nerves 7 to 9 pairs, bold and promi- 
nent beneath as are some of the secondary nerves ; length 4'5 to 5'5 in., 
breadth 1*5 to 2 in., petiole '25 in. Male flowers about "2 in. in diam. in 
dense 6 to 10-flowered fascicles from small minutely bracteolate axillary 
tubercles; buds turbinate; pedicels slender, - 1 in. or less in length; 
sepals 4, membranous, orbicular, concave ; the outer pair much smaller 
and thicker, keeled ; petals 4, smaller than the sepals, fleshy, orbicular, 
concave : stamens from a small receptacle ; filaments short ; anthers 
broadly reniform, the connective expanded transversely, the cells some- 
times confluent, bent round it, and dehiscing along the convexity ; rudy. 
stigma 0. Female flowers on axillary tubercles like the males, but 
fewer-flowered : sepals as in the male but subequal : petals as in the 
male ; staminodes about 10, distinct, the filaments broad, the pseud - 
anthers flat, ovate : stigma convex with 8 radiating ridges, its margin 
8-angled ; ovary thick, cylindric, nearly as wide as the stigma. Fruit 
(fide Kunstler) ovoid, pointed. 

Perak; at low elevations, Wray No. 2162, King's Collector, No. 
2531. 

Subgenus II. Xanthochymus, Roxb. (Gen.). Sepals and petals 
5, very rarely 4. Filaments connate in 5, rarely in 4, erect distant pedi- 
celled spathulate bodies, antheriferous at the top, free portions very 
short, incurved ; anthers small, didymous. 

31. Garcinia Xanthochymus, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 269. A me- 
dium-sized tree ; the branches glabrous, angled. Leaves glabrous, shining ; 
narrowly oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute, the base cuneate ; nerves 
numerous, not prominent ; length 8 to 15 in., breadth l - 75 to 3'75 in., 
petiole about '75 in. Male flowers '5 to "75 in. in diam., in 4-10-flowered 
fascicles, axillary or from the axils of fallen leaves, greenish-white ; 
pedicels stout, '5 to 1 in. long. Sepals '25 in. in diam., orbicular, unequal, 
fleshy, concave. Petals "35 in., orbicular, spreading, thin. Stamens in 
5 broad bundles of 3 to 5, alternating with 5 fleshy glands : anthers 2- 
celled. Hermaph. flower like the male, the pedicels 2 or 3 times as long. 
Ovary ovoid, pointed, usually 5-celled; stigma with 5, spreading, oblong 
blunt lobes. Ripe fruit globose, pointed, 2'5 in. in diam., dark yellow. 
Seeds 1 to 4, oblong. Kurz For. Flora Burma i, 93 ; Pierre Flore 
Forest. Cochin-Chine, fasc. VI, p. iii, t. 21 A. Xanthochymus pictorius, 
Roxb. Corom. PI. ii, 51, t. 196 ; Fl. Ind. ii, 633. X. tinctorius, DC. 
Prodr. i, 562 ; Chois. Guttif. Ind. 32 ; Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif. 
149; W. and A. Prodr. 102; Wall. Cat. 4837, except C. 

Andamans, Penang. Distrib. Burmah and Chittagong, base of E, 
Himalaya and Assam, S. India up to 1500 feet. 



1890.] G. King — Materials of a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 169 

Sheet C of No. 4837 of Wall. Cat. (said to have been collected in 
Penang) does not in my opinion belong to this species. Its leaves have 
too few nerves. 

32. Garcinia nervosa, Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. I, 208. A tree 
40 to 80 feet high : young branches stout, compressed, 4-angled, 2 of the 
angles winged. Leaves large, glabrous, very coriaceous, oblong-oblanceo- 
late or oblong-ovate, sub-acute or obtuse, slightly narrowed below to the 
rounded or minutely cordate base ; upper surface shining ; the lower 
dull, pale ; main nerves bold, numerous, anastomising *1 in. within the 
margin with the bold intra- marginal nerve : secondaiy nerves and 
reticulations rather prominent : length 9 to 20 in., breadth 35 to 7 in., 
petiole 1"25 in. Male flowers unknown. Female flowers '75 in. in diam., 
in axillary fascicles of 8 to 10 ; pedicels thickened upwards, 1 to 1'25 
in. long, (longer in the fruit). Sepals 5, unequal, orbicular, much imbri- 
cate and very concave, very coriaceous, pubescent externally. Petals 
5, much larger than the sepals, orbicular, concave, thin. Disk of 5 
thick, fleshy, pitted glands with 5 minute staminodes between them 
each bearing 4-5 minute anthers. Ovary ovoid, narrowed into a dis- 
tinct 5-rayed style, 5-celled. Ripe fruit ovoid or obovoid, yellow with 
red blotches, 2 in. long and 15 in. in diam., with a large eccentric 
mammilla crowned by the persistent 5-lobed stigma. Seeds about 2, 
elongate-ovoid. O. Andersoni, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 270, 715 ; 
Stalagmites ? nervosa, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 496. 

Perak; King's Collector 10491, Scortechini. Malacca; Maingay 
(Kew Distrib. 157). Distrib. Sumatra. 

Var. pubescens. Leaves densely and minutely pubescent below, 
cordate and slightly unequal at the base, 15 to 24 in. long, the edges re- 
curved when dry ; petiole triquetrous, very stout. Fruit bright yellow, 
3 in. long, 2 in. in diam., the mammilla about "75 in. 

Perak: King's collector, No. 3197. 

This may be separable as a species when further material shall be 
forthcoming. Male flowers are unknown. 

33. Garcinia dulcis, Kurz For. Flora Burmah I, 92. A tree 30 to 
40 feet high : the young branches 4-angled, pale yellow. Leaves oblong 
to ovate-oblong, with an abrupt short sharp point, the base rounded or 
slightly narrowed ; upper surface shining, the lower slightly pale and 
dull when dry, the midrib rather prominent on both; main nerves about 
10 pairs, interarching near the margin, not much more prominent than 
the intermediate nerves; length 5 to 10 in., breadth l - 75 to 4*5 in. ; 
petiole '4 to '6 in., stout. Floivers globular, hardly expanding, about 
•25 in. in diam., male and hermaphrodite mixed in dense many-flowered 
fascicles from small tubercles in the axils of the leaves or of the fallen 



170 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

leaves; pedicels *25 to - 35 in., sepals 4 to 6, usually 5, orbicular, un- 
equal, fleshy, concave, the 3 outer smaller. Petals usually 5, larger than 
the sepals, orbicular, fleshy, concave ; Stamens about 40, in 5. pedicelled, 
fan-shaped groups ; filaments short, thick ; anthers sub-globular, 2- 
celled, with sutural dehiscence ; disk in the male depressed, truncate, 
corrugated, fleshy ; in the female with 5 lobes which alternate with the 
staminal groups. Stigma in the male absent ; in the hermaphrodite 5- 
rayed, the ovary ovoid-globular. Fruit 2'5 in. long, from globular to 
pear-shaped, pedunculate, smooth, yellow, with much sweet pulp; seeds 1 
to 5, oblong, pointed; pedicels 1 in. Pierre Flor. Forest. Cochin-Chine, 
fasc. VI, p. iv. Xanthochymus dulcis, Roxb. Cor. PI. t. 270; Wight Ic. 
270; Bot. Mag. 3088; Choisy Gutt. Ind. 32 ; Planch, and Triana Mem. 
Guttif. 149. Garciuia elliptica, Choisy in DC. Prod, i, 561 (not of Wall. 
Cat.) X. Javensis, Blume Bijdr. 216; Stalagmites dulcis, Cambess. Mem. 
Mus. xvi. 392, 425; Miq. Fl Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 508 ; Hassk. PI. Jav. 
Rar. 275. 

Perak : King's Collector No. 5750. Distrib. Malayan Ai'chipelago. 

34. Gaecinia Andamanica, King, n. sp. A tree from 20 to 40 feet 
high; young branches 4-angled, pubescent. Leaves elongate-ovate, often 
inequilateral, sub-acute ; the base broad, rounded or slightly cordate ; 
both surfaces glabrous, shining ; main uerves 14 to 16 pairs, rather pro- 
minent; length 8 to 11 iu., breadth 4 to 5 - 5 ; petiole '5 in., stout. Male 
flowers about *3 in. in diam., in short dense axillary fascicles from short 
wart-like branches. Sepals 5, coriaceous, ovate-rotund, imbricate, 
pubescent externally. Petals 5, larger than the sepals, thin, rotund, 
clawed, imbricate, glabrous. Stamens indefinite, in 5 thick fleshy 
bundles ; anthers minute, sub-globular, introrse. Dish of 5 broad 
corrugated glands much shorter than the bundles of stamens and alter- 
nating with them. Pistil 0. Female flower unknown. Fruit globular 
or oval, smooth, bright yellow, 1 to 1*5 in. long and "75 to 1'25 in. in 
diam., shortly apiculate ; the 5-lobed stigma persistent. G. dulcis, Kurz 
(not of Roxb.) For. Flora Burma i, 92 ; Pierre Fl. Forest. Cochin-Chine, 
fasc. vi, p. VI, in part. 

Andaman Islands ; Heifer No. 872, Kurz, King's Collector, No. 
224. 

Var. puhescens, leaves shortly pubescent beneath, the base cuneate. 

Andamans ; King's Collector, No. 136. 

This species was considered by Kurz to be identical with Xantlw- 
cliymus dulcis, Roxb., a native of the Moluccas cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens, Galcutta. It does not, however, agree with specimens still 
in cultivation there, nor with Roxburgh's description. Pierre (1. c.) 
expresses his doubt as to the identity of the Andaman and Molucca plants : 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 171 

but he adopts Kurz's name for the latter. The variety named above 
pubescens may turn out to be a distinct species. At present only fruit- 
ing specimens of it are known. This species is closely allied to Q. 
Villersiana, Pierre, a common Cambodian plant. The leaves of the 
latter, as shown in Pierre's figure (Fl. Forest Cochin-Chine, t. 21) have 
however more nerves ; the flowers have longer pedicels, and the staminal 
bundles are longer and more slender than in this species : the lobes of 
the disk are also narrower and longer. 

This is the Helferian plant referred to under O. XantJiochymus in 
Fl. Br. Ind. i, 269, as allied to, but differing from that species. 

35. Garcinia densiflora, King, n. sp. A tree 60 to 80 feet high : 
young branches stout, 4-angled, brown when dry. Leaves thickly coriace- 
ous, broadly elliptic to elliptic-oblong, sub-acute or rather blunt, the base 
cuneate ; both surfaces shining; the midrib stout: nerves 10 to 12 pairs, 
sub-horizontal, anastomising by arches - 1 in. from the margin; length 4'5 
to 6 in., breadth 2'5 to 3'75 in. ; petiole "6 in., thick, deeply channelled. 
Male floivers '35 in. in diam., in large dense many-flowered clusters 1 to 
15 in. in diam., on bracteolate tubercles from the axils of the fallen 
leaves; buds globose ; pedicels unequal, from - 2 to '35 in. long : sepals 5, 
the 3 outer smaller than the inner 2, or-bicular, fleshy, concave, puberulous 
externally, the margins ciliolate ; the inner 2 as large as the petals, 
glabrous, the margins ciliolate ; petals 5, fleshy, orbicular, concave, 
yellow ; stamens in 5 pedicelled, fan-shaped branches of about 12 : fila- 
ments thick, fleshy ; anthers with 2 orbicular, suturally dehiscent, cells : 
Disk large, fleshy, much corrugated, with 5 radiating lobes which al- 
ternate with the staminal groups ; rudy. style cylindric, corrugated ; the 
stigma oblong, smooth, small. Female flower and fruit unknown. 

Perak ; at elevations under 1000 feet, King's Collector, No. 5933. 
A very distinct species collected only once. 

36. Garcinia Prainiana, King n. sp. A small tree : young branches 
terete or compressed, not angled, pale yellowish. Leaves more or less 
broadly elliptic-oblong, narrowed to the rounded or slightly cordate 
base, shining on both surfaces ; nerves 12 to 15 pairs, spreading, inter- 
arching submarginally, rather prominent beneath when dry ; intermediate 
nerves prominent, bifurcating ; the midrib stout; length 4"5 to 9 in., 
breadth 175 to 4 iu. ; petiole - 25 in., stout. Male floivers '4 in. in diam., 
iu dense, 6 to 12-flowered, bracteate, terminal cymes; bracts numerous, 
lanceolate, fleshy, keeled ; pedicels thick, flat ; sepals 5, fleshy, concave, 
orbicular ; petals 5, darker in colour than the sepals, fleshy, concave, 
sub-orbicular : stamens numerous, in a 5-lobed annulus round the globose 
rudimentary ovary, 2-celled, with sutural dehiscence. Female floivers 
unknown. Fruit (young 13 in diam.) globular, pulpy, smooth, crowned 

23 



172 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

by the sessile smooth concave stigma : the sepals persistent at its base, 
coriaceous, concave, about "5 in. long, 

Perak ; at Kwala Dynong, Scortechini, No. 1796. 

Doubtful Species. 

Garcinia Jelinekii, Kurz MSS. in Herb. Hort. Calc. A specimen 
with leaves like a Garcinia and detached fruit of a true Oarcinia (No. 
169 Bxped. Novara), collected in the Nicobars by Dr. Jelinek, has been 
thus named in the Calcutta Herbarium. The material is too imperfect 
to be dealt with. 



2. Calophyllum, Linn. 

Trees. Leaves op2iosite, shining, coriaceous, with innumerable 
parallel slender veins at right angles to the midrib. Flowers polyga- 
mous, in numerous axillary or terminal panicles. Sepals and petals 4-12, 
imbricate in 2-3 series. Stamens very many, filaments filiform, often 
flexuous, free or connate below ; anthers erect, 2-celled, dehiscence 
vertical. Ovary 1-celled ; style slender, stigma peltate; ovule solitary, 
erect. Drupe with a crustaceous putamen. Seed erect, ovoid or globose ; 
testa thin, or thick and spongy. Distrib. About 35 species, chiefly 
tropical Asiatic with a few American. 

Series A. Sepals 4. Petals 0. (Apoteritim, Bl.). 



Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs 
Flowers in axillary fascicles 
Flowers in axillary racemes. 

Glabrous everywhere. 

Leaves less than 5 in. long. 

Leaves ovate or obovate-lanceo- 
late, pedicels 2 or more times as 
long as the flowers ; fruit 
ovoid ... 
Leaves elliptic-oblong, pedicels as 
long as flowers, fruit yellowish : 
young branches yellowish 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, pedicels 
not exceeding flowers, racemes 
very numerous : young branches 
brown ... 
Leaves more than 5 in. long 
Apices of young branches, petioles and 
inflorescence ferruginous-pubescent. 



1. C. microphylluni. 

2. 0. Kunstleri. 



3. pulcherrimum. 



4. Prainianum. 



5. floribundum. 

6. spectabile. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 173 

Leaves thinly coriaceous, lanceolate 
or oblong-lanceolate ; outer sepals 
oblong: fruit globose or sub- 
ovoid; racemes not bracteate ... 7. amcenum. 
Leaves coriaceous, ovate to ovate- 
elliptic : outer sepals obovate, 
clawed : fruit globose ; racemes 
not bracteate ... ... 8. retusum. 

Leaves coriaceous, narrowly elliptic, 
blunt or retuse ; racemes brac- 
teate at base : fruit globose ... 9. Gurtisii. 
Young parts and leaves, except when 

very old, softly ferruginous-tomentose 10. molle. 
Flowers in terminal panicles ... ... 11. canum. 

Series B. Sepals 4. Petals 4 or more. 

Leaves elliptic, rarely obovate, blunt or emargi- 

nate, thinly coriaceous, fruit spherical ... 12. Inophyllum. 

Leaves obovate, retuse or emarginate, thickly 

coriaceous, fruit ovoid ... ... 13. Inopijlloide. 

Leaves oblong, acuminate. 

Young leaves and inflorescence rufous. . . 14. Wallichianum. 
All parts glabrous. 

Leaves 4 to 6 in. long, flowers "35 

in. in diam. Petals 4 ... 15. Grifjitliii. 

Leaves 5 to 10 in. long ; flowers 1 
in. in diam. Petals 4. Fruit 5 
in. long ... ... 16. maorocarpum. 

Leaves P75 to 3 in. long: flowers 

•5 in. in diam. Petals 4 to 6 ... 17. venustum. 
1. Calophyllum microphyllum, T. Anders, in Hook. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 
272. A glabrous, much branched, very leafy shrub ; youngest branches 
4-angled. Leaves rigidly coriaceous, obovate-cuneate or obovate, obtuse 
or retuse, much narrowed to the base ; nerves slightly and equally pro 
minent on both surfaces; length "75 to 1"5 in., breadth -.35 to 75 in., 
petiole - 1 to "2 in. Flowers solitary or in pairs in the axils of the 
younger leaves, minute; pedicels - 15 to -25 in., slender, recurved, with 
2 bracts at the base. Sepals sub-orbicular. Fruit pisiform, topped by 
remains of style. 

Mount Ophir, near the summit. 

The leaves are not unlike these of G. floribunchim, but the inflores- 
cence is quite differeut. 



174 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

2. Calophtllum Kunstleri, King, n. sp. A tree 40 to 60 feet high, 
all parts glabrous except the buds, the 4-angled young bi'anches, and the 
petioles and lower part of rachis of inflorescence with its bracts which 
are ferruginous-pubescent. Leaves thinly coriaceous, narrowly elliptic- 
oblong, the apex obtusely acuminate, tapering in the lower third to the 
short stout petiole ; both surfaces shining ; the nerves very close together 
and like the midrib most distinct on the lower; length 3'5 to 5 in., 
breadth 125 to 1"4 in., petiole "3 to "4 in. Flowers in solitary fascicles 
from the axils of the older or of fallen leaves, about 1*5 in. long, 3-4- 
flowered ; bracts at base of pedicel 4, ovate, boat-shaped. Flowers '25 in. 
in diam. ; the pedicels often very unequal, the uppermost 1 in. and about 
twice as long as the lower. Sepals 4, the outer pair obovate-oblong, the 
inner oblong, all obtuse. Petals 0. Fruit, (not ripe) ovoid or globular, 
glabrous ; pericarp thick, crustaceous. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Nos. 5328, 5374, 5459. 

A common species ; vaiying a little as to the amount of pubescence 
on the branchlets and buds, and in the form of the fruit. Ripe fruit 
has not, however, yet been collected ; and it may prove than when ripe the 
fruit is uniformly globular. The nervation is closer than in any other 
species that I have seen, and the surfaces of the leaves have a peculiarly 
lustrous sheen. 

3. Calophyllum pulcherrimum, Wall. Cat. 4848. A glabrous tree, 
20 to 60 feet high; the young branches as thick as a crow quill, 4-angled. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, ovate or obovate-lanceolate, shortly and obtusely 
acuminate, much narrowed to the base ; both surfaces shining ; the edge a 
little thickened and undulate, the midrib stout ; length 1*75 to 25 in., 
breadth - 8 to 1'2 in., petiole - 3 in. Racemes solitary, about half as long 
as the leaves, from the axils of the older leaves, lax, spreading, 
few-flowered. Flowers "25 in. in diam. ; pedicels very slender, about "5 
in. long. Sepals broadly ovate, the inner pair slightly larger and more 
membranous. Ovary globose. Fruit ovoid with a very short beak, 
■65 in. long. Chois. Guttif. Ind. 14 ; Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif . 
246; Hook. til. PI. Br. Ind. i, 271 ; Pierre Fl. Coch.-Chiue, t. 104. 

Singapore. Malacca. Perak. Distrib. Cochin-China. 

Miquel's three species bancanum, plicipes and gracile are reduced to 
this in Hooker's PI. Br. Ind. Miquel ascribes 4 petals to gracile, which 
would throw it into another section. Pierre (1. c.) expresses doubts as 
to bancanum and gracile falling here, and considers G. plicipes as totally 
distinct both as to leaves and flowers. Of 0. mesuaefolium, (Wall. Cat. 
4S50,) only fragmentary specimens exist. In the Fl. Br. Ind. it is re- 
duced here ; but Planchon and Triana consider it quite different. 

Var. oblongifolium, T. Anderson (in Hook fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 1. c.) ; 
leaves oblong, tip rounded. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 175 

4. Oalophtllum Prainianum, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree 40 to 60 
feet high ; the youngest branchlets polished, terete, yellowish. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, shortly sub-abruptly and obtusely 
acuminate, narrowed in the lower third to the short petiole ; the nerves 
rather distinct on both surfaces ; lower surface paler than upper, both 
shining ; the edge pale yellow, very slightly thickened ; length 2"5 to 
4 in., breadth 1 to 1*5 in., petiole 2"5 to 4 in. Racemes solitary, axillary, 
rarely supra-axillary, about 15 in. long, ebracteate, lax, few-flowered. 
Flowers '25 in. in diam. ; pedicels slender, '25 in., the upper rather 
longer. Sepals 4 ; the outer pair orbicular, concave, jDuberulous exter- 
nally ; the inner pair larger, imbricate, orbicular-oblong, glabrous. 
Ovary ovoid, stigma very broad. Fruit spherical, '4 in. in diam., 
crowned by the thin style, pericarp thin. 

Perak ; King's Collector, Nos. 5366 and 7243. 

Very like 0. pulcherrimum, but with globular fruit : also like G. 
Teysmannii, but the nervation of the leaves in that species is unusually 
oblique for the genus, whereas in this the nerves are almost horizontal. 

5. Oalophtllum floribundum, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Iud. I, 272. A 
tree ? much branched and everywhere glabrous ; branchlets glaucous, 
4-angled, as thick as a crow-quill. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate, 
obtusely acuminate, the edges thickened and pale, the base acuminate, the 
numerous nerves and midrib most distinct on the under sub-glaucescent 
surface, upper surface shining ; length P24 to 1'5 in., breadth '5 to - 6 in., 
petiole "25 in. Racemes from most of the leaf-axils erecto-patent, more 
than half as long as the leaves ; pedicels opposite, spreading, not much 
longer than the diameter of the flowers. Flowers '25 in. in diam. The 
outer pair of sepals broadly ovate, sub-acute, the inner broadly obovate, 
blunt, membranous. Stamens numerous, style not longer than the sepals. 

Malacca; Maingay, Nos. 170, 171. 

This is closely allied to 0. pulcherrimum, Wall., but has smaller 
leaves, the racemes are more numerous and longer in proportion to the 
leaves, while the pedicels of individual flowers are much shorter. 

6. Calophtllum spectabile, Willd. A tall tree ; when adult all 
parts glabrous, the buds and young parts ferruginous-pubescent. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, narrowly or broadly oblong, rarely elliptic, sub-acute or 
obtuse, undulate, the base cuneate ; both surfaces shining, the nerves 
very numerous, the midrib strong; length 6 to 12 in., breadth 15 to 3 
in., petiole '5 to '75 in. Racemes umbelliform, axillary, solitary, lax, 
few-flowered, "5 in. in diam. ; pedicels slender, - 5 in. Sepals orbicular, 
glabrous. Ripe fruit spherical, - 75 in. in diam. DC. Prod, i, 562 ; Choisy 
Guttif. Ind. 43, in part ; Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif. 238 ; Wight 
111. i, 128 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. i, Pt. 2, 510 ; Pierre Fl. Coch.-Chine, t. 



176 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

107; Kurz Fl. Burm. i, 94; C. tetrapetalum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 608; 
C. Moonii, Wight 111. i, 129, Ic. t. Ill ; Tliw. Eimm. 52 ; Beddome Flor. 
Sylvat. Gen. xxii ; 0. ctjmosum, Miquel Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. i, 497 ; G. 
Diepenhorstii, Miq. 1. c. 497 ; G. hirtellum, Miq. PI. Jungh. i, 291 ; Fl. 
Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, 511 ; Apoterium Sulatri, Bl. Bijdr. 218. 

Penang, Singapore, Andanians, Nicobars. Distrib. Malayan 
Archipelago, Cochin- China, Fiji, Society Islands. 

7. Calophtllum amoenum, Wall. Cat. 4849. A tree 20 to 40 feet 
high ; the apices of the youngest branches, the buds, the leafqietioles, 
and the rachides of the racemes minutely ferruginous or griseous-pubes- 
cent. Leaves thinly coriaceous, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, rarely 
ovate-lanceolate or obovate-elliptic, acute or very shortly and obtusely 
acuminate, the base cuneate ; nerves very close, about equally prominent 
on both surfaces ; length 2 - 5 to 3'5 in., breadth 1 to 1'5 in., petiole - 4 in. 
Racemes stout, sub-erect, shorter than the leaves, few-flowered. Flowers 
"25 in. in diam., pedicels - 2 in. Sepals reflexed, the outer pair oblong, 
ferruginous-tomentose externally : the inner pair longer, sub-glabrous. 
Fruit globose or sub-ovoid, "3 in. long, the pericarp pulpy. Choisy 
Guttif. de 1'Inde, 41 ; Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif . 235 ; Kurz Fl. 
Burm. i, 95. 

Andanians ; King's Collector. Tenasserim, Heifer, No. 881 ; Am- 
herst Wallich, No. 4849. 

None of the Andaman specimens which I have seen are in fruit ; 
and none of the Burmese are in flower. But in leaf and other characters 
the specimens are alike. The species seems to me a good one and to be 
distinct from 0. retusum, Wall., with which it has however been united 
in Fl. Br. Ind., and this is also the opinion of Planchon and Triana. 

8. Calophyllum retusum, Wall. Cat. 4846. A much-branched, very 
leafy shrub ; the young branches 4-angled, softly ferruginous-pubescent, 
as are the petioles and inflorescence. Leaves coriaceous, ovate to ovate- 
elliptic, obtuse, the base rounded or slightly narrowed ; nerves rather dis- 
tant for the genus, more visible on the upper than on the lower surface ; 
length 1*75 to 2'25 in., breadth - 8 to 11 in.; petiole - 2 in. stout, pubescent, 
when old glabrous. Racemes solitary, axillary, sub-erect, ferruginous- 
pubescent, especially at the base, 1 in. long. Flowers 25 in. in diam., 
pedicels "2 in. Sepals ; the outer obovate, clawed ; the inner ovate-oblong. 
Fruit pisiform. Pierre Fl. Coch. -Chine, t. 102 ; G. pisiferum, Planch, 
and Triana Mem. Guttif. 266; G. retusum, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 272, 
(excl. syn. G. amcenum, Wall.). 

Malacca; Griffith, Maingay (Kew Distrib. No. 166). Singapore; 
Wallich, No. 4846. 

9. Calophyllum Curtisii, King, n. sp. A tree ; the young branches, 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 177 

buds, petioles and inflorescence ferruginous-pubescent, sub-pulverulent. 
Leaves coriaceous, narrowly elliptic, blunt or retuse, the base narrowed ; 
upper surface glabrous, shining ; the lower rather dull, pubescent on the 
prominent midrib ; the nerves rather distinct on both surfaces ; length 2 
to 2'75 in., breadth 1 to 1*4 in., petiole '4 in. Racemes solitary or two to- 
gether, axillary, umbellate, compact, 3 to 5-flowered, ferruginous-tomen- 
tose, much shorter than the leaves and with several navicular ferruginous- 
tomentose bracts at their base. Flowers '25 in. in diam., the pedicels '2 
long, more than twice as long in fruit, and the uppermost the longest. 
Sepals 4 ; the outer oblong, sub-obovate, ferruginous-tomentose ; the 
inner smaller, oblong, sub-glabrous. Petals 0. Fruit ovoid. 

Penang ; on Government Hill, at 500 feet, Curtis, No. 523. 

A very distinct species ripe fruit of which is unknown. 

10. Oalophtllum mollb, King, n. sp. A tree 40 to 80 feet high ; 
the young shoots, buds, under surfaces of adult leaves, and young fruit 
softly ferruginous-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, narrowly oblong, gradu- 
ally narrowed in the upper fourth to the sub-obtuse apex, the edges 
thickened and slightly recurved, the base l'ounded, or slightly narrowed : 
upper surface when adult sub-glabrous, the nerves close, slightly visible, 
the midrib sparsely and coarsely pubescent ; lower surface pale and, ex- 
cept when very old, more or less softly tomentose especially on the very 
stout midrib: length 5 to 8 in., breadth l - 25 to 2"25 in., petiole '4 in. to 
•6 in. Racemes axillary, solitary, about 1 in. long, 1 to 2-flowered, densely 
ferruginous-tomentose as are the ovary and young fruit. Sepals 4, the 
outer oblong, ferruginous-tomentose externally. Petals 0. Fruit o-l - 
bular, slightly apiculate, 1 in. long, sub-glabrous when ripe. 

Penang; Curtis, No. 1426. Perak ; King's Collector, many numbers. 

A species collected by Sig. Beccari in Sumatra (P. S. 953) comes 
very near this ; but the leaves are broader and more inclined to be ob- 
lanceolate, the thickening of the edge is greater and is pale in colour 
while the young fruit is ovoid and not tomentose. Judging from PieiTe's 
figure (he gives no description) of his O. Dongnaiense, Fl. Coch. -Chine 
t. 108, that species and this must be near allies. 

11. Calophtllum canum, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 271. A tree 40 
to 80 feet high; young branchlets as thick as a goose-quill, smooth. 
Leaves coriaceous, glabrous, narrowly elliptic-oblong, bluntly and shortly 
acuminate, slightly undulate, the base acute, upper surface shining, the 
lower less so ; midrib very strong, nerves very thin and numerous ; length 
5 to 7 in., breadth P75 to 2*25 in., petiole - 5 to - 75 in. Flowers - 75 in., 
diam., in terminal hoary-pubescent panicles less than half as long as the 
leaves, or in axillary racemes, pedicels "15 in. Sepals hoary-puberulous 
orbicular; the outer pair coriaceous, concave; the inner pair larger and 



178 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula, [No. 2, 

thinner, imbricate, the upper edge incurved, ciliate. Petals 0. Stamens 
very numerous. Stigma discoid. Ovary depressed-spherical, glabrous. 
Fruit ovoid, smooth, "75 in. long. 

Malacca; Maingay. Perak; King's Collector No. 5420, Scortechini 
No. 2044. Penang ; Curtis, No. 1543. Distrib. Cochin-China, British 
India. 

Not unlike G. Wallichianum, Planch, and Triana ; but apetalous and 
the leaves never tomentose. 

12. Calophyllum Inophtllum, Linn. sp. 732. A glabrous tree 
20 to 30 feet high : young branches stout. Leaves thinly coriaceous, 
elliptic, rarely obovate-oblong, apex rounded or emarginate, the base 
acute, shining on both surfaces ; length 4 to 6 in., breadth 2'5 to 3"5 in , 
petiole "75 in. broad. Bacemes in the upper axils, lax, 3 to 4 in. long, 
few-flowered. Flowers '75 in. in diam. ; pedicels slender, 1 to 175 in. 
Sepals 4, the 2 inner petaloid. Petals 4, longer than the sepals. Fila- 
ments 4-delphous. Ovary stipitate, globose. Style longer than the 
stamens ; stigma peltate, lobed. Fruit globular ; the pericarp smooth, 
fleshy, 1 in. in diam. or more. DC. Prod. I, 562. Bl. Bijdr. 217. Chois. 
Guttif. Ind. 42. Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif. 254. Roxb. PI. Ind. 
ii, 606. W. and A. Prod. 103. Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. I, pt. 2, p. 510. 
Wight 111. i, 128 ; Ic. 77. Hook. PI. B. Ind. i, 273. Kurz PI. Burm. i, 
95. G. Blumei, Wight 111. i, 128. G. Bintagor, Roxb. PI. Ind'. ii, 607. (?) 

On the Coasts, in all the Provinces. Distrib. Burmah, S. India 
and Ceylon, B. African Islands, Australia, Polynesia. 

The pure white flowers are delightfully fragrant, the seeds yield a 
beautiful mild oil, and the wood is useful for spars of boats and ships. 

13. Calophyllum Inophylloide, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree, 60 
to 80 feet high ; the young branches about as thick as a goose-quill, dark 
brown. Leaves thickly coriaceous, obovate or obovate-oblong, the apex 
refuse or emarginate, the edges thickened, recurved (when dry), gradually 
narrowed from about the middle to the stout petiole ; both surfaces shin- 
ing, the lower less so and paler ; nerves very numerous, little prominent, 
the midrib stout ; length 3'25 to 4 - 5 in., breadth 175 to 2'75 in. ; petiole - 6 
to - 1 in., broad at the apex. Bacemes from the axils of the upper leaves, 
2 to 3 in. long, lax, few-flowered. Flowers globular in bud, about - 75 
in. in diam. when expanded. Outer sepals rotund, concave, reflexed, 4 in. 
long ; the inner petaloid, larger than the outer. Petals narrower than 
the sepals : pedicels slender, "65 to 1 in. long. Style stout ; stigma broad, 
discoid. Fruit (not quite ripe) ovoid, "75 in. long, the pericarp not 
pulpy. 

Perak ; on low Hills, elevation 300 to 500 feet. 

The leaves of this much resemble those of G. IncpJiyllum, but they 






1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 179 

are thicker, smaller, and invariably obovate and refcuse. The flowers 
are smaller than those of G. Inophyllum ; the frnit also differs in being- 
smaller, ovoid and not pulpy. This species also resembles the British 
Indian G. Wightianum, Wall. The existence of petals is certain, but the 
condition of the flowers on the only specimens hitherto collected is such 
that their number cannot be made out with certainty. 

14. Oallophtllum Wallichianum, Planch, and Triana Mem. Guti. 
249. A tree ; the branchlets pale yellowish, the youngest 4-angled and, 
with the buds under surface of young leaves and inflorescence, minutely 
ferruginous-tomentose. Leaves thinly coriaceous, narrowly elliptic- 
oblong, the apex shortly and obtusely acuminate, the base acute; upper 
surface shining, the midrib narrow ; lower surface dull, the midrib pro- 
minent, at first minutely ferruginous-tomentose, when adult glabrous : 
length 4'5 to 6 in., breadth 1"5 iu. ; petiole "75 in., rusty. Racemes 
axillary and terminal, less than half as long as the leaves, ferrugin- 
ous-tomentose, erecto-patent. Flowers '5 in. in diam , pedicels "2 in. 
Sepals 4i, orbicular, ferruginous-tomentose on both surfaces. Petals 4, 
cuneate-oblong, glabrous internally. Fruit (fide F. B. Ind.) globose, 
the size of a cherry. Wall. Cat. No. 4843, in part. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. 
Ind. i, 273. 

Malacca ; Maingay. 

This species was founded by Planchon and Triana on a specimen 
mixed with Wall. Cat. No. 4843, (the bulk of which is G. spectabile, 
Willd.) This does not appear to be a common species, and its fruit I 
have not seen. It may be readily distinguished by its yellow branches, 
the pale ferruginous, almost cinnamoneous, colour of its leaves when dry, 
and its darkly rusty racemes. 

15. Calophyllom Grifpithii, T. Anders, in Hook. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 
273. A glabrous tree, the youngest shoots 4-sided. Leaves thinly coria- 
ceous, oblong or elliptic-oblong, acute or obtuse, the base shortly cuneate, 
shining on both surfaces, the rather distant nerves equally distinct on 
both, the midrib more distinct and pale-coloured on the lower ; the 
edges with a pale thickening; length 4 to 6 in., breadth 1>75 to 2 in., 
petiole '4 to '6 in. Racemes solitary, axillary, from l - 5 to 25 in. long, 
few-flowered. Flowers '35 iu. in diam., glabrous ; pedicels unequal, 2 to 
'5 in. long, slender, each with a small deciduous bract at its base. 
Sepals 4, outer pair orbicular, inner pair longer but narrower. Petals 4, 
oblong, obtuse. Fruit (young) ovoid, smooth. 

Malacca; Griffith. Distrib. Sumatra, Forbes, No. 322a. 

16. Calophyllum macrocarpum, Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 273. A 
glabrous tree ; branchlets polished, sharply 4-angled. Leaves coriaceous, 
narrowly oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, shortly and obtusely acuminate, 

24 



180 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

much narrowed at the base, edge slightly thickened, upper surface shin- 
ing, the midrib prominent on the rather dull lower surface, nerves rather 
bold and equally prominent on both ; length 5 to 10 in., breadth 2 to 3 
in., petiole 1 to 1*25 in. Racemes not half the length of the leaves, 
axillary, solitaiy, 6-10 flowered, minutely ferruginous-puberulous. 
Flowers 1 in. in diam. ; pedicels 1 to 1*25 in. Sepals 4, the outer pair 
puberulous externally ; the inner pair larger, imbricate, oblong-rotund, 
orbicular, concave, rusty, obtuse, petaloid. Petals 4, smaller than the 
inner sepals, oblanceolate, clawed. Stamens short. Fruit (fide Maingay) 
ellipsoid, 5 in. long. 

Malacca; Maingay (Kew Distrib. 174). Perak ; King's Collector, 
No. 8851. 

17. Calophtllum venustum, King, n. sp A glnbrous tree, 20 to 
30 feet high. Leaves thinly coriaceous, shining, rigid, elliptic-ovate, 
retuse, the base cuneate, the margin thickened ; nerves rather distant for 
the genus and equally distinct on both surfaces ; length 175 to 3 in., 
breadth 1 to 1'5 in., petiole "3 to "4 in. Racemes 3-5 flowered, solitary, 
axillary, half as long as the leaves, very lax, spreading. Flowers large 
( - 5 in, in diam.), on long ( - 75 in.) pedicels ; buds ovoid. Sepals 4, more 
or less orbicular. Petals 4 to 6, narrower than the sepals, the inner 
oblong, veined, all obtuse. Fruit unknown. 

Perak ; King's Collector, No. 7763. 

A very handsome species of which the fruit is unknown. In leaf 
it resembles G. amcvnum, but differs greatly in the flowers. 

3. Katea, Wall. 

Ti-ees. Leaves opposite ; veins rather distant, arched. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, either large and solitary, or small and collected in ter- 
minal panicles. Sepals and petals 4 each, imbricate. Stamens numer- 
ous, filaments slender, free or connate at the base ; anthers small, sub- 
globose, 2-celled, dehiscence vertical. Ovary 1-celled; style slender, 
stio-ma acutely 4-fid ; ovules 4, erect. Fruit subdrupaceous, fleshy, in- 
dehiscent, 1-4-seeded. Seeds thick, testa thin and crustaceous. — Distrib. 
Tropical Asia, 7 species. 
Flowers in racemes. 

Racemes 2 to 3 in. long : flowers 1 in. 

or more in diam. ... ... 1. K. Wrayi. 

Racemes less than 1 in. long : flowers 

less than 1 in. in diam. ... 2. K. racemosa. 

Flowers solitary, axillary. 

Nervation of leaves bold, distinct. 






1890.] Gr. King — Materials' for a Floret of 'the Malayan 'Peninsula 181 

Fruit turbinate, quite enveloped by 

the outer sepals when ripe ... 3. K. grandis. 
Fruit ovoid, pointed, only partly 
covered by sepals. 
Leaves tapering to the mo- 
derately long petiole ... 4. K. Kunsileri. 
Leaves rounded or cordate at 

base, sub-sessile ... 5. K. nervosa. 

Fruit ovoid with a much elongate 
hooked apex, leaves caudate - 
acuminate ... ... 6. K. caudata. 

Nervation of leaves indistinct. 

Young branches slender, smooth, 

flowers axillary ... ... 7. K. elegans. 

1. Kayba Wrayi, King, n. sp. A small glabrous tree; the young- 
branches pale, polished, terete, often whorled. Leaves very thickly coria- 
ceous, broadly elliptic, acute or acuminate, the edges much recurved when 
dry, the base rounded; nerves about 15 pairs, unequal, only slightly 
prominent on the lower and less so on the upper surface ; both surfaces 
smooth, ihe upper shining, the lower dull ; length 3 to 4'5 in., breadth 
1/5 to 2"25 in. ; petiole '4 in., thick. Racemes axillary or terminal, 2 to 
3 in. long, sub-erect, stout, with minute subulate bracts at the base, 3 to 
5-flowered. Floiuers 1 to 1'25 in. in diam., pedicels '5 to 1'25 in. long. 
Sepals orbicular, nearly equal, glabrous, the outer pair coriaceous, the 
inner thinner. Petals much larger than the sepals, broadly-obovate or 
orbicular, clawed. Stamens much shorter than the petals. Fruit un- 
known. 

Pahang ; on Gunong Brumber, elevation 7000 feet, L, Wray, junior. 
A remarkable species quite unlike any hitherto described. 

2. Katea racemosa, Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif. 269. A 
glabrous tree, 40 to 60 feet high. Leaves sub-coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, 
with a very short blunt acumen, slightly narrowed to the petiole ; upper 
surface rather dull, the lower paler and shining ; main nerves 18 to 25 
pairs, bold, spreading; length 6 to 9 in., breadth 15 to 2 - 5 in. ; petiole 
•75 in., stout. Racemes less than 1 in. long, few-flowered, bracteolate, 
crowded at the apices, or in the axils near the apices, of the rather lono- 
naked often whorled branchlets ; pedicels stout, - 15 in. long. Flowers 
•5 in. in diam. Sepals rotund, thickly coriaceous. Petals longer than 
the sepals, thin. Stamens numerous, in one series, monodelphous at the 
base ; Wall. Cat. without number or locality ; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 
276, (excl. syn. Mesua Singaporiana, Wall. Cat. 4836.) 

Malacca; Maingay (Kew Distrib. 177). Perak ; Scortechiui, 97. 



182 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

The foregoing description has been drawn up from Maingay's 
Malacca specimens above quoted, which have been accepted by Sir 
Joseph Hooker as of the species described by Planchon and Triana as K. 
racemosa. These authors founded the species on a Wallichian specimen 
in M. de Candolle's Herbarium, without number or indication of locality, 
which had been separated from some other Wallichian number, and 
which bears the following note by Choisy " Mesua speciosa ? specimen im- 
perfectum sine notula in herb. Wallichiano repertum." This specimen I 
have not seen. Of Wall. Cat. No. 4836, (Mesua SingaporianaJ there 
is a specimen in Hei'b. Calc. ; and it is certainly different from Maingay's 
177, being more like a Mesua than a Kayea, 

3. Kayea grandis, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree, 40 to 80 feet high. 
Leaves larg-e, coriaceous, oblong to elliptic-oblong, sub-acute, the edges 
revolute (when dry), slightly narrowed towards the rounded or sub-acute 
base; both surfaces rather dull (when dry), the 20 to 25 pairs of main 
nerves sub-horizontal, prominent, the secondary nerves also prominent ; 
length 9 to 18 in., breadth 3 to 4'5 in. ; petiole '4 to - 75 in., smooth. 
Flowers sub-globose in bud, pedicelled, in short few-flowered axillary 
cymes crowded in the axils of the leaves, rarely solitary, about 1*25 in. in 
diam. when expanded ; pedicels '5 in. Sepals rotund, the outer concave 
very coriaceous ; the inner thin, not larger than the outer. Petals elliptic- 
oblong, acute, larger than the sepals ('5 in. long or more). Pipe fruit 
turbinate, 2 to 2'5 in. in diam. and 1'25 in. thick, leathery, completely 
enveloped by the persistent, thickened, outer sepals. 

Malacca; Maingay (Kevv Distrib. 178), Cantlay No. 2354. Perak, 
King's Collector. 

A very fine species ; at once distinguished by its large leaves and 
depressed turbinate fruit. The fruit, and probably the whole plant, 
abounds in yellow juice. According to M. Caatley the wood sinks in 
water. 

4. Kayea Kunstleri, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree, 30 to 50 feet 
high; the branchlets brownish, sub-striate, not tuberculate. Leaves thinly 
coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, sub-undulate, the base much 
narrowed to petiole ; both surfaces rather dull (when dry) with a few 
scattered opaque black dots ; the lower pale, sub-glaucescent (when dry) ; 
length 4 to G in. ^breadth 1 to 2'25 in. ; petiole '25 in. to '4 in., rugose ; 
nerves 20 to 24 pairs, unequal, prominent ; the lower horizontal, the upper 
slightly curving upwards. Flower solitary, axillary or terminal, 15 to 
2 in. diam., on a very short smooth pedicel, bracts at its base linear- 
subulate : bud globose, smooth. Septals unequal as in nervosa. Petals 
oblong-acuminate, 1 in. long. Ripe fruit ovoid, gradually narrowing 
into a short subulate apical beak. 



1890.] G.King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 183 

Perak : King's Collector, Nos. 3301, 6850 : Penang, Curtis, No. 
1419; Malacca, Maingay, No. 176. 

This is allied to K. nervosa, T. Anders. ; but it is readily distinguished 
from that by its smooth branchlets, by the leaves much and gradually 
narrowed to both base and apex, and by the oblong-acuminate petals. A 
shrubby form of this occurs in Penang (Curtis, Nos. 805, 1418,) and in 
Perak (King's Collector, No. 1345) in which all the parts are smaller 
and the leaves are less acuminate at the apex, and rounded instead of 
much attenuated at the base. 

5. Kayea nervosa, T. Anders, in Hook. fil. FL, Br. Ind. i, 277. A 
glabrous tree ; the branchlets minutely tubercled, 4-angled. Leaves sub- 
sessile, membranous, elliptic-oblong, shortly and bluntly acuminate, the 
base rounded or emarginate ; both surfaces (when dry) dull coppery brown, 
the lower paler ; nerves 16 to 20, unequal, rather prominent beneath ; 
length 3 to '5 in., breadth P25 in. to 2 in. ; petiole '15 in. long, rugose 
as is the base of the midrib. Floivers axillary, usually solitary (some- 
times 2 or 3 from an axil), or terminal, 1'75 in. in diam. ; pedicels '75 in. 
or less, tubercled, each with several linear lanceolate bracts at its base. 
Sepals unequal, the outer very coriaceous, sub-orbicular ; the inner nearly 
twice as large but thinner. Petals obovate ; filaments about as long as 
the slender pistil. Ripe fruit sub-globular, beaked, leathery, '75 in. in 
diam. or more, the calyx marcescent. Kurz Flora Burm. i, 96 ; Mesua 
nervosa, PI. and Triana Mem. Guttif. 279. 

Malacca, Perak. Distrib. Burmah. 

6. Kayea caudata, King, n. sp. A slender glabrous tree, 20 to 30 
feet high, with drooping habit ; the branchlets slender, pale brown, striate. 
Leaves membranous, obovate-elliptic, caudate-acuminate, mueronulate, 
edges undulate, slightly narrowed to the rounded base ; both surfaces dull, 
the lower pale ; nerves 12 to 14 pairs, prominent, sub-horizontal ; length 
3 to 3'5 in. of which the acumen froms '7 in. ; breadth 1 to 1*15 in., petiole 
•15 in. Flowers unknown. Fruit solitary, terminal, shortly pedicellate, 
narrowly ovoid-cylindric, tapering very much to the apex and often 
curved, less narrowed to the base, 2 to 2'5 in. long, and 1 to 1'25 in. 
in diam. at the middle ; bracts at base of pedicel subulate, 1-nerved. 
Sepals persistent, the outer pair orbicular, the inner oblong : pedicel 
about '2 in. long, rather shorter than the subulate bracts. 

Perak ; King's Collector, No. 7937. 

Only once collected and only in fruit. Easily recognisable by its 
caudate-acuminate leaves and fruit. 

7. Kayea elegans, King, n. sp. A glabrous tree 40 to 60 feet high, 
with slender drooping branches ; branchlets very thin, pale gray. Leaves 
thinly but rigidly coriaceous, lanceolate, acuminate, the base acute, the 



184 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

edges undulate (when dry) ; both surfaces rather dull, the nerves nu- 
merous but indistinct, the midrib slightly prominent ; length 2 - 25 to 8 
in., breadth "5 to "75 in., petiole '25 to '35 in. Flower solitary, axillary 
or terminal, '4 in. in diara. ; pedicel '1 in. long with several ovate-acute 
bracts at its base. Sepals nearly equal, the outer coriaceous. Petals 
oblong, acute, smaller than the sepals. Ovary narrowly ovoid, attenuate 
above, and passing into the long filiform curving exserted style. Fruit 
unknown. 

Perak; on Gunong Bobu, elevation from 1500 to 2000 feet. King's 
Collector. 

A very distinct and elegant species, distinguished by its thin rigid 
lanceolate leaves and very slender branches. 

4 Mesda, Linn. 

Trees. Leaves opposite, rigidly coriaceous, often pellucid-dotted ; 
veins very numerous, very slender, at right angles to the midrib. Flowers 
polygamous or hermaphrodite, large, axillary or terminal, solitary. 
Sepals and petals 4 each, imbricate. Stamens very numerous, filaments 
filiform, free or connate at the base ; anthers erect, oblong, 2-celled, 
dehiscence vertical. Ovary 2 celled ; style long, stigma peltate ; ovules 
2 in each cell, erect. Fruit between fleshy and woody, 1 celled by the 
absorption of the septum, at length 4-valved, 1-4-seeded. Seeds without 
an aril, testa fragile. Distrib. Tropical Asia ; 3 species. 

1. Mesuafereea, Linn. sp. 734. A medium sized tree with spread- 
ing head ; branches faintly 4-angled, glaucous. Leaves coriaceous, linear- 
lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, the base acute or 
rounded; above shining ; below pruinose, glaucous or glaucescent ; nerves 
numerous, close, inconspicuous ; length 3 to G in., breadth '75 to 1'25 in., 
petiole '25 to '35 in. Flowers '75 to 3 in. in diam., in pairs or solitary, 
usually terminal. Septals orbicular, fleshy, the margins thin. Petals 4, 
obovate, white; anthers large, elongate. Fruit ovoid-conic to sub- 
globose, from 1 to 2 in. long, the sepals persistent. Choisy in DO. Prod, 
i, 562; Choisy Guttif. Ind. 40; Planch, and Triana Mem. Guttif. 271: 
Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 635; W. and A. Prod. 102; Wall. Cat. 4834; Wight 
111. 127, Ic. t. 118; Beddome Flor. Sylvat. Gen. xxiii ; Hook. til. PI. 
Ind. i, 277 ; Bl. Bijdr. 216 : Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. i, Pt. 1, 509 ; Kurz For. 
Fl. Burm. i, 97 : M. speciosa, Chois. in DC. 1. c. ; Guttif. Ind. 40 ; Wight 
Ic. t. 118 and 961; Wall. Cat. 4835 ; PI. and Trian. 1. c. 375 ; Beddome 
1. c. xxiii. M. pedunculata, Wight 111. 127; Ic. t. 119. M. coromandelia- 
na, Wight 111, 129; Ic. t. 117; PI. and Trian. 1. c. 378; Beddome Flor. 
Sylvat. t. 64. M. Eoxburghii, Wight 111. 127; Beddome 1. c. xxiii. M. 
salicina, M. Walkeriana and M. pulchella, Planch, and Trian. 1. c. 373, 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 185 

374, and 379. ill. sclerophylla, Thwaites Eniim. 407; Beddome I.e., 
xxiii. M. Nagana, Gard. in Oalc. Journ. Nat. Hist, vii, 4. 

In all the Provinces. Distrib. Eastern and Southern provinces 
of British India ; Ceylon: often cultivated. 

A variable species to which many names have been given. A form 
with narrow leaves ('5 in. broad) and small flowers is found in Ceylon, 
and was distinguished by Thwaites as var. angustifolia (M. salicina, 
PI. and TriL). In other forms from Ceylon and the South of India, the 
leaves have very little of the characteristic white waxy powder on their 
under surfaces ; and these formed the bases of Plauchon and Triana's 
species M. pulchella, and of Wight's M. G oromancleliana. 

2. Mesua lepidota, T. Anders, in Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 288. 
A slender glabrous tree, 60 to 80 feet high ; the branches pale brown, 
the youngest minutely rugose when dry. Leaves coriaceous, shiniug, 
narrowly elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, the apex shortly acuminate, the 
base acute ; lower surface pale, nerves indistinguishable but the midrib 
prominent on both surfaces; length 2 to 3 in., breadth "75 to 1*2 in., 
petiole '15 in. Floivers unknown. Fruit solitary, terminal, pedicellate, 
broadly ovoid or depressed-globular when young, slightly pointed when 
mature, apiculate, 1 in. or more in diam., subtended at the base by the 
4 lignified sub-rotund spreading sepals : pericarp thick, woody, rugulose, 
dehiscing vertically by 2 (rarely 3) pointed valves. Seeds two, plano- 
convex, or one depressed-globose ; the testa brown, brittle ; pedicels 
1 to 1'5 in. long, thickened upwards, and with several minute subulate 
deciduous bracts at their bases. 

Malacca; Griffith (Kew Distrib. No. 845). Perak ; Scortechini, 
No. 183 6 , King's Collector, Nos. 4551 and 5881. 

It is suggested in Fl. Br. Ind. (I, 278) that Griffith's No. 845, 
although now put with Mesua, is probably the type of a new genus 
between Kayea and Mesua. Griffith's specimens have no flowers, and 
unfortunately neither have those of the Perak collectors. The latter 
appear to belong to the same plant as Griffith's ; but their leaves are 
rather smaller, the branchlets more slender, and the pericarp slightly 
thinner. It may therefore be found, when fuller material is forthcoming, 
that there are two species here, and that neither belongs to Mesua. 

Order XV. TERNSTRffiMIACE^E. 

Shrubs rarely climbing, or trees. Leaves alternate, simple (in 
Indian species) entire or often serrate, usually coriaceous, exstipulate. 
Floivers handsome, seldom small, usually subtended by 2 sepal-like 
bracts, rarely diclinous, axillary, 1 or more together, rarely in lateral or 
terminal racemes or panicles. Sepals 5, rarely 4-7, free or slightly con- 



186 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

nate, the innermost often larger. Petals 5, rarely 4-9, free or connate 
below, imbricate or contorted. Stamens numerous (definite in Sladenia 
and Stachyurus) free or connate, usually adnate to the base of the decidu- 
ous corolla ; anthers basifixcd or versatile, dehiscing by slits or rarely by 
terminal pores. Ovary free (^-inferior in Anneslea), sessile, 3-5-celled, 
(many-celled in Actinidia) ; styles as many, free or connate, stigmas 
usually small ; ovules 2-8 in each cell, rarely solitary, never orthotro- 
pous. Fruit baccate or capsular. Seeds few or numerous, placentas 
axile ; albumen scanty or 0, rarely copious; embryo straight or hippo- 
crepiform, cotyledons various. Distrib. Rare in temperate, abundant 
in tropical Asia and America, almost wanting in Africa and entirely in 
Australasia; species about 270. 

Tribe I. Ternstr(EMIG$. Peduncles 1-flowered. Petals imbricate. 
Stamens adherent to the base of the corolla; anthers basifixed. Fruit 
(in Indian genera) indehiscent. Seeds usually few; albumeu fleshy, 
usually scanty. Embryo curved; cotyledons shorter than the radicle 
and about as broad. 

* Fruit inferior. 

1. Anneslea. 
** Fruit superior. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. 

Anthers usually pilose, stamens and 

seeds numerous, ovary 3-5-celled 2. Adinandra. 
Flowers dioecious. 

Flowers large, on long pedicels ... 3. Temstrcemia. 

Flowers small, sessile or sub-sessile ... 4. Furya. 
Tribe II. Saurauje^. Peduncles many-flowered. Petals imbri- 
cate. Anthers versatile. Fruit usually pulpy, i-arely sub-dehiscent. 
(Seeds numerous, minute, albumeu abundant. Radicle straight or slightly 
curved and longer than the cotyledons. 

Climbers, dioecious .. ..5. Actinidia. 

Trees or shrubs ; usually hermaphrodite ... 6. Saurauja. 
Tribe III. GoRDONiEiE. Peduncles 1-flowered, often very short. 
Petals imbricate. Autliers versatile. Fruit indehiscent or loculicidal. 
Albumen scanty or 0. Cotyledons various; radicle short, straight or 
curved. 

* Fruit indehiscent. 

7. Pyrcnaria. 
** Fruit dehiscent. 

Ovules lateral, seeds winged, radicle in- 
ferior ... ••■ ... 8, Scliima. 
Ovules pendulous, seeds winged, radicle 

superior ... ... ... 9. Gorclonia. 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 187 

Tribe IV. Bonnatie2E. Flowers in lateral 
panicles crowded near the apices of the branches. 
Anthers versatile ; capsule dehiscing from base 10. Archytaea. 

1. Anneslea, Wall. 

Evergreen glabrous trees or shrubs. Floivers in terminal corymbs, 
large, white, 2-bracteolate. Sepals, 5, their lower part fleshy, connate, and 
adherent to the ovary, their upper part coriaceous and crowning the 
fruit. Petals 5, connate by their bases. Stamens numerous ; the filaments 
short, inserted on the torus ; anthers narrow, elongate, 2-celled, introrse, 
with a long apiculus from the connective. Ovary half immersed in 
the torus, 3-celled ; style cylindric, 3-fid : ovules many, pendulous. 
Fruit a leathery inferior berry crowned by the sepals. Seeds oblong, 
flattened, emarginate at one end, with a hard testa and fleshy albumen. 
Distrib. Burmah and Malayan Peninsula : species 2. 

Anneslea crassipes, Hook, in Ohoisy Mem. Ternst. 41. A bush or 
small tree ; young branches stout, the bark rough, rather pale. Leaves 
coriaceous, obovate or oblanceolate with short abrupt blunt acumen, or 
oblong-lanceolate and acute, much narrowed at the base ; the edge thick- 
ened and obscurely glandular-serrate ; nerves 6 to 8 pairs, invisible in 
the fresh, faint in the dry state, the midrib prominent in both : length 
2*5 to 6 in., breadth 1"5 to 2"25 in., petiole '6 to 1 in. Flowers 1 to l - 25 in. 
in diam., in corymbs of 3 to 6 ; pedicels *5 to T25 in., recurved ; bracteoles 
fleshy, square, keeled. Free portion of sepals fleshy, "65 in. long, yellow, 
rounded or emarginate. Petals smaller than the sepals, membranous, 
ovate- acuminate. Stamens about 30. Fruit ovoid, 1 to 15 in. long 
(excluding the free part of the sepals), rough ; style persistent. Hook, 
fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 280. 

Mount Ophir in Malacca ; Griffith &c. — Perak ; on Gunong Batu 
Puteh at 3,400 ft., Wray, Scortechini. 

Var. obovata. A bush. Leaves obovate, minutely and bluntly 
mucronate ; fruit conspicuously verrucose. 

Perak, Gunong Bateh, at an elevation of 6,700 feet. 
Anneslea is practically a Ternstrmmia with half inferior fruit. 

2. Adinandra, Jack. 

Small evergreen trees with the habit of Ternstrwmia or Gordonia. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary, recurved, 2-bracteate at the apex. Floivers 
often silky outside. Sepals 5. Petals 5, connate at the base. Stamens 
many, often 1-4-delphous, the inner smaller; anther cells lateral, nar- 
row, elongate, the connective apiculate, usually hairy. Ovary 3-5- 
celled ; style ultimately elongate, entire or shortly 3- 5- fid ; ovules many 
25 



188 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

in each cell. Fruit globose, subtended by the persistent calyx and 
crowned by the style. Seeds many, small, albumen fleshy. Distrib. 
Confined (except the W. African A. Mannii) to the Malay Peninsula and 
Indian Archipelago ; species 12. 

1. Adinandra dumosa, Jack in Malay Misc. ii, No. 7, p. 50. A large 
shrub or small tree, glabrous everywhere except the stamens ; young 
branches slender, terete, dark brown. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous, reddish 
beneath, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, more or less acute or obtusely acu- 
minate, the base narrowed ; edges entire or obsoletely serrate ; midrib 
prominent especially beneath, nerves invisible ; length 2 to 4 in., breadth 
l - 25 to 1'75 in., petiole '1 to "2 in. Flowers '65 in. in diam., peduncles 
'4 to '75 in. long, not thickened after flowering ; bracteoles leathery, 
broadly ovate, opposite, close to the calyx. Sepals sub-erect, glabrous, 
leathery, ovate-rotund, blunt, sometimes emarginate. Petals longer 
than the sepals, membranous, oblong-lanceolate with broad bases, the 
apex minutely apiculate, erect, conniving. Stamens about 30, the inner 
shorter : filaments united by their bases, pilose : anthers with 2 narrow 
lateral cells ; the connective broad and pilose behind, its apex mucronate. 
Ovary 5-celled, the placentas incurved, multi-ovulate ; style subulate: 
stigma small, simple. Fruit '4 to '5 in. in diam., baccate, dry, with coria- 
ceous pericarp, imperfectly 4-5-celled. Seeds numerous, reniform. 
Wall. Cat. 3664, (corrected at p. 215 to 3666) and 7071. Dyer in Hook, 
fil. FI. Ind. i, 282 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. i, Pt. 2, p. 477 ; Choisy Mem. 
Ternst. 24. A. Jaclciana and trichocoryna, Korth. Verb.. Nat. Gesch. 
Bot. 106, 107. A. cyrtopoda, stylosa and glabra, Miq. Flor. Ind. Bat. 
Suppl. i, 478, 479. Temstrcemia ? dumosa, Wall. Cat. 2245. Camellia ? 
Scottiana, Choisy 1. c. (not of Wall. Herb.). 

In all the provinces except the Andamans and Nicobars, at low 
elevations, common. Distrib. Malay Archipelago. 

2. Adinandra acuminata, Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 109. A 
tree 40 to 60 feet high ; all parts except the stamens glabrous ; young 
branches slender, smooth, dark-coloured ; the older pale and rough. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the base acute, both sur- 
faces shining ; midrib prominent below ; the 9 to 11 pairs of nerves rather 
prominent below when dry, forming a double series of arches inside the 
margin ; length 3'5 to 6 in., breadth 1 to 2"5 in., petiole "25 in. Flowers 
•9 in. in diam. ; peduncles '75 to 1 in. long, thickened and verrucose after 
flowering ; bracteoles leathery, lanceolate, at some distance from the calyx, 
alternate. Sepals leathery, glabrous ; the two outer small, ovate ; the 
three inner much larger, spreading, rotund, the edges serrulate. Petals 
larger than the inner sepals, rotund, spreading, fleshy, the edges thin. 
Stamens about 40, the inner smaller : filaments united by their bases, 



1890.] G. King— Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 189 

short, coarsely pilose as are the narrow elongate apiculate anthers. 
Ovary 5-celled, depressed, ribbed, pubescent ; style filiform, pilose ; 
stigma small, conical. Fruit '5 to "75 in. in diam., baccate, dry, with 
coriaceous, pubescent, but ultimately glabrous, pericarp, 2-celled, many 
seeded : Seeds oval, flat, furrowed on both sides. Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. 
I, 282. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. 2, p. 478. Oordonia acuminata, Wall. 
Oat. 3664. Ternstrcemia ? coriacea, Wall. Cat. 1453. Camellia axillaris, 
Wall. Cat. 1453, p. 158 (not of Roxb. ex Bot. Reg. 349, see Journ. Linn. 
Soc. xiii, 330). Polyspora axillaris, Chois. Mem. Ternstr. 91 (not of 
Don). 

In all the provinces, from 1000 feet to (in Perak) 4000 feet : com- 
mon. Distrib. Sumatra. 

In Journ. Linn Soc. xiii, 330, there is a note by Mr. W. T. Thiselton 
Dyer (who elaborated this family of Ternstrcemiaceai in the Flora of Brit. 
India) on the plant issued by Wallich as Temstrosmia coriacea, aad 
identified by him (in an appendix to his Catalogue,) with Camellia 
axillaris, Roxb. Mr. Dyer shows that, under the name C. axillaris, Roxb , 
a totally different plant (= Oordonia anomala, Spreng) was figured in 
the Bot. Register (t. 349), and that Wallich's T. coriacea was neither 
Roxburgh's plant nor that figured in the Bot. Register, bat really 
A. acuminata, Korth. 

3. Adinandra maculosa, T. Anders. Hook fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 282. A 
tree 40 to 6C feet high ; young branches dark-coloured, pubescent near the 
apex, not silky. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to sub-rotund, shortly, blunt- 
ly and abruptly acuminate, entire, the base acute; upper surface smooth, 
shining ; the lower pale brown, dull, opaque, minutely rugulose when 
dry ; main nerves 8 to 10 pairs, spreading, very indistinct ; midrib dis- 
tinct : length 35 to 55 in., breadth 1'5 to 225 in. ; petiole "25 to - 4 in., 
glabrous. Floivers "75 in. in diam ; peduncles little longer than the 
petioles, pubescent ; bracteoles sub-rotund, opposite, close to the calyx. 
Sepals unequal, the two inner smaller, rotund to broadly ovate, very 
fleshy, puberulous externally, the edges thin and glabrous as is the 
whole internal surface. Petals membranous, ovate, acute, glabrous, 
connivent. Stamens about 30 ; filaments attached to the petals, short, 
glabrous : Anthers narrow, the cells elongate, lateral ; the connective 
sericeous with short glabrous apiculus. Ovary depressed-hemispheric, 
5-ribbed, 5-celled. Style cylindric, glabrous : stigma small, conical. 
Fruit *5in. in diam., globular, baccate, 4-celled, the leathery pericarp at 
first pubescent but finally glabrous ; seeds numerous, black, shining, 
horse-shoe-shaped, small. Ternstronnia iniegerrima, Wall. Cat. 1452 in 
part. 

Penang ; Wallich, Curtis. Perak ; Scortechini, Wray, King's Collec- 
tor: at elevations of from 1800 to 4000 feet. 



190 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

4. Adinandra integerrima, T. Anders. Hook. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 282. 
A small tree : young branches with dark-coloured bark, the extremities 
fulvous-pubescent, the leaf-buds sericeous. Leaves sub-coriaceous, ovate 
to ovate-oblong, shortly acuminate, the base acute or rounded, the margin 
minutely glandular-serrulate ; upper surface glabrous, shining, greenish 
when dry ; the lower pale brown, sparsely pubescent and with many 
minute black glands ; main nerves 10 to 14 pairs, thin, interarching 
*2 in. from the margin, slightly prominent on both surfaces (when dry) 
as are the reticulations : length 35 to 5 in., breadth l - 4 to 225 in. ; petiole 
2 to "25 in., pubescent. Flowers 6 in. in diam. ; peduncles not much 
longer than the petioles, strigose ; bracteoles ovate, acute, opposite, close 
to the calyx. Sepals spreading, broadly ovate, acute ; the two outer 
larger, very thick, the edges thin, serrulate-denticulate ; externally 
adpressed-sericeous, internally smooth and shining. Petals smaller than 
the sepals, coherent by their bases, connivent, ovate, acute, membra- 
nous, glabrous except an adpressed sericeous patch on the back, connivent. 
Stamens about 30, adnate to the base of the petals ; filaments short, 
glabrous ; anthers elongate, fusiform, the cells lateral ; connective seri- 
ceous with a long glabrous api cuius. Ovary depressed-hemispheric, 
adpressed-sericeous, 5-celled, multi-ovulate ; style cylindric, expanded 
below, sericeous ; stigma small, sub-capitate. Fruit (fide Dyer) baccate 
adpressed-pubescent, *7 in. in diam. Seeds small, shining. ' Dyer in 
Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 282. Pierre Fl. Forest Coch. -Chine, t. 125, 
(excl. syn. T. villosa, Choisy.). Ternstroemia dasyantha, Choisy (not of 
Korth.). Ternstraimia? integerrima, Wall. Cat. 1452 (in part) and 
2246. Gordonia reticulata, Wall. Cat. 3663 and 7070. 

Penang ; Wallich. Pei'ak, Scortechini : at low elevations. 
The specific name is unfortunate, as in all the specimens I have 
seen the leaves are as described above and not entire. 

5. Adinandea villosa, Choisy Mem. Ternstr. 24. A pubescent tree, 
40 to 50 feet high : young branches pilose, pale brown, leaf buds sericeous. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, entire or faintly 
glandular-crenate ; the base rounded, rarely acute; upper surface shin- 
ing, glabrous except the pubescent midrib ; under surface yellowish, 
sparsely pubescent : nerves 7 to 9 pairs, ascending, interarching within 
the margin, not prominent : midrib bold ; reticulations rather distinct : 
length 4 to 5*5 in., breadth 1*5 to 175 in. ; petiole '2 in., pilose. Flowers 
"75 in. in diam., from - 4 to nearly 1 in. long, pilose ; bracteoles ovate, 
from the middle of the peduncle, fugaceous. Sepals spreading, sub- 
equal, rotund, fleshy, pilose externally, smooth internally. Petals ovate, 
blunt, membranous, adpressed-sericeous externally, the edges glabrous. 
Stamens about 30, attached to the bases of the petals, sericeous, the 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 191 

filaments short; cells narrow, elongate, connective with a glabrous 
apiculus. Ovary depressed-hemispheric, adpressed-sericeous, 5-ridged, 
5-celled ; style cylindric, glabrous except at the base ; stigma minute. 
Fruit *5 in. in diam., baccate, adpressed-sericeous, 4-celled. Seeds 
numerous, reniform, brown, small. Hook. fil. PI. Br. Ind. I, 283. Kurz 
PI. Burm. i, 100. Ternstrcemia ? sericea, "Wall. Cat. 1454. Schima 
Wallichii, Choisy Mem. Ternst, 91 (not of Choisy in Zoll. Cat.) 

Perak ; King's Collector, Wray, at elevations from 3000 to 4000 
feet. Distrib. Tavoy. 

6. Adinandra Hullettii, King, n. sp. A tree ; young branches 
densely and minutely rusty- tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, 
shortly acuminate, the base acute ; edges glandular, denticulate, slightly 
recurved when dry; upper surface smooth, shining ; lower brown, dense- 
ly and minutely tomentose, the midrib prominent ; the nerves spreading, 
obscure, about 10 pairs; length 35 to 5"5 in., breadth 1'5 to 2'5 in., 
petiole '25 in. Flowers "75 in. in diam. ; peduncles "4 to "5 in., tomen- 
tose : bracteoles broadly ovate, acute, opposite, close to the calyx. 
Sepals spreading, fleshy, all glabrous internally : the outer 2 rotund, 
tomentose externally, larger than the others ; the inner 3 ovate-rotund, 
tomentose externally, the edges glabrous. Petals longer than the 
sepals, membranous, oblong, blunt, glabrous, the tips reflexed. Stamens 
from 40 to 50, all epipetalous ; anthers densely pubescent, the connec- 
tive with a long blunt glabrous apiculus ; filaments short, geniculate. 
Ovary conic-hemispheric, adpressed-sericeous ; style glabrous ; stigma 
small, conic. Fruit unknown. 

Singapore ; Murton, No. 144, Hullett, No. 103. Penang ; Curtis, 
No. 275, in part. 

A very distinct species of which fruit is as yet unknown. 

7. Adinandra macrantha, Teysm. and Binn. Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 
xxv, 421. A tree 20 to 50 feet high : young branches with pale glabrous 
bark, the apices and buds sericeous. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, 
with a broad apex suddenly contracted to a short blunt acumen, narrowed 
in the lower third to the sub-acute base ; the edges entire or faintly cre- 
nate ; both surfaces glabrous ; the upper greenish, the lower pale yellow- 
ish when dry : midrib bold, sometimes puberulous ; main nerves 15 to 
20 pairs forming a double series of arches inside the margin, rather 
prominent as are the reticulations ; length 5 to 7 in., breadth 2 to 3'25 
in. ; petiole "25 in., stout. Flowers 1*4 in. in diam. ; peduncles 1 to 15 
in. long, smooth : bracteoles rotund-reniform, opposite, close to the 
calyx. Sepals spreading, fleshy with thin ciliolate edges, smooth, rotund, 
the two outer smaller. Petals larger than the sepals, sub-coriaceous 
with thin edges, rotund, spreading. Stamens 40 to 50, adpresscd- 



192 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

sericeous every wliere, the apiculus of the connective with a terminal 
tuft ; filaments short. Ovary depressed-hemispheric, 3-1-celled, smooth 
as is the cylindric style; stigma small, conical, Fruit '75 in. in diam., 
imperfectly 3 to 4-celled, pericarp smooth. Seeds few, large, brown, 
horse-shoe-shaped, punctate, shining. 

Perak ; from 500 to 1500 feet, King's Collector, Scortechini. Distrib. 
Sumatra. 

The Perak specimens agree perfectly with Teysmann's types 
collected in Sumatra. 

8. Adinandra Miquelii, King. A medium sized tree : young 
branches stout, the bark white and polished. Leaves thickly coriaceous, 
oblanceolate, apex with a short blunt abrupt point, gradually narrowed 
in the lower half to the petiole, entire ; midrib prominent ; nerves 5 to 7 
pairs, ascending, anastomising *2 in. from the mai'gin, invisible in the 
fresh, inconspicuous in the dry state ; length 4 to 6 in , breadth 1*5 to 225 
in. ; petiole "6 to '75 in., stout. Flowers about - 75 in. in diam., scattered 
below the apices of the branches, axillary and extra-axillary, polygamous : 
peduncles spreading, solitary, compressed, pale, "75 to 1 in. long; the 
bracteoles just below the flower, small, fugaceous. Sepals fleshy, rotund, 
the 2 outer much smaller. Petals larger than the sepals, rotund, clawed, 
fleshy. Stamens numerous, chiefly from the torus, pubescent, the con- 
nective with a long apiculus, filaments short. Ovary depressed-globose, 
2-celled, narrowed above into the short cylindric style : stigma shortly 
bifid, the lobes narrow acute spreading. Fruit unknown. Temstrcemia 
hancana, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 477. 

Penang; Curtis, No. 1612. Distrib. Bangka. 

The stigma shows that this does not belong to the genus Tern- 
strcemia into which Miquel put it. It is evidently a rare plant in 
Penang, as Curtis's specimen (which agrees perfectly with Miquel's type- 
specimens from Bangka) is the only one which I have seen from that 
island. 

3. Ternstrcemia, Linn. 

Evergreen glabrous trees or shrubs, heaves more or less coriaceous, 
entire or crenate-serrate. Peduncles axillary, solitary or sub-fasciculate, 
recurved, 2-bracteolate, flowers usually dioecious. Sepals 5, imbricate. 
Petals 5, imbricate, connate by their bases. Stamens many, mostly ad- 
herent to the base of the corolla, anthers glabrous. Ovary 2 to 3-celled, 
style simple or absent. Stigma broadly 2 to 3-lobed or sub- entire ; 
ovules usually 2 in each cell, pendulous. Fruit indehiscent, sub-baccate. 
Seeds rather large, the albumen copious or scanty. Distrib. Tropical 
Asia and America ; species about 30. 






1890 ] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 193 

1. Ternstrcemia Penangiana, Cboisy Mem. Ternst. 20. A tree 40 
to 60 feet high : young branches rough, stout, pale brown. Leaves coria- 
ceous, oblanceolate to obovate, sub-acute or bluntly mucronate, rarely 
blunt or emarginate, entire, the base narrowed to the petiole; nerves 5 to 
7 pairs, spreading, invisible when fresh and inconspicuous when dry, the 
midrib prominent : length 3*5 to 6 in., breadth 1*5 to 2'5 and (in 
Wallich's specimen) to 4 in., petiole *6 to '75 in. Flowers '8 to 1'25 in. 
in diam., dioecious, solitary, axillary; pedicels *75 in. long, recurved or 
straight. Sepals rotund, fleshy with thin edges. Petals much larger 
than the sepals but similar in texture, rotund with a broad claw, the edges 
sub-denticulate. Stamens in the male very numerous, crowded, short, (re- 
duced to filaments in the female) ; connective slightly produced beyond 
the anther cells, truncate ; ovary globular, its cells biovulate. Stigmas 2, 
large, reniform, with erose glandular edges. Berry dry with coriaceous 
epicarp, globulai', 1 to 15 in. in diam., subtended by the thickened rugu- 
lose connate sepals : Seeds about 4, oblong. Dyer in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. 
Ind. I, 281. Kurz For, Fl. Burmah i, 99. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pfc. 2, p. 
469. Pierre Fl. For. Cooh.-Chine, t. 123. T. macrocarpa, Scheff. Obs. 
Phyt. i, p. 5. Erythrochiton Wallichianum, Griff. Notul iv. 565, t. 585 
A, fig. 7. Fagraea dubia, Wall. Cat. 4456. Oarcinia acuminata, Wall. 
Cat. 4871 A, in part, (fide Hooker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv, 486. 

Penang ; Wallich, Griffith, Curtis. Andamans and Nicobars ; Kurz, 
King's Collector. Distrib. Java. 

This species was founded by Choisy on the imperfect Wallichian 
specimens from Penang issued by Wallich as his No. 4456. These 
specimens consist of leaves and fruit with some imperfect flowers The 
leaves are obovate, almost rotund, and broader than those of any Tern- 
strmmia which has been collected since. It is therefore not quite cer- 
tain that the Andaman andNicobar plant is really the same as Wallich's 
although in stigma and fruit it agrees. The plant described and figured 
as T. Penangiana by Pierre (1. c.) is obviously the same as the Andaman 
and Nicobar species, but whether it is the same as Wallich's No. 4456 I 
am not prepared to say. 

2. Ternstrcemia Scortechinii, King, n. sp. A tree, 20 to 40 feet 
high : young branches with pale brownish-grey bark, striate when dry. 
Leaves coriaceous, verticellate, drying of a pale green, oblanceolate, the 
apex shortly abruptly and rather bluntly acuminate, narrowed from above 
the middle to the rather stout short petiole; edges entire ; under surface 
rather pale ; midrib distinct on both surfaces ; nerves visible on neither • 
length 3 to 5 in., breadth 1-25 to nearly 2 ia. ; petiole '4 to - 5. Flowers 
dioecious, '6 to '7 in. in diam., pedunculate, axillary, solitary or in fasci- 
cles of 2 to 6 ; peduncles slender, compressed, 1 to Vb in. lono-; the 2 



194 G. King— -Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

bi-acteoles about *2 in. below the calyx, minute, fugacious. Sepals sub- 
equal, fleshy with thin edges, rotund. Petals much larger than the 
sepals, orbicular to reniform, clawed. Stamens in the male very nu- 
merous ; anthers sub-sessile, the connective broad, bearing the 2 cells 
on its edges and produced above them into a broad short truncate pro- 
cess ; rudimentary ovary flatfish, without stigma. Female flowers like 
the males but with fewer stamens ; ovary hemispheric, imperfectly 2- 
celled; stigmas 2, sub-sessile, flat, foliaceous, each divided into 3 or 4 lobes 
with thick corrugated edges. Fruit a dry ovoid berry with coriaceous 
dark-coloured epicarp, *75 in. long, and *2 in. in diam., subtended by the 
leathery calyx. Seeds 2, large, broad, horse-shoe-shaped, flatfish, *5 in. 
long. 

Pei*ak, at low elevations ; Scortechini, King's Collector. 

A very distinct species with leaves curiously like those of Illicium 
evenium, and Avith smaller flowers than the other species. 

3. Ternstrcemia coriacea, Scheff. Obs. Phyt, ii, p. 16, (not of Wall.). 
A tree 50 to 70 feet high : young branches light brown, smooth. Leaves 
coriaceous, usually oblong-oblanceolate with an abrupt short blunt api- 
culus, sometimes oblong-lanceolate and acute ; attenuate in the lower 
third to the stout petiole : midrib bold ; main nerves 5 to 9 pairs, spreading, 
anastomosing '2 in. from the entire margin, rather inconspicuous even 
when dry : length 4 to 6 in., breadth 1*75 to 2"5 in., petiole *75 to 1 in. 
Flowers 1*25 to 1*5 in. in diam., dioecious, solitary, axillary or from the 
axils of fallen leaves ; peduncles flattened, deep brown, 1*5 to 2 in. long, 
slender; bracteoles alternate, minute, about *25 in. below the calyx. 
Sepals fleshy with thin edges, rotund ; the 2 outer rather smaller than 
the inner 3. Petals larger than the sepals, much imbricate, rotund, 
fleshy, not clawed. Stamens in the male numerous, from the torus, the 
connective with a broad rounded apical appendage ; quite absent in the 
female flower. Ovary globular, 2- celled ; stigmas 2, sub-sessile, each 
deeply divided into 6 to 8 sub-spathulate lobes. Fruit baccate, globu- 
lar-ovoid, *75 in. in diam. and nearly 1 in. long, dry, with a coriaceous 
rind, subtended by the slightly enlarged hardened calyx and crowned 
by the remains of the stigma. Seeds about 4, oblong, the testa 
rugulose. 

Malacca ; Griffith (Kew Distrib.) 183. Penang ; Curtis, No. 1055. 
Perak ; King's Collector. Distrib. Bangka. 

Distinguished from the preceding by its anthers, by the venation 
of its leaves, and by its young branches. Teysmann's specimens from 
Bangka in no way differ from those from Perak, Malacca and Penang. 
Wallich's fragmentary specimens, (Cat. No. 7430,) probably fall here. 
The plant issued by Wallich as Temstrcemia coriacea (Cat. No. 1453) is, as 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 195 

suggested by the late Dr. Anderson and Mr. Dyer (Journ, Lion. Soc. 
xiii, 331), Adinandra acuminata, Korth. 

4. Ecrya, Tlmnb. 

Shrubs. Leaves narrow, usually crenate-serrate. Floioers small, 
unisexual, sessile or shortly pedicelled, in axillary fascicles, rarely 
solitary, with persistent bracfceoles. Sepals 5. Petals 5, united at the 
base. Stame?is 15 or less, rarely 5 ; anthers glabrous. Ovary 3 (rarely 
2-5)-celled; styles 3 (rarely 2-5) free or united; ovules many in the 
inner angle of each cell. Fruit baccate. Albumen fleshy. Distrib. 
S. E. Asia, Indian Archipelago and Pacific Islands ; described species 
more than 30, probably reducible to 10 . 

1. Eurya acuminata, DO. Mem. Ternst. 29. A tree 30 to 40 feet 
high : young branches slender, pubescent to minutely tomentose. Leaves 
thinly coriaceous, narrowly oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate, 
serrulate, the base acute ; upper surface glabrous, shining- ; the lower 
paler, pubescent especially on the midrib, or sub-glabrous ; length 2'5 
to 3'5 in., breadth - 5 to '75 in., petiole - 1 in. or none. Flowers "25 in. 
in diam., in 2 to 6-flowered clusters ; pedicels short, pubescent, bracteo- 
late. Buds globose. Sepals unequal, the outer smsdler, rotund with a 
thickened wrinkled patch near the base, pubescent externally. Petals 
larger and thinner than the sepals, oblong, blunt, veined, glabrous. 
Male flowers : stamens about 12, glabrous ; filaments slender, anthers 
oblong, blunt ; rudimentary ovary conic without styles, or absent. 
Female flower as in the male, but the sepals and petals smaller and 
narrower ; stamens ; ovary ovoid-conic; smooth, 3 or (by abortion) 
2-celled, multi-ovulate ; styles 3, united or free in the lower two-thirds, 
cylindric, about as long as the ovary. Stigmas on the inner surfaces of 
the upper part of the styles. Fruit globular, - 15 in. in diam., smooth, 
subtended by the persistent calyx and crowned by the styles. Seeds 
small, angled, pitted, shining, brown. Diospyros serrata, Ham. in Don 
Prod. PL Nep. 143. 

In all the provinces at low elevations, common. Distrib. Sub- 
tropical Himalaya, Assam, Chittagong and Burmese Ranges, Malay 
Archipelago, Fiji Islands. 

In a plant with such a wide distribution, variations in form are 
only to be expected. Many of these have been treated as species which, 
in Sir J. D. Hooker's Flora of British India, Mr. Thiselton Dyer has re- 
duced to varieties as follows : 

Var. 1. euprista, Korths. Verb. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 113 (sp.) ; 
styles distinct. Griff. Ic. 604, f. 3. E. multiflora, DC. 1. c. 25. E. 
serrata, Blumc Fl. Jav. proef. vii. E. angustifolia, Wall. Cat. 1465. 
26 



196 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

E. acuminata, Royle 111. 127, t. 25. E. salicifolia, Blume Mus. Bot. II, 
118. E. chinensis, Hook. f. and Thorns. Herb. Ind. Or. (not of 
Brown). 

Var. 2. Wallichiana, Steud. in Blume Mus. Bot. ii, 118 (sp.); 
styles united. E. lucida, Wall. Cat. 1462. E. fasciculata, Ham. in 
Wall. Oat. 1463. E. acuminata, Wall. Cat. 1464. E. bifaria, Wall. 
Cat. 3721 ? E. membranacea, Gardn. in. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist, vii, 
444. E. japonica, /3 acuminata, Thw. Enum. PI. Cey. 41. 

2. Eurta Wkati, King, n. sp. A small tree : young tranches 
slender, purplish-brown, laxly pubescent towards the apex. Leaves drying 
greenish-yellow, thinly coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, bluntly acuminate, 
minutely serrulate, the base rounded : upper surface glabrous, shining ; 
lower paler, dull, sparsely pubescent ; length 2 to 2"75 in., breadth - 5 to 
*7 in., petiole '1 in. Floivers narrowly ovate, pointed, scarcely expand- 
ing', '1 in. in diam. and "2 in. long, axillary, solitary or in 2 to 6-flowered 
sessile umbels, quite glabrous : pedicels slender, glabrous, 1" to *15 in. 
long, bi-bracteolate. Sepals unequal, erect, fleshy, ovate, acute, much 
imbricate. Petals sub-equal, erect, membranous, ovate, acute, connate 
in the lower third. Stamens 15, glabrous ; anthers narrow, elongate, 
shortly apiculate ; filaments short. Ovary ovoid, gradually narrowing 
into the thick style, imperfectly 3-celled ; stigmas short. Fruit un- 
known. 

Perak ; at Tapa, Wray. 

Distinguished by its narrowly ovate pointed flower-buds and flowers, 
and by the rounded bases of its leaves. 

4. Actinidia, Lindl. 

Glabrous, sti-igose, or tomentose shrubs ; usually climbers. Leaves 
entire or serrate, usually membranous, feather- veined. Flowers polyga- 
mous or dioecious, in axillary cymes, rarely solitary. Sepals 5, slightly 
imbricate, subconnate at the base. Petals 5, somewhat contorted-im- 
bricate. Stamens many ; anthers dehiscing by slits. Ovary many- 
celled ; the styles as numerous, divergent and elongated after noweriuo-. 
Fruit baccate. Distrib. Himalaya, China and Japan ; species about 8. 

1. Actinidia Miquelii, King, n. sp. Slender, scandent, 30 to 60 feet 
long : young branches cylindric, striate, glabrous, dark-coloured. Leaves 
membranous, ovate-acuminate to sub-rotund, mucronate, minutely glan- 
dulai'-dentate, the base rounded or slightly cordate; upper surface 
glabrous, rigid, the nerves and midrib minutely pubescent : lower sur- 
face pale brown when dry, minutely but densely tomentose; nerves 
about 5 pairs, the lower spreading, the upper sub-erect, prominent be- 
neath as are the midrib and transverse veins ; length 3 to 4 in., breadth 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 197 

2'5 to 3'5 in. ; petiole 1'25 to 1"5 in., slender. Cymes axillary, dicho- 
tomous, spreading, rusty-tomentose, on slender ebracteate peduncles 1'5 
in. long which lengthen to 3 in. in fruit. Flowers numerous, dioecious, 
•5 in. in diam. ; pedicels "3 to "4 in. long. Sepals thick, ovate, blunt, 
densely rusty-tomentose externally. Petals larger than the sepals, 
membranous, oblong-obovate, blunt. Stamens in males very numerous, 
glabrous ; the anthers broadly oblong, blunt, deeply cordate at the base ; 
filaments slender. Ovary in the males absent or rudimentary, densely 
pilose, and with several rudimentary styles. Female floivers unknown. 
Fruit ovoid, "75 in. long, and '4 in. in diam., baccate, smooth, pulpy, sub- 
tended by the persistent calyx and crowned by the remains of 15 to 20 
filiform styles. Seeds numerous, shining, brown, less than "1 in. long, 
ovoid, sub-compressed, pitted and with several longitudinal grooves. 
Kadsura pubescens, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 620. 

Perak ; on trees, at elevations of 3,500 to 4000 feet, King's Collector, 
Nos. 5437 and 8789. Distrib. Eastern Sumatra. 

I have carefully examined a type specimen of Mi quel's Kadsura 
pubescens from Sumatra named by the author's own hand ; and there is 
no doubt whatever that it is an Actiuidia and not a Kadsura ; nor is 
there any that it is identical with the above quoted numbers of the 
Calcutta collector from Perak. Miquel is quite wrong in describing his 
plant as having 3 sepals and 6 petals ; there being 5 in each whorl. 

6. Saurauja, Willd. 

Trees or shrubs. Branches usually brown with whitish tubercular 
dots, both branches and leaves more or less strigose-pilose or scaly when 
young. Leaves approximate at the ends of the branches, usually serrate, 
with parallel veins diverging from the midrib. Inflorescence lateral, 
ofteu from the axils of fallen leaves, cymose, subpaniculate, rarely few- 
flowered. Bracts usually small, remote from the calyx. Flowers usually 
hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, strongly imbricate. Petals 5, usually connate 
at the base. Stamens many ; anthers dehiscing by pores. Ovary 3-5- 
celled ; styles as many, distinct or connate, rarely dry and sub-dehiscent. 
Distrib. Tropical and sub-tropical Asia and America. Species about 
60. 

1. Saurauja tristtla, DC. Mem. Ternstr. 31, t. 7. A shrub or tree 
2 to 3 feet high ; young branches with grey, faintly striate bark, decidu- 
ously scurfy and strigose towards the apices. Leaves membranous, oblan- 
ceolate, abruptly and shortly acuminate, minutely and remotely serrulate 
or sub-entire, the base acute ; both surfaces glabrous, except the midrib 
and main nerves which have a few scale-like hairs, the lower pale brown 
when dry ; nerves 10 to 12 pairs, erecto-patent, rather prominent be- 



198 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

neatli ; length 5 to 8 in., breadth 1"5 to 3 in., petiole 5 to 1 in. Flowers 
"2 to '3 in. in diam., narrowly ovate in bud, in fascicles of 2 to 5 from 
small axillary tubercles, but mostly from the axils of fallen leaves ; the 
pedicels slender, minutely bracteolate, '75 in. long, scurfy. Male flower ; 
sepals erect, unequal, the two outer smaller, more or less broadly ovate, 
blunt ; petals lai'ger than the sepals, sub-erect, membranous, veined, 
oblong, blunt : stamens about 25, glabrous ; the anthers broadly ovate, 
blunt, with sutural dehiscence; rudimentary ovary none. Female flower ; 
sepals and petals as in the male ; stamens absent. Ovary ovoid, glabrous ; 
styles 3, distinct to the base, or united half way. Fruit globular, sub- 
dehiscent, scarcely exceeding the calyx. Seeds broadly ovate, angled, 
deeply pitted. Dyer in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 287. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
i, Pt. 2, p. 483 ; Kurz For. Fl. Burm. i, 104. Scapha Oandollei and 8. 
Pinangiana, Choisy Mem. Ternst. 31. Temstrcemia pentapetala, Jack in 
Malay. Misc. i, No. 5, 40. T. trilocularis, Roxb. ex Wall. PI. As. Rar. 
ii, 40. T. bilocularis, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 522 ? 

In all the provinces (except the Andamans and Nicobars from 
which it has not as yet been sent) ; at low elevations, common. 

The plant figured under this name by Pierre (Fl. Forest Coch.- 
Cbine) is obviously a different species ; for it has 5 styles, and it differs 
also in other respects. 

2. Saubauja nddiflora, DO. Mem. Soc. Geneve, i, 422. A tree 20 to 
30 feet high ; youngest branchlets dark-coloured, squamulose towards the 
apex ; the older esquamulose, pale, faintly striate. Leaves membranous, 
oblanceolate, shortly and sharply acuminate, minutely glandular-serrate, 
narrowed in the lower half to the acute base ; both surfaces glabrous ; 
the midrib and 12 to 13 pairs of bold spreading nerves puberulous on 
the upper, sparsely covered with flattened hairs on the lower, surface ; 
length 6 to 10 in., breadth 2 - 25 to 3 - 75 in., petiole - 5 to T25 in. Flowers 
•25 to "4 in. in diam., white, glabrous, solitary or in 2 to 3-flowered fasci- 
cles from tubercles in the axils of leaves or of fallen leaves ; pedicels 
•5 to 1 in. long, slender, sparsely scurfy, and with several acute bracte- 
oles. Sepals rotund, fleshy with thin edges, united at the base. Petals 
oblong-obovate, emarginate, united below, larger than the sepals. Sta- 
mens 25 to 30, attached to the base of the corolla : anthers oblong-ovate, 
curved, the dehiscence sutural, not apiculate ; filaments short. Ovary 
hemispheric, pubescent. Styles 3 to 5, united in the lower half. Fruit 
covered by the accrescent calyx. Seeds ovate, deeply foveolate, pale 
brown, shining. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. ii, p. 484. ? S. Noronhiana, 
Bl. Bijdr. 126. 

Perak 800 to 3,500 feet, common. Distrib. Sumatra and Java. 

This differs from S. tristyla in its rotund sepals, larger flowers, pu- 



1890.] G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 199 

bescent ovary, sub-globular seeds, and in its often having 5 styles. There 
may be two species covered by the foregoing description : but I cannot 
find a constant character to separate them. I believe this to be Blume's 
»S. Noronhiana and Be Candolle's S. nudiflora : but, not having been able 
to consult any authentic specimen of the former and only moderately good 
ones of the latter, I am not quite satisfied of the identity with them of 
this common Perak tree. The genus Saurauja is a very puzzling one. 
The species come very close together, and Miquel's descriptions of the 
numerous species which he named are so incomplete that it is almost 
impossible to recognise them with any certainty. 

3. Saurauja cauliflora, Bl. Bijdr. 128, var. calycina, King. A 
tree : young branches and petioles densely covered with long paleaceous 
yellowish hairs. Leaves elliptic-oblong, shortly and sharply acuminate, 
the edges faintly aristate-serrate, the base acute ; upper surface gla- 
brous ; lower pale brown when dry, strigose on the midrib nerves and 
veins ; main nerves 12 to 14 pairs, spreading, prominent beneath ; length 
6 to 9 in., breadth 2'25 to 2 - 75 in., petiole about 1 in. Floivers "4 in. in 
diam., on long pedicels, crowded in large fascicles from flat tubercles on 
the larger branches and stem ; pedicels from "75 to 1'5 in. long, tomen- 
tose-squamulose, rufous. Sepals rotund, the outer densely tomentose- 
squamulose ; the inner almost glabrous, veined. Petals obovate-oblong, 
blunt, united in their lower third, membranous, nerved, scarcely so large 
as the sepals. Stamens about 25, adherent to the corolla, elongate-ovate, 
adnate, dehiscing by two large apical pores. Ovary scaly, 3-celled, multi- 
ovulate. Styles 3, united by their bases only. Fruit enveloped by the 
slightly accrescent calyx, sub-glabrous, 3-celled. Seeds small, ovate- 
rotund, compressed, foveolate, pale brown. DO. Mem. Soc. Geneve I, 
425; Korth. Verb.. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 126; Hassk. PI. Jav. Ear. 273 ; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. ii, p. 486. Ann. Mus. Ludg. Bat. IV, 106. 
Perak : Batu Kurau. Scortechini, No. 1614. 

This differs in no respect from the plant described by Blume, of 
which I have seen good specimens, except in its larger sepals which are 
densely tomentose-squamulose externally. 

7. Ptrenaria, Blume. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves serrate, large and sub-membranous. Flowers 
sub-sessile, axillary, erect or nodding. Sepals usually 5, unequal, gra- 
duating from the bracts to the petals. Petals connate at the base. 
Stamens very numerous, mostly connate, adnate to the base of the petals. 
Ovary 5-celled ; styles 5, free, or partially united ; ovules 2 in each cell, 
attached laterally. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent. Seeds oblong, stout, 
with a thick woody testa, wingless ; albumen ; cotyledons large, crum- 



200 Gk King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

pled or conduplicate ; radicle inferior, inflexed. Disfcrib. Malay Penin- 
sula and Indian Archipelago. Species about 7. 

1. Pyrenaria acuminata, Planch, ex Choisy Mem. Ternstr. 84. A 
shrubby tree, 15 to 30 feet high : young branches densely tawny or ful- 
vous-tomentose. Leaves elongate-oblanceolate, sometimes oblong-elliptic, 
acuminate, minutely serrulate, the base attenuate ; upper surface gla- 
brous, shining, the midrib and nerves puberulous, greenish when dry ; the 
lower softly pubescent, minutely papillose ; the midrib stout, tomentose ; 
main nerves about 10 pairs, sometimes forking and always interarching 
about '25 in. from the margin ; length 6 to 12 in., breadth 2 to 3'5 in. ; 
petiole '4 in., tomentose. Flowers 1'5 in. in diam., shortly pedicellate, 
solitary, crowded towards the ends of the branches in the axils of leaves 
or of abortive leaves ; pedicels recurved, tomentose ; bracteoles lanceo- 
late, close to the calyx, tawny-silky externally as are sepals and petals. 
Sepals and petals graduated in size from the bracts inwards, broadly 
ovate, acuminate, glabrous and brownish internally ; anthers ovate, 
adnate, only about one-fourth the length of the slender filaments. Ovary 
ovoid, sericeous : styles united in the lower half, free above : stigmas 
small, Fruit depressed-globose, l"5 in. in diam., and 1 in. long ; the 
pericarp sericeous, becoming glabrescent, leathery, sub-succulent. Seeds 
few, large, sub-reniform, compressed. Miq. Fl. iud. Bat. I, Pt. ii, p. 
493 ; Dyer in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Inch i, 290. Ternstr cemia ? macrophylla, 
Wall. Oat. 3663. Gordonia (Camellia ?) acuminata, Wall. Oat. 3664. 

Singapore, Malacca, Penang and Perak ; at low elevations. 

2. Pyrenaria Kcnstleri, King, n. sp. A tree 15 to 30 feet high ; all 
parts glabrous except the very apices of the brandies, the youngest leaf- 
buds, and the flowers. Leaves elliptic-oblong to oblong-oblanceola te, acumi- 
nate, faintly serrate in the upper three-fourths ; the base entire, acute ; 
both surfaces, but especially the lower, much pustulate when dry ; the 
lower brown, the upper greenish ; midrib and 6 to 8 pairs of erecto- 
patent main nerves rather prominent below, the latter interarching "3 
to - 4 in. from the edge ; secondary nerves prominent ; length 5'5 to 7 in., 
breadth 1*8 to 2'5 in., petiole '3 to '4 in. Flowers - 75 in. in diam., on 
peduncles - 1 in. long ; bracteoles 2, opposite, broad, close to the calyx. 
Sepals rotund, coriaceous, pubescent externally. Petals larger than the 
sepals, rotund, glabrous, fleshy with thin edges, white. Stamens nu- 
merous : anthers broadly ovate, apiculate, 4 or 5 times as long as the 
slightly flattened filaments. Ovary ovoid-conic, ridged, adpressed-pubes- 
cent, 5-celled. Style short, conic, glabrous, 5-ridged. Stigmas small, 
acute, connivent. Fruit T25 in. long, and - 9 in. in diam., ovoid, blunt- 
ly 5-ridged, pubescent. Seeds few, ovate, sub-compressed, *6 in. long. 

Perak ; at elevations of 500 to 2000 feet. King's Collector. 






1890.] Or. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 201 

3. Ptrenaeia Wrayi, KiDg, n. sp. A bush ; the young branches 
pale, minutely adpressed-pubescent towards the apices as are the leaf- 
buds. Leaves thinly coriaceous, oblong-oblanceolate, shortly acuminate, 
obscurely crenate-serrate to sub-entire ; the base attenuate, entire ; both 
surfaces glabrous, the lower yellowish-green, pustulate when dry, the 
upper greenish : midrib prominent especially beneath : main nerves 10 
to 12 pairs, interarching "25 in. from the margin, rather prominent 
beneath; length 6 to 8 in , breadth 1*75 to 2'25 in. ; petiole "3 or '4 in., 
stout. Floioers - 5 in. in diam., buds globose ; peduncle very short, gla- 
brous ; bracteoles 3, broadly ovate, connate just below the calyx. Sepals 
6, increasing in size inwards, rotund, minutely pubescent externally. 
Petals 6, rotund, concave, thinner than the sejjals, puberulous externally 
with broad glabrous edges. Stamens numerous ; anthers broadly ovate, 
about one-fourth as long as the filaments. Ovary shortly ovate-conic, with 
many lines of white hair, 5 or 6-celled. Styles 3, united for half their 
length : stigmas vertically flattened. Ovules 2 in each cell. Fruit 
sub-globular, bluntly 5-ridged, deciduously pubescent, 1 in. in diam. 
Seeds ovoid, sub-compressed, smooth, - 6 in. long, the hilum very large. 

Perak ; at low elevations, Wray, Scortechini. 

Closely allied to P. Kunstleri; but the leaves have many more 
nerves, the flowers are 6-merous with only 3 styles, and the fruit is more 
globular than in that species. 

8. Schima, Reinw. 

Trees with evergreen leaves. Peduncles usually erect, axillary or 
solitary, or the uppermost shortly racemed. Flowers handsome, 2-brac- 
teolate. Sepals 5, subequal, united below. Petals 5, much larger, connate 
at the base, the outermost concave and sub-cucullate. Stamens many, 
adnate to the base of the petals. Ovary 5- (l'arely 4-6) celled ; styles 
united, or partially free at the apex with broad spreading stigmas ; 
ovules 2-6 in each cell, attached laterally, sub-pendulous. Gapsule 
woody, depressed-globose, loculicidal, with a persistent axis. Seeds flat, 
kidney-shaped, dorsally ridged, hilum central, albumen scanty ; coty- 
ledons foliaceous, flat or crumpled, accumbent ; radicle inferior, curved 
upwards. Distrib. Tropical Asia. Species about 3. 

1. Schima Noronhae, Reinw. in Bl. Bijdr. 130. A tree 40 to 80 feet 
high : young branches with pale brown bai'k, deciduously pubescent, 
lenticellate. Leaves sub-coriaceous, narrowly elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 
acuminate, faintly crenate-serrate, often sub-entire, the base narrowed 
or rounded ; both surfaces glabrous, the lower pale, dull : main nerves 
9 or 10 pairs, spreading, slender, rather distinct below when dry, the 
minor nerves obsolete; length 4"5 to 6 in,, breadth 1'4 to 2*5 in,, petiole 



202 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

"75 to 1"25 in., flat, more or less winged. Flowers 1'25 to 1 - 5 in. in diam., 
axillary, crowded at the apices of the branches and forming lax terminal 
pseudo-corymbs ; peduncles I to 1*5 in. long, slender, thickened towards 
the apex, glabrous or pubescent, bracteoles minute. Sepals rounded, or 
sub-acute, glabrous or glabrescent, the margins minutely ciliate, about '15 
in. long. Petals thin, veined, obovate, clawed, their bases pubescent and 
their edges ciliate in the lower half, white or pale pink. Stamens 5- 
delphous ; anthers sub-rotund, small, the filaments 4 or 5 times as long. 
Ovary depressed-hemispheric, pubescent, 5-celled. Style thick; stigma 
discoid, with 5 blunt lobes. Fruit '75 in. in diam., adpressed-pubescent 
when young, glabrous or sub-glabrous when old ; upper part of columella 
expanded, 5-angled. Kortli. Verb. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 143, t. 29, figs. 21 
to 27. Choisy Mem. Ternst. 54 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. i, p. 492 ; 
Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. IV, 112 ; Kurz For. Fl Burm. i, 107. S. crenata, 
Kortb. 1. c. t. 29, figs. 1 to 20 ; Miq. Flora 1. c. 491 ; Ann. 1. c. 113 ; Kurz 
1. c. 107; Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 289. Pierre Fl. Forest Coch.-Chine, t. 
121. Gordonia floribunda, Wall. Cat. 1456; Griff. Not. iv, 563. G. 
oblata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 572. 

In all the provinces except the Andamans and Nicobars. Distrib. 
The Malayan Aixdiipelago, Burmah, at elevations of 1000 to 3000 feet. 

This rather widely distributed species varies remarkably little. Iu 
spite, however, of this, Korthal, carved out if it his species S. crenata, 
which he states to have the same calyx, corolla, stamens, ovary, style and 
stigma as Reinwardt's Noronliae, but to differ in the leaves and capsule. 
His own descriptions and figures of leaves and capsule, however, of both 
species are practically identical. The only other really distinct species 
of the genus appear to me to be <S. Khasiana, Dyer, S. bancana, Miq. 
and perhaps S. Wallichii, Choisy. 

9. Gordonia, Ellis. 

Trees with evergreen entire or crenate leaves. Flowers usually 
large, often subsessile, solitary in the axils of the leaves or collected at 
the ends of the branches, 2-4 bracteolate. Sepals usually 5, unequal, 
graduating from the bracts to the petals. Petals free or united at the 
base, imbricate, the inner larger. Stamens indefinite, 5-delphous or 1- 
delphous, aduate to the petals: anthers versatile. Ovary 3-5-celled; 
style single ; the stigma flat, rotund, rather thick, sometimes lobed ; 
ovules pendulous, 4 to 8 in each cell. Capsule oblong, woody, loculicidal, 
with a persistent column. Seeds flat or compressed, the apex often 
winded, albumen none; embryo usually straight, the cotyledons ovate, 
flat or plicate. Distrib. Tropical, Asia N. America. Species about 
15. 






1890. J G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 203 

1. Gordonia excelsa, Bl. Bijdr. 130. A free 30 to 40 feefc high : 
young branches slender, smooth, pale brown, pubescent towards the apex. 
Leaves thinly coriaceous, glabrous, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
edge slightly recurved, sub-serrulate, base acnte ; midrib bold, puberu- 
lous near the base beneath : main nerves 5 to 7 pairs, indistinct, bifurca- 
ting - 3 in. from the edge and forming wide intra-marginal areolae : 
length 2*5 to 5 in., breadth 1 to 1"5 in. ; petiole '3 in., slender. Flowers 
1"5 in. in diam., subsessile, solitary, in the upper axils only ; pedicel 
about '1 in. ; bracteoles lanceolate, small, fugaceous. Sepals spreading, 
free, orbicular, pubescent externally, fleshy. Petals white, much larger 
than the sepals, orbicular, minutely pubescent externally, fleshy with 
broad membranous glabrous margins. Anthers ovoid, only a quarter of 
the length of the flattened filaments. Ovary hemispheric-conic, verti- 
cally ridged, densely sericeous, 5-celled. Styles single, slender, 5- 
angled; stigma small, with 5 blunt radiating lobes. Capsule 1'5 in. 
long, "75 in. in diam., deciduously adpressed-pubescent. Seeds 1 in. or 
more long, three-fourths being wing. Dyer in Hook. fil. Fl. Br. Ind. i, 
291. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I, Pt. ii, p. 489. O. singaporiana, Wall. Cat. 
1457 (in part). Antheeischima excelsa, Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 
138, t. 27. Dipterospermai, sp. Griff. Notul. iv, 564. 

Malacca. Penang; Curtis No. 834, King's Collector. Perak ; King's 
Collector, Wray ; at elevations of 1200 to 2,500 feet. Distrib. Outer 
ranges of Eastern Himalaya. 

Allied to G. Maingayi, but with much larger flowers and fruit and 
differently shaped leaves. 

2. Gordonia grandis, King, n. sp. A tree 80 to 120 feet high ; all 
parts except the flowers glabrous ; young branches as thick as a goose- 
quill, dark purplish-brown when dry. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-oblan- 
ceolate, shortly acuminate, faintly serrate-crenate in the upper two-thirds, 
entire in the lower third and prolonged along the petiole : upper surface 
greenish when dry, shining ; the lower dull, brown : nerves 10 to 12 pairs, 
indistinct, interarching '15 in. from the margin; length 4 5 to 6 in., 
breadth l'l to 1*5 in., petiole proper "15 in. Flowers 15 to 2 in. in diam., 
solitary, axillary, about '3 in. long, puberulous ; buds globose ; brac- 
teoles few, small, fugaceous. Sepals and petals greenish, rotund, mi- 
nutely adpressed-sericeous externally, coriaceous,5,the edges thin and gla- 
brous ; the petals much the larger, spreading. Stamens very numerous ; 
anthers narrowly oblong, about a fifth of the length of the slender slightly 
flattened filaments. Ovary narrowly ovoid, vertically ridged, minutely 
adpressed-sericeous. Style longer than the ovary, vertically ridged and 
sericeous like the ovary. Stigma with 5 small roundish lobes. Fruit 
unknown. 
27 



204 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

Perak, at elevations of 500 to 1000 feet, King's Collector. 

3. Gordonia MainCxAyi, Dyer in Hook. fll. Fl. Br. Ind. I, 291. A 
tree 30 to 40 feet high : young brandies slender, with glabrous pale 
rougliish bark, pubescent towards the apices. Leaves coriaceous, broad- 
ly oblanceolate, shortly and bluntly acuminate, obscurely serrulate in 
the upper two-thirds, the lower third gradually attenuate, entire: both 
surfaces glabrous, the upper greenish, the lower brownish when dry, the 
midrib bold and sparsely pubescent beneath ; lateral nerves 6 pairs, indis- 
tinct ; length 2'5 to 3 in., breadth 1 to 1'4 in., petiole "25 in. Flowers 
sub-sessile, "8 to 1 in. in diam., buds sub-globular; bjacts, sepals and 
petals forming a cone, all adpressed-seviceous externally except the 
glabrous edges : pedicels about - 15 in. long. Sepals and petals orbicu- 
lar, blunt or refuse. Stamens numerous; anthers elongate-ovoid; 
filaments much longer, slender. Ovary ovoid-conic, vertically ridged, 
adpressed-sericeous, 4 or 5-celled. Style single, angled. Stigmas 4 or 
5, acute, connivent. Capsules 4 to 5-angled, woody, 1 to 1*25 long, '5 
to "6 in diam., 4 or 5-celled, backs of valves flat. Seeds - 9 in. long of 
which thre. fourths are wing. 

Malacca; Maingay, No. 192. Perak, Scortechini, Wray ; at about 
1000 feet. 

4. Gordonia Scortechinii, King, n. sp. A tree ; young, branches 
slender, dark brown, glabrous, the apices and leaf- buds minutely puberu- 
lous. Leaves coriaceous, narrowly elliptic, blunt, or sub-emarginate, 
slightly narrowed to the sub-acute or rounded base ; both surfaces gla- 
brous, the lower dull, pale ; the upper shining, green when dry ; midrib 
bold ; nerves about 8 pairs, faint on the upper, invisible on the lower 
surface ; length 2 to 3 in., breadth '8 to 1'4 in., petiole "25 in. Flowers 
- 6 in. in diam., solitary, axillary, only towards the apices of the branches, 
on very short curved pubescent peduncles. Buds ovoid. Sepals orbi- 
cular, fleshy, unequal, pubescent externally. Petals twice as large as 
the sepals, membranous, puberulous externally. Stamens few, (only 
about 30) ; anthers broadly ovate, about a fourth as long as the flattened 
filaments. Ovary narrowly ovoid, pubescent, 3-celled. Styles 3, thick, 
shorter than the ovary, pubescent ; stigmas on the inner surface only, 
slightly spreading. Fruit unknown. 

Perak ; Scortechini, No. 3626. 

This has a superficial resemblance to G. Maingayii, to which the 
late Father Scortechini referred it. But it has smaller flowers with 
fewer stamens, and very different ovary and styles; the leaves moreover 
are thicker than those of G. Maingayii, and are not oblanceolate. 

5. Gordonia imbricata, King, n. sp. A tree ? Young branches 
rather stout, glabrous, dark purplish-brown when dry. Leaves coria- 



1890.] Gr. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. 205 

ceous, oval-oblong, sometimes slightly oblanceolate, the apex obtuse, 
very slightly emarginate, the edges thickened and slightly recurved, quite 
entire or very faintly sub-serrulate ; the base slightly narrowed, roundish ; 
both surfaces shining, the upper greenish ; the lower dull, tinged with 
brown when dry, midrib bold : nerves about 12 pairs, thick but incon- 
spicuous ; length 1"75 to 2'25 in., breadth - 9 to 1 - 1 in.; petiole - 15 in., 
thick. Flowers about 1 in. in diam., axillary, solitary, sub-sessile, only 
in the upper axils ; the buds elongate-obovoid ; the bracts numerous, 
closely imbricate, passing into the sepals, all orbicular, and pubescent 
externally with broad scarious glabrous edges. Petals much larger than 
the sepals, orbicular, densely and minutely pubescent externally, fleshy 
with thin glabrous edges. Stamens numerous ; anthers ovate, about 
one-fourth of the length of the slender cylindric filaments. Ovary 
ovoid-conic, ridged, adpressed-pubescent, 5-celled. Style single, boldly 
5-ridged ; stigmas distinct, small. Fruit slightly under 1 in. long, 4 in. 
in diam., 5-angled, adpressed-pubescent, subtended by the elongate im- 
bricate cup formed by the sepals a,nd bracts. Seeds "75 in. in length, of 
which one half is wing. 

Perak. Scortechini, No. 402b. 

Father Scortechini's scanty specimens are accompanied by no notes ; 
but, from the species of Hymenophyllum growing on the branches of 
some of them, I conclude that they were collected probably at elevations 
of 4000 or 5000 feet. The remarkable imbricate buds at once dis- 
tinguish this species. 

6. Gordonia multinervis, King, n. sp. A tree 40 to 50 feet high ; 
young branches smooth, greenish, sub-compressed, all parts glabrous 
except the flowers. Leaves thinly coriaceous, obovate, apex rounded or 
mucronate, faintly crenate-serrate or subentire, attenuate below the 
middle and passing into the short petiole ; upper surface greenish when 
dry, the lower brown, midrib bold ; main nerves 12 to 18 pairs, spread- 
ing, rather faint, interarching - 2 in. from the edge, length 5 - 5 to 8 in., 
breadth 2 5 to 3 - 25 in. ; petiole *2 to '25 in., stout. Floivers 1*25 in. in 
diam., on stout curved peduncles "5 to '6 in. long; bracts small, few, 
fugaceous. Sepals rotund, fleshy, spreading, adpressed-sericeous ex- 
ternally, the edges glabrous. Petals like the sepals but larger and thin- 
ner, spreading. Anthers short, broadly ovate, only a quarter of the 
length of the slender slightly flattened filaments. Ovary ovoid-conic, 
adpressed-sericeous, 5-celled. Style single, thick, sub-glabrous. Stigma 
discoid, with 5 blunt lobes. Fruit unknown. 

Perak; Scortechini, No. 1968. 

The style and stigmas are quite those of a Gordonia. The leaves, 
however, are more those of a Pyrenaria and are very like those of the 
Burmese P. attenuata, Seem. 



206 G. King — Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. [No. 2, 

10. Archyt^a, Martius. 

Glabrous shrubs or trees with semiamplexicaul leaves. Flowers on 
a lateral, compressed, 1 to 4-flowered, peduncle. Bracts large, leaf-like. 
Sepals and petals each 5. Stamens numerous, 5-adelphous ; anthers 
versatile. Ovary 5-celled ; styles distinct, or wholly united; ovules nu- 
merous, in many imbricating rows. Capsule acuminate, septicidal from 
below, with a persistent axis. Seeds linear-subcylindric, albumen scanty. 
Distrib. Trop. Amer. and Indian Archipelago. Species 3. 

1. Archytsa Vahlu, Choisy Mem. Ternstr. 73. A glabrous 
shrub (sometimes epiphytic) or small tree : the young branches, pale, 
smooth. Leaves thinly coriaceous, sessile, narrowly oblanceolate, acute, 
entire, slightly narrowed to the truncate or slightly amplexicaul base ; 
nerves about 15 pairs, straight, erect, interarching with an iutra-mar- 
ginal nerve; length 3 to 45 in., breadth "5 to "75 in. Floivers 1 to 1'25 
in. in diam.; peduncles crowded towards the end of the branches, 
coloured; bracts close to the flowers, oblong, sub-serrulate, "5 to "75 in. 
long. Sepals ovate-rotund, coriaceous. Petals obovate, much larger 
than the sepals, membranous, veined, pink. Fruit - 75 in. long, narrow- 
ly ovoid, acuminate, crowned by the persistent styles. Hook. fil. Fl. 
Br. Ind i, 294. Pierre Fl. For. Coch. -Chine, t. 129. Ploiarium elegans, 
Korth. Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 135, t. 25. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, I, Pt. ii, 
491. Hypericum altemifolium, Vahl. Symb. ii, t. 42 ; DO. Prodr. i, 
445 ; Wall. Cat. 4806. 

In all the provinces except the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
Distrib. The Malayan Archipelago. 

** Note on the fruit of Xanthophyllum Scortechinii, King. 

Since the pages describing the genus Xanthophyllum were printed 
off, I have received from Mr. Curtis, of the Forest Department, Penang, 
complete specimens of this species ; and I am therefore now able to 
add to the account of it given on p. 140 the following description of the 
young fruit. 

Fruit globular or ovoid-globular, '75 to 1 in. in diam., shortly apicu- 
late, smooth, shining ; the pericarp very thick. 

Ripe fruit is still a desideratum. 



1890.] J. S. Gamble — Description of a new Genus of Bamboos. 207 

IX. — Description of a new Genus of Bamboos. — By J. S. Gamble, M. A, 

[Received January 29th ; — read February 5th, 1890.] 

(With Plate VII.) 

Miceocalamus, nov. genus. 

Spikelets many-flowered, spicately arranged in a leafy panicle, 
rachilla jointed under the flowers. Floivers many hermaphrodite, the 
uppermost male or empty; empty glumes 2, paleaceous, smooth. 
Flowering glume falcate, many-nerved. Paleae 2-keeled, falcate, keels 
ciliate. Lodicules 3. Stamens 6, filaments free. Fruit with a fleshy 
pericarp, adhering to the seed : style shortly 3-fld, stigmas plumose. A 
climbing wiry grass with leaf branches in whorls. Leaves short, articu- 
late with their sheaths, without transverse veinlets. Flower-spikes on 
leafy branches ; spikelets distant as are the flowers. 

M. Frainii, nov. spec. A small wiry climbing bamboo. Stems 
thin, smooth, green, one quarter inch in diameter, nearly solid 
and reaching 30 feet in length, swollen at the nodes into a well-marked 
ring ; internodes 8 to 9 inches long. Stem sheaths thin, somewhat sca- 
brous, 4 to 4f inches long, gradually tapering to a point and crowned 
with a short ("1 to - 2 inch) needle-Jike apical leaf. Leaf-branches 
short, numerous, in close whorls on the stem and branchlets. Leaves 
small, 2 to 3 inches long by '3 to "4 inches broad, much acuminate with 
a hair-like tip, the point as well as one edge of the leaf scabrous ; main 
veins 2 to 3 pairs, transverse veinlets none ; petiole short, distinct ; leaf- 
sheaths smooth, striate, ending in a curved apex under the petiole ; 
ligule blunt. Spikelets in terminal and axillary leafy panicles ; pedun- 
cles very thin, wiry. Spikelets in the axils of a sheath-like bract, 1 to 
1^ inches long. Flowers 5 to 8, spicate, in alternate excavations of a thin 
glabrous sinuous rachis ; terminal ones empty or male. Empty ghimes 
two, glabrous, acute, the upper often long acuminate, 5-nerved ; the 
lower 3-nerved. Flowering glume triangular- falcate, acute, glabrous, 9-11 
nerved, nerves conspicuous. Paleae 2-keeled, ciliate on the keels, 7 to 9 
nerved, falcate. Anthers 6, straight, with a blunt tip, filaments distinct. 
Ovary with fleshy walls ; style bulbous, papillose at the base ; stigmas 
3, plumose. Lodicules 3 ; two obovate, slightly fimbriate at tip, the 
third acute and 3-toothed ; all 3-veined. 

Found by Dr. Prain in April 1886 on the edge of a precipice on 
Pulinabadza, 7,870 feet, ISTaga Hills, Assam, and by Mr. Rollo on the 



208 D. Prain — An additional species of Ellipanthus. [No. 2, 

Jarain road about 5| miles from Jowai, Jaintia Hills, 3,500 feet in April 
1889. The Khasia name " Sampit." 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Microcalamus Prainii, Gamble. 

Fig. 1. flower ; 
Fig. 2. stem-sheath. 



X. — Novicia? Indicse. II. An additional species of Ellipanthus. — ■ 

By D. Prain. 

[Received and read May 9th, 1890.] 

(With Plate VIII.) 

The Connaraceous genus Ellipanthus Hook, f., founded in 1862 
(Genera Plantarum i, 434), included five Indian species when the ac- 
count of it in the Flora of British India (vol. ii, pp. 55, 56) was pub- 
lished in 1876. Specimens of a sixth species occur in a collection made 
in Diamond Island by the writer in 1889. Diamond Island is situated 
off the south coast of Arakan at the mouth of the Bassein riv.er. The 
genus is rather Malayan than Indian, though one of the species is con- 
fined to Ceylon and one occurs in Pegu ; the present is the first occa- 
sion on which the genus has been reported from Arakan. 

In order to admit the Diamond Island plant the generic description 
requires vei*y slight modification ; unlike the other Indian species this 
has a glabrous capsule marked externally by a net- work of ridges while 
its short staminal tube is devoid of hairs. We are thus able, by em- 
ploying these characters as divisional, to add the species to the Flora of 
British India without altering the excellent arrangement of the Indian 
species there adopted. Only one word requires to be omitted from the 
text as it now stands. The following conspectus of Indian Ellipanthi 
in which the new species is included, exhibits all the alteration neces- 
sary. A diagnosis and a description of the species are appended. 

Ellipanthus Hook. f. 
[Generic description (F. B. I., ii, 55) line 6 ; delete " velvety ".] 
t Capsule velvety, surface even ; staminal tube hirsute within. 
* Leaves glabrous beneath or nearly so. (F. B. J.) 

1. E. Thwaitesii Hook. f. — Ceylon. 

2. E. Helferi Hook. f. — Tenasserim or Andamans ; 

Borneo. 



J. S. GAMBLE , Jcmrn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1890,Vol.LIX, Pb.II. 



PI. VII. 




Liilv.Vy J. C. CTmckerbutty. 



M.lcb/ees.rtei 



MICROCALAMUS PRA1N1I, Gamble. 



1890.] D. Pram — An additional species of Ellipanthus. 209 

3. E. CALOPHTLLUS Kurz. — Andamans. 
** Leaves pubescent or tomentose beneath. (F. B. I.) 

4. E, tomentosus Kurz. — Pegu, Martaban, Tenasse- 

rim ; Siam. 

5. E. Griffithii Hook. f. — Malacca; Borneo. 

ft Capsule glabrous, surface ridged ; statninal tube smooth within. 

6. E STERCULiiEFOLius Prain. — Arakan. 

Ellipanthus sterculi^folius sp. nov. 

Racemis glabris ; foliis subtus supraque glaberrimis ; foliolulis 
petiolis subasquilongis late ovatis basi truncatis apice acuminatis ; tubo 
filamentorum glabro ; capsula apice aviculari glabra extus nervis ex- 
sculptis reticulata. 

Burma : in Arakan australi in sylvis sublittoralibus insula? " Dia- 
mond Island " nuncupatse; (ipse!). 

Arbuscula 4-6 metr. alta foliis alternis exstipulatis 1-foliatis petio- 
lis 5-8 cm. longis laminis 8-12 cm. longis, his 5-7 cm. latis, margine iu- 
tegerritnis supra olivaceis subtus prasinis nervis 5-7-paribus arcuatis, 
floribus racemosis racemis glabris, calycis 5-partiti segmentis valvatis 
suberectis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis persistentibus 3 mm. longis, 
his 75 mm. latis, post anthesin non auctis sed fructus basin amplecten- 
tibus, pedicellis propriis fructigeris 4 mm. longis, staminibus 10 kypo- 
gynis 5 eepalis oppositis 2'25 mm. longis totidem alternis 175 mm. 
longis filamentis filiformibus basi monadelphis in tubum vix - 25 mm. 
altum conjunctis, disco tenui, gynaecii carpello 1, capsula solitaria 
longius stipitata apice aviculari folliculari falcata ventre convexa dorso 
subrecta 30 mm. longa (stipite 7 mm. rostro 6 mm. longis), hac antice 
10 mm. a latere 6 mm. tautum lata, extus viridi nervis exsculptis meri- 
dionalibus plus minus tarnen anastomosantibus sub-10, intus pallida 
laevi 1-sperma semine erecto 14 mm. longo, hoc 8 mm. lato, funiculo 
vii-idi 7 mm. longo basi arillato arillo carnoso cupulari 4 mm. alto colore 
luteo margine pectinato trientem testa3 imum amplectentc, testa crassa 
nigro-brunnea medio antice ala parvula facie endocarpio simillima or- 
nata, tegmine puniceo tenui trienti embryonis summo amxo, embryone 
exalbuminoso cotyledonibus jjlano-convexis colore olivaceis amygdaliuis 
8 mm. longis, his 5 mm. latis, radicula supera alba. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII. 

Ellipanthus sterculi^efolius Prain. 

Fig. I. Calyx laid open. 
Fig. 2. Sepal, from outside. 



210 D. Pram — An additional species of Ellipanthus. [No. 2, 1890.] 

Fig. 3. Sepal, from inside. 
Fig. 4. Staminal tube laid open. 
Fig. 5. Capsule in section, shewing seed in situ. 
Fig. 6. Arillus. 
Fig. 7. Seed. 

Fig. 8. Seed, in section, shewing embryo in situ. 
Fig. 9. Single cotyledon seen from inside and also edgeways. 
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 are enlarged, the others are of natural size. The petals and 
anthers of the species are at present unknown. 



PRAIN, Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. 1890.Vol. LIX. PHI. 



PLATE YIII. 






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CONTENTS 

OF THE NATURAL HISTORY PART (PT. II.) OF THE 

JOURNAL OF TEE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL FOR 1889. 



No. .1, (issued May 21sfc, 1889). A new Species and Genus of 
Coccidse. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. (With Plate I.) — On the Species 
of Thelyphonus inhabiting Continental India, Burma, and the Malay 
Peninsula. — By Eugene W. Oates, P. Z. S. Communicated by The 
Superintendent op the Indian Museum. (With Plate II.) — Notes on 
Indian Rhynchota ; Heteroptera, No. 5. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. — 
On certain Earthworms from the Western Himalayas and Behra Bun. — 
By Alfred Gibes Bourne, D. Sc. (Lond.), 0. M. Z. S., P. L, S., Fellow 
of University College, Bondon, and Madras University. Communicated by 
The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate III.) — Notes, 
on Assam Butterflies. — By William Doherty, Cincinnati, U. S. A. 
Communicated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With 
Plate X.) 

No. 2, (issued September 3rd, 1889). The Tornadoes and Hailstorms 
of April and May 1888 in the Boab and Bohilkhand. — By S. A. Hill, 
B. Sc, Meteorological Reporter to the Government of the N.-W. Provinces 
and Oudh. (With 6 Charts— Plates IV.— IX.) The Geometric Inter- 
pretation of Mongers Bifferential Equation of all Conies. — By Asutosh 
MukhOpadhyay, M. A., P. R. A. S., P. R. S. E. Bescription of a Stag's 
Head allied to CervuS dybowsldi, Tac, procured from the Barjeeling 
Bazaar. — By W. L. Solater, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Mu- 
seum. (With Plate XI.) — On the Volatility of some of the compounds of 
Mercury and of the metal itself. — By Alex. Pedler. — Some applications 
of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean Values, (First Paper). — By 
Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., P. R. A. S., P. R. S. E. (With a 
Wood-cut). — Some applications of Elliptic, Functions to Problems of Mean 
Values (Second Paper). — By Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., F. R. A. S., 
P. R. S. E. — A Descriptive Bist of the Uredinese, occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood of Simla (Western Himalayas). Part II. Puccinia. — By A. 
Barclay, M. B., Bengal Medical Service. (With Plates XII.— XIV)— 
Definitions of three new Homoptera. — By M. L. Lethierry. Communi- 
cated by E. T. Atkinson, Esq. — Notice of a Neolithic Celt from Jashpur 
in the Chota Nagpur District. — By J. Wood-Mason, Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, and Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College of Bengal, Calcutta. (With Plate XV.) 



No. 3, (issued November 7th, 1889). Novicias Indicae I. Some 
additional species of Pedicularis. — By D. Prain. Communicated by Dr. 
Gr. King, F. R. S. — Natural History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Marine 
Survey Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpenter, R. f 
D. S. 0., commanding. — -No. 10. List of the Pleuronectidas obtain i in 
the Bay of Bengal in 1888 and 1 889, with descriptions of new and rare 
species. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B., (Aber.), Surgeon-Naturalist to the 
Marine Survey. (With Plates XVI., XVII., and XVIII.)— Natural 
History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Survey Steamer 'Investigator,' Com- 
mander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., D. S. O., commanding. — No. 12. 
Descriptions of some new and rare species of Fishes from the Bay of Bengal., 
obtained during the season of 1888-89. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B,, 
(Aber.), Surgeon-Naturalist to the Marine Survey, (With Plate XXII.) — 
The Ethiopian and Oriental B,epresentatives of the Mantodean Sub-family 
Vatidse.— By J. Wood-Mason, Superintendent of the Indian Museum, and 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical ' College of Bengal, 
Calcutta. 

No. 4, (issued December 27th, 1889). On the Tortoises described as 
Chaibassia. — By R. Lydekker, B. A., F. Gr. S.—B'tucle sur les Arachnides 
de V Himalaya recueillis par MM. Oldham et Wood-Mason et faisant partie 
des collections de V Indian Museum. Ire Partie. Par E . Simon. 'Gommiuni- 
cated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. — Notes on Indian 
Rotifers.— By H. H. Anderson, B. A. (With Plates XIX.— XXI.) 
Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. — By George King, 
M. B., LL. D., F. R. S., F. L. S., Superintendent of the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta. — On certain Lyccenidae from Bower Tenasserim. — By 
William Doherty, Cincinnati, TJ. S. A. Communicated by The Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum. Communicated by The Superinten- 
dent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate XXIII) . 



i#» 



i. NEW SERIES. VOL. LIX. 



J^CCIV^^ 



I 



JOURNAL 




OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



Vol. LIX, Part II, No. III.— 1890. 



EDITED BY 



f° L - /• I 




( 



" The bounds of its investigation will be the geographical limits of Asia : and 
within these limits its inquiries will be extended to whatever is performed by 
man or produced by nature." — Sir William Jones. 

* # * Communications should be sent under cover to the Secretaries, Asiat. Soc, 
to whom all orders for the work are to be addressed in India ; or, in Lon- 
don, care of Messrs. Triibner and Co., 57 8f 59, Ludgate Hill. 



CALCUTTA: 

^RINTED AT THE ^APTIST ^MISSION f^ESS, 

AND PUBLISHED BY THE 

^tSIATIC j50CIETY } 57, fAKK. JSTREET. 




1890. 




Price (exclusive of postage) to Subscribers, He. 1. To .Non-Subscribers Be 1= 

Price in England, 2 Shillings and sixpence. 

Issued 10th December, 1890. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 

XL — Description de Curculionides et de Brenthides inedits faisant 
partie des collections du Musee Indien de Calcutta, par Mons. 
T. Desbrochers des Loges. Communicated by the Super- 
intendent Indian Museum 211 

XII. — On some new or little-known Hot Springs in South Bihar. — 

By L. A. "Waddell, M. B., Indian Medical Service 224 

XIII. — Natural History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer " Investigator," Commander R. F. Hosktn, R. N., 
Commanding. No. 16. — The non-indigenous Species of the 
Andaman Flora. — By D. Prain „ „ 235 

XIV. — On some Indian Psychidse. — By P. Moore, P. Z. S 263 

XV. — A new Species of Diptera in the Collections of the Indian 

Museum — Dilophus Graciosus, N. Sp. — By J. M. P. Bigot ... 265 

XVI. — Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Madras. — By Lieut. 

B. T. Watson, Communicated by B. Thurston, Esq ib. 

XVII. — A new Trap-door Spider from Orissa. — By Surgeon J. H. 

Tull Walsh, I. M. S 269 



JOURNAL 



OP THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



Part II.— NATURAL SCIENCE, 



No. III.— 1890. 



XL — Description de Ourcidionides et de Brenthides inedits faisant partie 
des collections da Musee Indien de Calcutta, par Mons. T. Desbrochers 
des Looes. Communicated by the Superintendent op the Indian 

Museum'. 

[Received July 8th ;— Read 6th August 1890] 

(Ire partie.) 

I. CUEOULIONID-ffi. 

1. BrACHYASPITES SUBFASCIATQS. Long, d 1 ', 9 mill.; ?, 12 mill.; 
lat. $ , 3 - 5 mill. ; ? , 5 mill. Oblongo-elongatus, cinereo-squamosus, obsolete 
setulosus. Caput breve, post oculos transversim snbimpressum ; oculis 
parum prominulis. Rostrum subplanum, strigulosum, inter antennas 
fossulatum. Antennas picece, pilosm, articulo 2o funiculi 3o longiori, 
caiteris brevibus. Prothorax a latere nnodice rotundatus, basi marginatus, 
dense tuberosns. Elytra subelliptica, basi breviter eonstricta, postice abrupta, 
grosse punctato-striata, vnterstitiis subconvexis, ad tertiam partem fascia 
transversa obsoleta fuliginosa praidita. Tibiae anticm intus serratoe. 

Ovale-oblong, brun, recouverfc densement d'une squamosite cendree, 
mate. Tete transverse, faiblement impressionnee transversalement 
derriere les yeux, a rides serrees longitudinales sur le front, continueea 
sirr le rostre ; yeux mediocrement convexes. Rostre en carre un peu plus 
long que large, foveole entre les antennes. Antennes assez courtes, squa- 
28 



212 T. D. des Loges — Description de Curculionides. [No. 3, 

metises et piligeres, a scape epaissi, deux premiers articles du funicule- 
allonges, 3-6 submoniliforrnes, 7e brievement conique ; massue mediocre- 
ment e"paisse. Protboi*ax a peine transverse, densement tuberculeux, 
retreci egalement en avant et en arriere, peu arrondi lateralement, reborde 
a, la base, avec quelques soies tres-courtes. Elytres assez allongees, deux 
fois a deux fois et demie aussi longues que larges, a rebord basilaire 
etroit, largement interrompu en dedans, c? a peine, 9 plus fortement 
dilatees lateralement, striees de gros points, avec la suture et les inter- 
valles convexes, ceux-ci series de petites soies cendrees ; acuminees au 
sommet, ornees d'une fascie transverse le couleur de sine, vers les deux 
tiers. Pattes assez grossierement pubescentes ; tibise des deux paires 
posterieures presque droits, les anterieurs courbes en dedans vers le 
sommet et fortement denticules iut£rieurement. Dessous impressionne 
a la base du premier segment abdominal, surtout cf , a courtes soies 
comme celles du dessus. 

Sikkim. Collection du Musee Indien de Calcutta et celle de l'auteur. 

2. Episomus quatuor-notatus. Long. 14 mill. ; lat. 6 mill. Ovalis, 
niger, cinereo-squamosus. Gaput incequale, ante oculos striis valde obliquis. 
Rostrum lottgitiidine latitudini cequale. Antennae scapo setis depresses 
sparso, clava basi subrotundata ab articulo 7 trapezoidale distincte separata. 
Prothurax subquadratus. Elytra basi impressa, striis modioe punctatis, 
post medium evanescent ibus, punctis subcallosis albidis, aliisque aliquot 
lateralibus prcedita. Tibice anticce intus serratce. 

Tres voisin de YE. pauperatus dont il se distingue par les caracteres 
suivants. En ovale plus oblong. Tete et rostre marques de plusieurs 
depressions lineaires, en outre du sillon tres oblique du dessus des 
yeux : ceux-ci bien plus ecartes que chez YE. pauperatus, le front etant 
bien plus large. Autennes a scape pourvu seulement de quelque soies 
couchees, a f unicule berisse de poils dresses de la couleur du fond ; a, deux 
premiers articles du funicule subegaux, 4-6 subtransverses, 7 e bien 
separee de la massue arrondie posterieurement, d'un noir profond comme 
celle-ci. Protborax analogue a celui de YE. pauperatus. Elytres 
arrondies, cbacune plus obtusement a la base et plus largement impres- 
sonnees au dessous de celle-ci, subperpendiculairemeut declives en 
arriere, striees plus distinctement vers la sommet, a ponctuation peu 
visible par place, a intervalles externes convexes ; notees, vers le milieu 
du tiers ant£rieur, d'un point blanc squameux, saillant, d'un autre moins 
arrondi, vers le dernier tiers, et de quelques autres obsoletes, plus bas, 
qui ne sont peut-etre pas constants. Cuisses posterieures tacbees de 
brun a la base. Pattes analogues a celles de YE. pauperatus. 

Sikkim. Collections du Musee Indien de Calcutta, et celle de 
l'auteur. 



1890.] T. D. des Loges — Description de Ourculionides. 213 

3. Rhynchites flavirostris. Long. 33 mill. ; Larg. 2 - 5 mill. 
Obloiigus supra viridi-coeruleo-metallicus, parce pubescens, infra nigro- 
virescens. Rostrum, antennis pedibasque totis laste flavis. Caput sub- 
globosum, vix punctulatum, oculis magnis, prominentibus. Antenna) gra- 
ciles, articulo 2o intermedins breviore. Rostrum capite brevius apicem 
versus ampliatum, sparsim punctatum. Prothorax subtransversus, sub- 
hexagonalis. Elytra elongata, infra scutellum impressa regulariter striata. 
Tibiae 4-posticce curvatce. 

Oblong, vert metallique en dessus, noir bleuatre ou verdatre en 
dessous ; parcimonieusemenfc pubescent de gris ; rostre, antennes et pattes 
entitlement d'un nave pale. Tete brillante, retrecie en arriere, impres- 
sionnee transversalement a la base qui est noiratre, legerement bour- 
souflee derriere les yeux qui sont grands et saillants. Rostre plus court 
que la tete, elargi en avant, marque d' impressions au devant des anten- 
nes, avec quelques points epars. Antennes inserees vers le milieu du 
rostre, pubescentes, a 2 article intermediaire pour la longueur aux 
articles 1 et 3, tous allonges. Prothorax subtransversal, retreci en 
avant, a cotes presque paralleles en arriere, a angles posterieurs presque 
droits ; eparsement ponctue, marque d'une faible impression basale. 
Ecusson subtriangulaire, noir. Elytres du double plus longues que 
larges, subpai'alleles dans leurs trois quarts anterieurs, faiblement 
deprim6es apres la base, a stries regulieres, formees de points rappvo- 
ches ; intervalles subconvexes, au moias a la base, a points peu rappro- 
ches. Pattes a poils dresses ; tibise anterieurs droits, les autres arques. 
Dessous faiblement ponctue. 

Indes Anglaises. Musee Indien de Calcutta, collection de l'auteur. 

4. Apoderus plaviceps. Long. 8 mill, (sine rostro) ; lat. 4'5 mill., 
Subquadratus, glaber. Prothorace pectoreque nigris, elytris cyaneis, cceterum 
■pallide flavnm. Caput snbglobosum, elongatum, basi anguste constrictum, 
fere impunctatum, fronte foveolata, callo antennali fossulato. Rostrum 
breve, basi dilatato, apice piceo. Antenna) breves, articulo 2o funiculi inter - 
mecliis breviore. Prothorax convexus, basi ampliatus, ante basem late, 
apice anguste constrictns, vage plicatus. Scutellum semilunato-transver- 
sum. Elytra subquadrata, humeris dentatis, infra scutellum impressa, sat 
regulariter punctato-striata, intervallis 2o et 4o basi carinatis. Tibia) sub- 
recta}, unco recurvo apice prosditce. 

De forme presque carr^e, glabre, prothorax et poitrine noirs, elytres 
d'un bleu fonce, tout le reste d'un nave pale. Tete tres bombee, faible- 
ment retrecie derriere les yeux en s'arrondissant, a col assez etroit, 
marquee d'une fossette, entre les yeux, d'une impression oblique entre 
ceux-ci et d'une faible ligne longitudinale en arriere ; saillie sus-anten- 
naire h impression sublanciforme ; yeux arrondis, • saillants. Rostre 



214 T. D. cles Loges — Description de Ourculionides. [No. 3, 

subtransverse, elargi vers le sommet ; bouche noiratre. Antennes a, 
scape atteignant le milieu des yeux, a deuxieme article du funicule plus 
petit que les intermediaires, 6-8 brievement coniques ; massue oblongue 
formee de trois articles peu detaches. Prothorax en forme de cloche, 
etrangle" bi'ievement en avant, largement impressionne trans versalement 
avant la base, quelques rides a celle-ci : une autre impression vers le 
milieu et une plus petite, longitudinale, en avant, de chaque cote du 
sillon median qui est presque entier. Ecusson brievement semi-ogival. 
Elytres guere plus longues que larges, a epaules subrectangulaires 
munies d'une petite dent, fortement impressionnees au dessous de la base, 
largement arrondies separenient au sommet, chargees d'une carene 
sinueuse interrompue vers le tiei's de la longueur ; suture elevee ainsi 
que le pourtour <Je l'ecusson ; stries formees de gros points, affaiblies 
vers l'extremite ; les intervalles externes un peu convexes, peu densement 
pointilles. Dessous a ponctuation peu prof onde avec quelques soies coui'tes ; 
premier segment abdominal noir dans son milieu. Tibia? creneles 
en dedans, vers le sommet. 

Sikkim. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. 

5. Cylas submetallicus. Long. 45 mill.; lat. 2 mill. Oblongo 
sub-elorigatus, subcereus, glaber, subopacus, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis, 
femoribus iufuscatis. Caput postice depressum impunctatum, fronts sub- 
plana, intra oculos cristulata. Rostrum brevius, crassum. Antennce 
breves, setulosai, articulis funiculi transversis, pressis, clava in mare longiore. 
Prothorax elongatus, antice subglobosus, postice constrictus, laxe punctula- 
Uts. Scutellum nullum. Elytra foruicata, basi constricta, callo humerali 
prominente, subinordinatim punctulata. Tibice intus pubescentes, nee 
spinosuloe. 

Oblong, peu allonge, glabre, noir bronze opaque, antennes et pattes 
ferrugineuses, celles-ci a cuisses rembrunies. Tete elargie en arriere, 
deprimee transversalement derriere les yeux, une petite cai-ene en dedans 
de ceux-ci, avec une autre tres obsolete au milieu ; front plan, imponctue. 
Yeux non proeminents, assez rapproches en dessus. Rostre un peu 
plus etroit que la tete, plus long que large, presque plan, pointille, avec 
une impression oblique au devant des yeux. Antennes courtes et epaisses, 
pubescentes de gris, a scape seul plus long que large, tous les articles- 
du funicule brievement transverses ; massue oblongue, peu separee du 
funicule. Prothorax plus long que large, subglobuleux en avant, brus- 
quement retreci dans son premier tiers posterieur, a pointille tres fin, 
espace. Ecusson indistinct. Elytres bombees, deux fois, au moins, 
aussi longues que larges, subetranglees vers la base, avec les 6paules 
marquees a calus saillant, a tres fine ponctuation affaiblie a la base, un 
peu en series lateralement. Cuisses renflees, inermes; tibise tres droits 



1890.] T. D. des Loges — Description de Curculionides. 215 

tres legerement pubescents en dedans ; tarses allonges, ongles soudes 
a la base. 

Semble se rapprocher du 0. leevieolis, dont je ne connais que la 
description, par la ponctuation des parties anterieures, la brievete rela- 
tive du rostre ; mais cette partie offre, a peine, les traces d'une carenule 
tres obsolete, les 8 derniers articles du funicule seulement, sont trans- 
verses, les elytres sont beaucoup plus longues que le prothorax, elles ne 
sont pas striees-ponctuees, mais subtilement pointillees presque sans 
ordre ; enfin les pattes sont ferrugineuses, sauf les cuisses. 

Indes meridionales. Musee de Calcutta, collection de l'auteur.* 

6. Apion strobilanthi. Long. 2'5 mill, (sine rostro) ; lat. 15 mill. 
Oblongo-ovalis, nigro-cereus pube grisea in thoracis lateribus condensata, 
in elytris lineas fasciamque posticam formante ; antennis totis, pedib us- 
que Icete flavis. Caput transversum, vix puhctatum, oculis magnis. Ros- 
trum elongatum, arcuatum, subcijlindricum, in mare extus rufescens. 
Antennce breviores, graciles, ante medium insertce, articulis 2-primis in- 
crassatis, clava subovata. Prothorax antice constrictus, angulis posticis 
subacutis, basi uni-striatus, laxe punctatus. Elytra humeris angnlatis, 
interstitiis planis, rugulosis. Pedes sat elongati, unguiculis simpjlicibus . 

Ovale-obloug, noir a reflet bronze ; antennes entierement, pattes, 
moins les bandies, les genoux et les tarses qui sont rembrimis, d'un jaune 
clair ; une pubescence grisatre paraissant condensee de cbaque cote du 
prothorax, formant, sur les elytres, une bande longitudinale raccourcie 
de cbaque cote de l'ecusson et une autre subarquee vers le dernier tiers, 
enfin une autre parfois obsolete sur le quatrieme intervalle. Tete 
transverse, obsoletement striolee entre les yeux, avec quelques points, 
lisse en arriere ; yeux grands, saillants. Rostre aussi long que la tete et 
le prothorax reuuis, moderemant arque, subcylindrique, legerement 
epaissi a l'insertion des antennes, pointille, brillant au bout. Antennes 
minces inserees vers les deux tiers du rostre dans des scrobes assez 
courtes, a peu pres de la longueur du rostre, a 2e article du funicule plus 
long que large, 3-7 moniliformes ; massue ovale-allongee. Frothorax 
subtransverse, legerement sinue lateralement avant les angles posteri- 

* Le C. tdrcipennis Boh. Labram et Imhoff, doit efcre, a mon avis, reuni an C. 
FOEMICARIUS Fab., Olivier. Je ne tronve anoun oaractere pour les separer. Qnant 
au C. angustatus Labram et Imhoff, oe doit etre simplement une $ de C. beunneus. 
La courte diagnose de ces auteurs n'a auonne valenr, puisqn'elle ne 1'applique 
qu' a des oaracteres sexnels communs a toutes les espeoes dn genre ; qnant a la figure, 
elle represente assez bien le C. beunneus. Fabrioius a decrit la variete formee de 
l'espece, sur un exemplaire appartenant a, Olivier qui decrit, a son tour, la meme 
variete que je possede en donnant une bien mauvaise figure ; mais, chez les exem- 
plaires typiques, l'inseote est l'onge presque en entier, avec les elytres bleues, ce qui le 
fais ressembler, a. premiere vue, au C. formicaeius. 



216 T. D. des Loges — Description de Ourculionides. [No. 3, 

eurs qui semblent, ainsi, aigus, brusque raent retrcci vers le premier 
quart, subtronque aux deux extremites ; marque, a la base, d'une ligne 
enfoncee, ponctue peu pi'ofondement sur un fond tres finement alutace 
Ecusson subfcriangalaire. Blytres deux fois, environ, de la longueur du 
protborax, beaucoup plus larges que lui, assez convexes, a epaules 
marquees, sillonnees-ponctuees, a intervalles plans, plus larges que les 
stries, densement rugueux-ponctues. Pattes assez allongees dans toutes 
leurs parties, ongles simples. 

<J Rostre plus distinctement pointille, legerement squameux, 
rougeatre dans sa derniere nioitie. 

<? ■ Rostre plus lisse, noir de poix entierement. 

Sikkim. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. 

Decouvert par M. Gilbert Rogers dans les graines de Strobilantlms. 

A place dans le voisinage de YA. rufirostre. 

7. ClONUs INDICTJS. Long. 5'5 mill. ; lat. 4 mill. Subsphcericus, 
ater, parce griseo-squamulosus, puncto atro-holosericeo infra scutellum 
prceditus. Rostrum minus elongatum, subcylindricum, opacum, medio 
carinatum. Antennce basi ferruginece, funiculo paulatim incrassato, clava 
fusiformi-incrassata, vix separata. Prothorax brevis, subconicus, dense 
punctatus, (equaliter convexus, lobo basali emarginato. Elytra regul ariter 
striato-punctata, striis 8a et 9a flexis. Pedes femoribus dente lato armatis, 
tibiis basi curvalis. Abdomen seg mentis primo et secundo elevatis. 

Arrondi, tres convexe ; noir, couvert peu densement, sur les exem- 
plaires que j'ai sous les yeux, d'une pulveruleuse grisatre, avec un gros 
point noir-veloute, sutural, vers le premier tiers. Tete subconique en 
avant. Yeux tres-rapproches. Rostre a peine aussi long que la tete 
et le prothorax reunis, vu de profil, tres legerement attenue au sommet, 
de meme dimension en dessus, opaque, sauf l'extreme pointe ; muni 
d'une carene mediane effacee dans le dernier tiers, avec une ponctuation 
rugueuse ; antennes ferrugineuses a la base, a premier article du f unicule 
une fois seulement plus long que large, a 2e bien moins allonge, les autres 
formant une tige compacte s'elargissant jusqu'a la massue, qui est 
epaisse et fusifoi'me. Protborax court, conique en avant, densement 
ponctue ; legerement convexe et egal, tronque en devant, sinue de 
chaque cote du lobe basal qui est echancre. Ecusson oblong. Elytres 
legerement echancrees separement au dessous de l'ejpaule, faiblement 
avancees de chaque cote de l'ecusson, a sommet subtronque, a stries ponc- 
tuees bien marquees 8 e et 9 coiidees. Pattes a cuisses armees d'une 
grande dent peu aigue ; tarses epaissis, a 3 e article tres elargi ; onglee 
soudes a la base, simples. Abdomen plus eleve sur les deux premiers 
segments, les suivants situes sur un plan inferieur et plans, le dernier 
largement arrondi au sommet. 

Dam-Dim. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. 



1890.] T. D. des Loges — Description de Curculionides. 217 

Marmarochelus G. N. 

Caput gibbosum, basi non coarctatum. Oculi oblongi, distantes. 
Rostrum subcylindricum capite thoraceque simul sumptis non longius. 
Antennae, breviores, squamosa}, scapo oculos snbattingente, funiculi articulis 
3-primis latitudine duplo longioribus, subcequalibus, 5-7 s ub -monilif or mi- 
bus, clava ovata breviori. Prothorax elongatus, antice vix ampliatus 
medio carinatus, grosse plicatus, lobis ocularibus valde prominentibus. 
Elytra oblongo-elongata, humeris non callosis, ante apicem dente prxdita, 
lineato-fossulata. Pedes modice elongati, femoribus omnibus dente obtuso 
armatis ; tibiis latioribus, sinuatis ; tar sis modice elongatis, subtus spongiosis 
articulo lo triangulari, 2o subtransverso, 3o transversim dilatato-cordiformi, 
tmguiculari clavato squamoso, unqulis simplicibus. Coxce anticce sub- 
contiguce; abdominis segmentum primum inter coxas posteriores lobatum. 

Oe genre, par sa coloration, surtout celle des pafctes et sa sculpture 
rappelle le genre Ectatorhinus dont il se distingue nettement par les 
lobes du prothorax quirecouvrent les yeux lorsque le rostre est abaisse, la 
brievete des articles des antennes et des pattes, l'absence de saillie angu- 
leuse avec epaules et la presence d'une forte dent aux elytres, posterie- 
urement; enfin, par la forme tout autre du premier segment abdominal 
qui s'avance, en un lobe triangulaire, a pointe mousse entre les tranches 
posterieures, au lieu d'etx'e coupe droit. 

8. Marmarochelus atkinsoni. Long. 13 mill. ; lat. 5 mill. 
Oblongus subelongatus, niger, non pubescens, supra minus dense cinereo 
fulvoque variegatus, infra dense lutescente-squamosus, segmentis 2-4 medio 
bruneis et cinereo-uni-guttulatis. Caput valde convexum, fulvum, cinereo- 
5-notatum. Mostrum arcuatum, carinatum et a latere strigosum, rugoso' 
punctatum. Antennce articulis funiculi submoniliformibus, clava subovata. 
.Prothorax subquadratim elongatus, medio carina Icevi prceditus, profundis- 
sime strigosus, angulis posticis acutis divaricatis. Elytra oblonga, humeris 
obliquis, grosse serie-foveata, interstitiis angustissimis, apice breviter unci- 
nata ; plaga humerali, altera post medium, trifoliiformi, dente que sub- 
apicali, luteis. Pedes cinereo -annulati. 

Oblong, noir, recouvert, en dessous, d'une squamosite uniforme 
flavescente, passant au brunatre sur le milieu de l'abdomen, avec un 
point de couleur claire sur le milieu des trois ou quatre derniers segments ; 
en dessus moins densement squameux, varie de cendre et de fauve, 
ayant, notamment, une bande large, mal limitee sur les cotes du pro- 
thorax, sur les elytres, une tache humerale irregulieremeut carree, une 
autre suturale, apres le milieu presque en forme de trefle ; les pattes 
marbrees des memes couleurs. Tete tres convexe, re-couverte d'une 
squamosite roussatre, marquee, entre les yeux, d'une tache semblant 
formee de deux taches reunies, d'une autre mediane en arriere et de 



218 T. D. des Loges — Description de Curculionides. [No. 3, 

deux autres a I 'angle posterieur de chaque oeil, blanchatres. Rostre 
atteignant le niveau des tranches intermedial res, moderement courbe, etran- 
gle conti'e les yeux, tres legerement epaissi vers les antennes et au sommet, 
carene au milieu jusqu' a l'insertion de celles-ci, ride de chaque cote, 
squameux et fortement ponctue a la base, brun de poix. Antennes 
noires, squameuses, avec quelques cils dresses grisatres. Prothorax au 
moins aussi long que large, a peine arque lateralement en avant, legere- 
ment sinue en dehors des angles posterieurs qui sont aigus, i*etreci vers 
le tiers anterieur, charge d'une ligne mediane longitudinale raccourcie a 
la base et sur tout le reste du segment de rides grossieres meuageant 
entr'elles de profondes cavites remplies, en partie, par la squamosite : 
tons ces reliefs tres-brillants, paraissanfc imponctues ; bord anterieur 
presque droit en dessus ; base sinuee de chaque cote du milieu. Ecusson 
oblong saillant. Elytres plus larges que le prothorax, a epaules oblique- 
ment arrondies, presque paralleles dans leurs deux premiers tiers, 
moins du double plus longues que larges, legerement impressionnees 
au dessous de leur bord basilaire, attenuees dans leur dernier tiers ; 
marquees de grosses fossettes disposees en lignes longitudinales. Pattes 
annelees de roux et de cendre, avec les peignes des tibiee noirs ; cuisses 
fortement echancrees en dedans, a bord de l'echancrure figurant une 
dent obtuse. Dessous a points peu nombreux, tres gros et ^cartes sur 
le mesosternum. 

lies Andaman. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. Je dedie 
cette belle espece h M. Atkinson, auteur de nombreux travaux sur lea 
insectes de la region Indienne. 

9. Rhina lineata. Long. 20-22 mill. (Kostro excluso) ; Lat. 7-8 
mill. Elongata, cylindHca, nigra, subglabra. Caput minutum, subconi- 
cum. Rostrum thorace brevius, rectum, ad antennas valde i?icrassatum, 
bi-serie-serratum , infra villosum, <$ ; vix incrassatum, nee tuberculatum, 
inter antennas depressum, utrinque serie-foveolatum, infra hand villosum, 
9. Antennai breviores, articalis funiculi 5-6 rotundatis. Prothorax ante 
basem constr ictus, angiitis posticis subrectis, non villosus, profunde reticula- 
tus. Elytra brunnea, vitta dorsali, altera externa interrupta, maculisque 
elongatis 1-intrahumeraM, 3-subapicalibus transversim digestis, flavis. 
Tibiee anticce, intus, parce denticulatai, longe fulvo-fimbriaiai <$ , setis 
rigidis prcedike 9 • 

d\ cylindrique, noir, presque mat, en dessus, assez luisant, en 
dessous, surtout sur le metasternum. Tete subconique, sillonnee, ru- 
gueusement ponctuee. Rostre droit, plus court que le prothorax, dilate 
a l'insertion des antennes, a cotes paralleles dans la partie attenuee qui 
n'est guere plus longue que le tiers du segment, muni d'un sillon elargi 
en avant, flanque d'une double rangee de tubercules, avec quelques uns 



1890.] T. D. des Loges — Description de Brenthides. 219 

plus forfcs en avaxxt et en arriere des antennes ; grossierement ponctue, 
termine par nne pointe laneiforme ; a, squamules eparses, jaunatres, dans 
les cavites ; muni en dessous, d'une touffe de poils jaunes ; ne debordant 
pas lateralement les cotes. Antennes raccourcies, a poils squaniiformes, 
courts ; scape egal en longueur au reste de l'antenne ; l er article du f uni- 
cnle subconique, plus court que 2 qui est allonge, 3-6 subegaux, monili- 
formes ; massue allongee, subelliptique, au moins de la longueur des 
4 articles precedents, squameuse de gris, avec quelques poils fins dresses. 
Pro thorax aussi long que large, peu arrondi lateralement, subetrangle 
tout a fait au sommet, reborde etroitement, sensiblement comprime a la 
base, avec les angles posterieurs semblant aigus, par suite d'une sinuositd 
inferieure ; crible" do fossettes egales confluentes, squamigeres, sans 
trace de sillon ni carene. Bcusson txiangulaire, squameux. Elytres a 
peine plus larges que le prothorax, un peu plus longues que deux fois 
sa longueur, un taxxt soit peu attenuees en arriere ; a series de points 
peu rapproches sur le dos ; intervalles plans, a peine poiutilles, avec des 
squamules seriees par place ; ornees d'une bande Have squameuse longi- 
tudinale, par fois interrompue, sur le 2e intervalle ; d'une autre plusieurs 
fois interrompue sur le 7e et de quelques taches allongees, les premieres 
situees entre les deux precedentes, l'autre vers l'epaule. Pattes anteri- 
eures a cuisses coudees a la base, peu ponctuees, a. tibias courbes en 
dedans dans leur derniere moitie et munies d'une large frange de poils 
roux, sous laquelle on distingue sept ou huit fortes dents aigues ; 
anterieurs et intermediaires sillonnes en dessous ; tarses a article pre- 
mier un peu plus long que large, triangalaire, unguiculaire de la longu- 
eur des deux precedents. Dessous ponctue-serre assez fortement, moins 
densement sur le milieu de l'abdomen, sans poils dresses, muni, seule- 
ment, au bord anterieur du prosternum d'une frange de poils roux ; des 
points squamigeres assez ecai'tes sur la poitrine qui est brillante ; me- 
tasternum marque d'un faible sillon continue sur le premier segment ab- 
dominal, sans impression. 

2 . Differe du c? par la forme un peu plus large et les elytres 
plus obtusement arrondies au sommet ; par le rostre plus court, peu 
rugueux au milieu, presque sans tubercules, avec une depression intra- 
antennaire et une serie de fossettes transversales de chaque cote ; sans 
poils en dessous ; par les tibiae anterieurs n'ayant, en dessous, qu'une 
serie de poils x^aides. 

lies Andanxaxx. Mixsee Indieix, collection de l'auteur, 

II. BRENTHID^. 

10. Megacerus quatuoe-dentulus. Long. 20-22 mill, (rostro ex- 
clusd) ; Lat. 4'5 mill. Hlongatus, subcylindricus, subopactis, colore et notis 
29 



220 T. D. cleg Loges — Description de ~Brentliid.es. [No. 3, 

M. POGONOCERO affinis. Caput postice subfoveolatum. Antennce, articulis 
ultimis exceptis, subglabrce. Prothorax in utroque sexu antice conicus, 
sublevis, latitudine longior. Elytra punctis striarum subrotundis, intersti- 
tiis convexis, apice bisinuata, extus brevissime dentata. c? Caput trans- 
versum, lateribus inflatum ao crenulatum. Rostrum sulcatum, rugosum, 
supra, post medium bidentatum, margine exserta crenulata. Antennce 
articulis longissimis, filiformibus. Femora antica longe spinosa. 2 
caput sat elongatum, subconicum ; rostrum cylindricum, subrectum, capite 
prothoraceque simul sumptis, subcequale. Femora omnia breviter dentata. 

Facies du M. pogonocerus Fairm., bien distinct par la structure du 
rostre en dessus et en dessous, par l'epine apicale externe des elytres 
tres-courte, par la faible ponctuation des parties anterieures ; par la 
longue epine des cuisses anterieures, par la longueur des articles an- 
tennaires et l'absence de pubescence dans leur premiere moitie. Bran 
ferrugineux, presque mat, antennes et pattes plus claires, a pubescence 
obsolete formee de petites soies extremement courtes. 3 Tete trans- 
verse, presque lisse jusqu'aux yeux, arrondie et crenelee lateralement. 
Yeux assez saillants. Rostre de la longueur du prothorax, a sillon 
longitudinal lisse, h. granulations aigues de cliaque cote, moius serrees a 
partir du renflement sus-antennaire, qui est ai-me, de cliaque cote, d'une 
petite epine, epaissi, de nouvean, en nne forte dent, etrangle, ensuite 
avec la lame inferieure des scrobes saillante, denticulee et terminee 
anterienrement par une dent plus forte, puis elargi en triangle surmonte 
de chaque cote, d'une crete crenelee terminee en dent redressee ; muni, en 
dessus, d'une carene unique tres saillante, glabre, tuberculigere. Antennes 
plus longues que les deux tiers du corps, glabres a la base, avec quelques 
poils dresses sur le dernier article ; l er article finement denticule en 
dehors, 2e un peu plus long que 3e ; 4-9 cinq ou six f ois plus longs que larges : 
tous munis de hachures longitudinales. Prothorax plus long que large, 
conique dans ses deux tiers antei'ieurs, marque de deux plis transvei'- 
saux auterieurement, mai'gine a la base, tres obsoletement pointille. 
Elytres ornees d'une bande longitudinale non prolongee de chaque cote 
de l'ecusson, d'une autre petite a l'epaule, de cinq ou six taches placees 
irreguliereraent et transversalement apres le premier tiers, enfin d'une 
autre bande arquee vers les deux tiers formee de quatre taches, avec 
quelques autres obsoletes au sommet, toutes d'un jaune clair ; a peine 
retrecies des la base, brusquement comprimees avant l'extremite, ce qui 
rend les stries contournees en cet endroit, fortement trisinuees au 
sommet avec une dent peu aigue au cote externe pas plus avancee que 
l'extremite suturale qui est tronquee obliquement et muni, en dedans 
d'une tres petite epine ; a stries marquees, dans leur premiere moitie de 
gros points arroudis, serres ; intervalles con vexes, non costiformes. 



1890.] T. D. des Loges — Description de Brentliides. 221 

Cuisses faiblement renflees, avec une trainee de duvet dore en dessous, 
sinueuses ainsi que les tibias, les anterieures armees d'une longue epine 
aigue, les autres d'une dent courte. Dessous a faible ponctuation, eparSe 
sur le prosternum, 3e et 4e segments totalement, cotes externes du 5e et 
bords refiecbis correspondants des elytres roux-tomenteux. 

5 . Rostre aussi long que la tete et le prothorax reunis, a antennes 
plus courtes, a front ride, a dent externe du sornmet des elytres plus 
obtuse ; cuisses anterieures. armees, comme celles des autres paires, 
d'une courte dent. 

lies Andaman. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. 

PSEUDOCYPHAGONUS. N. G. 

Caput breve, basi ante collum subbulbiformem ccesum fronte latissime, 
infra, profunde excavatum, et lateris utrinque exsertim dentatis ; oculis sub- 
deflexum, Postrum brevissime transversum, postice ampliatum, valde 
rotundatis- apice prof unde emarginatum, capite angustius. Mandibulce 
crassce, breves, intus curvatce, apice subbifidce. Antennce crassce, in scrobibus 
intus parum approximatis, insertce. Prothorax elongatus, medio rotundato- 
ampliatus, antice attenuatus et a latere haud profunde compressus. Scutel- 
lum nullum. Elytra subcuneata, sulcato-clathrata, apice acuminata. 

Pedes simplices : femoribus posticis cceteris non magis incrassatis, 
abdominis apicem non attingintibus ; tibice triangular iter ampliatce, an- 
ticis apice unco valido recurvo armatis ; tarsis gracilibis articulis elongatis. 

Prosternum medio utrinque angulation, processu longitudinaliter 
caniculato, a latere marginato. Abdomen basi truncatus, segmentis primis 
canaliculatis. 

Ce nouveau genre appartient a la tribu 1 et au groupe I du 
systeme de Lacordaire, Genera p. 405-407. Les divers genres compris 
dans ce groupe par ce savant se distinguent du notre par les principaux 
caracteres suivants : Galodromus, par la longueur excessive du l er article 
des tarses. Zemioses, par les tai'ses courts, a 4e article tres gros aux 
pattes posterieures. Sebasius, par les scrobes ties rapprochees sur le 
front pour l'insertion des antennes. CypJiagonus, par le rostre au moins 
aussi long que la tete. 

Ces quatre genres ont les cuisses prolongees au dela de l'abdomen. 
Anisognathus, filiforme, par la tete tres allongee et par la forme des 
mandibules du <$ . Taphroderes, par le rostre tres allonge, par le l er 
article des tarses des quatre pattes posterieures au moins aussi long que 
la jambe et par les elytres lisses avec nn sillon unique juxta-sutural.* 

* Quant an genre Aprostoma Guerin, il a ete renni, avecraison, aux clavicornes 
groupe cles Colydiides. Guerin lui-meme avait reconnu sou erreur, car j'ai trouve 
le type de VA.filum non dans la collection des Brenthides de cet entomologiste, dont 



222 T. D. des Loges — Description de Brenthides. [No. S, 

Le caractere si remarquable de l'excavation de la tete a bords later- 
alis tranchauts et coupes en avant en se terminant par uue dent, suffirait, 
du reste, a lui seul pour le faire reconuaitre. 

11. Pseudoctphagonus squamifer. Long. 9-12 mill, lat. 2-2'25 
mill. Oblongus, brunn'eus, pedibus ferrugineis, impubens parcissime luteo- 
squamosus. Caput transversum, convexum, subquadratum, punctatum, 
medio foveolatum. Rostrum latum, brevissimum, curvatum, apice emargi- 
natum, punctatum. Antennce articuMs funiculi 3-7 sublenticularibus, 8-9 
transversim auadratis. Prothorax basi et apice attenuatus, ante apicem 
rugoso-impressus, in disco, postice, utrinque obsolete angulatus. Elytra 
thorace non duplo longiora, elongato-subconica, rubro-maculata. Tibice 
clavata} ; tarsi breviores. Abdomen segmentis ultimis crebrius punctatis. 

Oblong, brun, pieds roux, marque sur les elytres, de quelques taches 
rougeatres mal deiiaies, notamment a l'epaule, vers le premier tiers, 
et avant le 2e tiers de la longueur. Tete brusquement tronquee en arriere 
avec un assez large bourrelet a la base, souvent rougeatre ainsi que le 
rostre, ponctuee moins denseraent au milieu, avec une foveole frontale ; 
yeux subarrondis, pea saillants. Rostre tres entame lateralement par 
les scrobes, anterieurement, par une profonde ecbancrure, plus etroit que 
la tete, foveole entre les antennes, ponctae. Antennes legerement 
squameuses, a 2 article irregulierement triangulaire, anguleux en dedans, 
3-8 sublenticulaires, 9-10 presque carres, massue snbconique. Prothorax 
presque aussi retreci a la base que vers le tiers anterieur qui forme une 
sorte de cou a cotes subparalleles, peu convexe, a pouctuation ecartee, 
avec une impression anterieure rugueuse, une petite saillie dentiforme de 
cliaque cote, avant la base ; extremites du segment presentant les traces 
d'une bande squameuse laterale qui peut etre entiere chez les exemjolaires 
plus frais. Elytres subcuueiformes, a calus humeral elev£, a sillons 
tres rapproches, munis de points carres, avec les intervalles alternes par- 
fois plus saillants. Pattes allongees. Dessous ponctue peu densement, 
sauf les derniers segments abdominaux, le dernier surtout pubescent. 

Le cT differe de la 2 par les antennes tres epaisses a articles 
fortement transverses et le prothorax plus dilate. 

lies Andaman. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. 
12. MiOLiSPA cetlonica. ( ? ) Long. 9'5 (rostro excluso) ; lat. 
2'5 mill. Elongata, subcylindrica, minus depressa, ferruginea, elytris 

j'ai fait 1'aoqmsition, mais dans oelle de ses Clavicoenes qui m'est revenue plus 
tard. L' opinion que s'etait faite Lacordaire du genre en question est done erronnee 
quand il dit "je suis porte a croire que ce genre a ete etabli sur la J d'uninseote tres 
voisin des Anisognathus et qui n'en difiere meme que peu, gene'riquement parlant." 
II doit etre retranohe des Brenthides du Catalogue Gemminger et de Harold, ainsi 
que de la liste des espeees de oette famille decrites depuis et relevees par M. 
Donckier de Donceel, Soc. Ent, Belg., 1884, ccciy. 



1890.] T. D. des Loges— Description de Brenthides. 223 

basi vitta suturali et in utroque maculis 3-nigris ornata. Caput subqua- 
dratum, basi truncatum, medioque incisum. Rostrum rectum, cylindricum, 
Icevissimum, basi valde incrassatum, supra foveolatum. Antennae validce, 
paulatim incrassatce, articulo primo solo elongato. Prothorax elongatus, a 
latere posterius supparallelus, antice attenuatus, creberrime rugoso-puncta- 
tus, canali longitudinali integro. Scutellum indistinctum, Elytra hu- 
meris rectangulis ante apicem compressa, sulcato -punctata, interstitiis an- 
guste elevatis. Femora clavata, inermia. 

9 . Subcylindrique, d'un brun clair, avec les pattes rouge-ferrugin- 
eux, ainsi que les elytres ; sur celles-ci, une bande suturale basilaire et 
sur chacun line tache humerale allongee et deux bandes partant du bord 
extreme, n'atteignant pas la suture, 1'une submediane, l'autre apres le 
deuxieme tiers, noires. Tete en carre transverse, tronquee en arriere, 
echancree au milieu da bord, avec les angles lateraux saillauts. Teux 
peu proeminents. Rostre di'oit, cylindrique, lisse, sa partie dilatee 
occu|3ant, environ, le tiers du segment et marquee d'une fossette allongee. 
Antennes a articles 2-7 en carre transverse, 8-9, en carre aussi long que 
large, inassue du double plus longue que large. Prothorax plus long 
que large, a peine arque lateralement, peu retreci a la base, deveuant 
conique en avant. Bcusson nul. Elytres legerement convexes, subpa- 
ralleles, comprimees avant le sommet d'ou les interstries comme brises 
a. cet endroit ; terminees par une sorte de rebord forme par la reunion 
de la saillie suturale au 7e intervalle ; sillonnees-ponctuees. Pattes 
inermes ; tibiae anterieurs munis d'un fort eperon en dehors ; tarses tres 
allonges. 

Oeylan. Musee Indien, collection de l'auteur. 

Ma collection renferme deux autres especes du meine genre, de la 
nouvelle Guinee et provenant de la collection de Brenthides de Guerin 
Meneville qui fait actuellement jDartie de la mienne. L'une portait line 
etiquette de sa main ainsi concue : " Brenth. nova gtiineensis Guer. Voy. 
de Duperray nov. gen. (a oreilles)." L'autre m'a efce designee, par M. 
Power, sous le nom de exarata Dej. La premiere ( d 1 ), a la tete etroite, 
en carre-long, le prothorax, la tete et le rostre sillomies, celui-ci de un 
tiers plus long que la tete et un peu dilate au sommet, le prothorax 
dilate subanguleusement dans son milieu lateral ; les elytres sont ornees 
d'une bande nave etroite, le long du 2e interstrie ; les tarses sont courts 
et epais. La deuxieme, S egalement, a la tete presque carree sillonnee 
ainsi que le rostre et le prothoi'ax, mais non d'un bout a l'autre avec la 
portion du rostre en avant de la dilatation aussi longue que la portion 
basilaire ; le prothorax en legerement dilate ; les elytres sont ornees d'une 
bande jaune longitudinale au milieu, les tarses sont delies : enfin les 
cotes du dessous, a l'exception des derniers segments abdominaux, sont 
munis d'une bande formee par un epaix duvet squameux-argente. 



224 L. A. Waddell — On some new and little known [No. 3, 

Ces caracteres suffisent pour distinguer ces deux especes de la notre 
independamment de la taille. 



XII. — On some new and little known Sot Springs in South Bihar. — By 
L. A. Waddell, M. B., Indian Medical Service. 

In the southern portion of Bihar, amongst the hills — a Gangetic 
prolongation of the great Vindhaya range — forming the natural boun- 
dary between Bihar and Deltaic Bengal, are numerous hot springs, 
several of which have already been described in more or less detail. 
Others again, situated in wild and almost inaccessible localities, have 
merely been mentioned by name, on casual hearsay report, the exact 
sites and other particulars remaining undetermined, while some have 
altogether escaped notice. The present paper deals mainly with those 
falling under the last two categories. 

Of the hot springs here described nine do not appear at all in Mr. 
Oldham's descriptive List of Indian Hot Springs, published in 1882,* 
which is now the locus classicus on this subject ; but Mr. Oldham had 
omitted from his list one of these hot springs which had long ago been 
recorded by Dr. Buchanan in his Survey of Bihar. f 

For brevity as well as contrast, I present the observations as far as 
possible in tabular form. The springs belong to two natural series, 
viz., (a) those (Nos. L to 8) situated along the southern flank. of the 
hill-range of the Santal Parganas, and (Z>) those (Nos. 9 to 15) situated 
in the Mungir (Monghyr) district among the so-called Kharagpur hills. 
I may state that the elevations were ascertained by hypsometrical ob- 
servations, while the latitude and longitude were obtained by carefully 
fixing the position of the spring with reference to the surrounding 
villages on the large scaled (4 miles to the inch) Survey of India 
map. J The temperatures are recorded in degrees of the Fahrenheit 
scale. The thermometer used for the temperature of the spring- water 
had recently been compared with a standard thermometer. The names 
of the springs and adjoining villages have been spelt according to their 
local pronunciation. 

* Thermal Springs of India, by the late T. Oldham, LL. D., F. E. S., &o. 
Edited, by E. D. Oldham. Memoir Geolog. Snrv. of India, Vol. XIX, pt. 2, Calcutta, 
1882. 

t Eastern India, II, 197. Most of the details regarding the Bihar hot springs 
quoted by Dr. Oldham as from Captn. Sherwill's Report (J. A. S. B., XXI), had 
already been recorded by Dr. Buchanan. 

% The correction of — l'"21" for longitude noted on the map was not taken into 
count. 



1890.] 



Hot Springs in South Bihar. 



225 



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L. A. Waddell — On some new and little known 



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1890.] Sot Springs in Sotrfh Bihar. 227 

Ldu-lau-ddh is the Santali name for ' hot water.' This spring is 
situated in a slight hollow in lateritic soil near the bank of a small 
stream called the Boru nadi, about half a mile north-west of Sibpur 
village in the Pakur subdivision of the Santal Parganas. No rock is 
visible in the immediate neighbourhood, but the surrounding country is 
undulating with occasional outcrops of trap and quartzose grit. The 
spring is very copious ; I roughly measured the outflow at about 26 
gallons per minute. This copious outflow in a somewhat sandy tract of 
soil has resulted in a small crater or basin-like depression from the 
centre of which the spring issues. The depression is about 3 feet deep 
and at its margin about 10 feet in diameter. Profuse discharge of gas 
bubbles forth. The gas has a slightly sulphuretted odour, it is not 
inflammable, and no perceptible blackening of a silver coin ensues after 
immersion for two minutes in the spring. A small quantity of flaky 
sulphurous looking* precipitate is deposited along the course of the out- 
flowing stream. A few tufts of confervoid growth grow within the spiking 
at a temperature of 122° F. ; but these become much more profuse along 
the stream. The spring itself and its outflowing channel for many yards 
are apparently devoid of large animal life, and contain numerous 
macerated bodies of frogs and other small animals which have perished 
in attempting to cross the hot water : in front of me, a frog in the en- 
deavour to escape leaped into the stream and was instantly killed by the 
hot water. The water has a slightly saline taste, with a neutral reac- 
tion. By the side of the spring are the ruins of a small temple to Sib 
(from which the adjoining village derives its name). An isolated pool 
of water only three yards above the spring has a temperature of 79° P. 
The spring is perennial ; its water is not drunk. 

Bdramasia in Hindif signifies literally ' of 12 months,' and the 
spring is so called because it flows throughout the 12 months of the 
year. The Santals call it ' Bhumuk. ' The spring appears close to an 
outcrop of trap in a limestone ; it issues in two places about 4 feet apart, 
and the discharge is only about one-third of the above described spring. It 
has no sulphurous odour ; the few gaseous bubbles discharged are not 
inflammable and do not support combustion ; silver is not blackened 
on short immersion ; the reaction is neutral. Small fish-fry and ordinary 
waterweeds and confervas are abundant. The water is used for drink- 
ing and bathing. Mahadeva is worshipped here. The temperature of 
a cold spring 20 yards off is 62'5° F. 

* A similar looking deposit from another hot spring was very kindly analysed 
by Dr. Warden, the Chemical Examiner, with the result of showing that it consisted 
of "free sulphur, sulphuric acid, iron and siliceous matter." 

f The Hindus here, living on the border between Bihar and Bengal, speak a 
mixture of Hindi and Bengali. 

30 



228 L. A. Waddell — On some new and little "known [No. 3, 

Jhariya is a Santali form of the colloquial Hindi jharna (Sanskrit 
jhar) a spring or cascade. This spiing is situated at the eastern end of 
a marsh fed by it. It is recorded under the name of ' Jervapani ' in 
Mr. Oldham's list, with a temperature of 87° F. I found by wading into 
the marsh, the temperature to be 93°, while a streamlet about 100 yards 
off was 76°. The outflow is copious. 

Tat-ldi, also called Tdt-noi, is a Bengali corruption of Tapta nadi or 
the hot rivulet.'* This spring is well named, as its outflow is so very 
copious that it produces at once a large stream. It emerges about 50 
yards from the left bank of the Bhurbhiiri river near the village of 
Palasi, from numerous chinks, in the rocky gneissic bed of a small 
streamlet. These chinks, giving vent to the spring, extend over an area 
or" about 20 x 2^ yards. In the cool winter morning the position of 
the spring is indicated by the dense clouds of vapour hanging over it 
and also along the issuing stream for several hundred yards. The 
water has a decidedly sulphuretted odour, but it did not perceptibly 
blacken a silver coin on two minutes immersion. A good deal of flaky 
deposit is found in the bed of the stream, and confervas grow even at 
the hottest parts of the spring where the temperature is 14S'5° F. Ten 
yards above the spring the temperature of the streamlet is 58° F. and 
the aerial temperature is 59°. The highest temperature recorded in 
July 1882 by Mr. Oldham was 145° ;f while Dr. Buchanan found the 
temperature to be 148° F. on the 28th October circa 1809. J 

Nun-bil or the ' saline marsh ' is a small marsh containing several 
hot springs of a sulphurous nature, and the sulphurous deposit accumu- 
lating in the marsh appears to have given rise to this name. The chief 
spring is found where an adjoining rivulet has cut away the soil near a 
border of the marsh. At the time of my visit this spring was not 
visible in the sandy bed of the stream ; but an old resident indicated a 
spot where on digging to a depth of about two feet a spring feebly well- 
ing up was reached. Another hole was dug about a yard above this one, 
and reached a more copious spring with hotter water. This point is in the 
river bed 17 yards distant in a direct line, 3° east of North (magnetic), 
from the large sal tree on the river bank sacred to the goddess of the 
spring. At first the temperature only rose to 1 13° F„, but on cutting a 

* In colloquial Bengali the sun's heat (tapta) is ordinarily spoken of as tat, 
and hot rice is called bhdt tdta. The word nadi in Bengali is indifferently pro- 
nounced nodi or lodi, the n and I being always interchangeable, and the short a 
acquiring in Bengali an 6 sound ; moreover the d is occasionally dropped from this 
word, e. g. in Baraloi and Bansloi, the names of rivers in the adjoining districts of 
Birbhum and Bajshahi. 

f Op. cit., p. 43. t Loc. ait., p. 198. 



1890,] Hot Springs in South Bihar. 229 

channel to allow of the free escape of the water the temperature rose 
in 15 minutes to 119'5° F. A considerable ebullition of slightly sul- 
phuretted gas occurred. A silver coin on immersion for five minutes was 
very slightly discoloured. The rock in the neighbourhood is sandstone 
and quartzose grit intersected by trap. 

Two more hot springs are reported to occur about half a mile 
further down the course of this river (here called Nun-bil nacli) but the 
temperature is reported to be not more than that of the springs in the 
bil which I found to be 1005° F. 

The direction of the ISTau-bil spring given by Sherwill from native, 
information, and for which he gives latitude and longitude, is most in- 
accurate and misleading. Dr. Buchanan on the other hand elicited its 
true position approximately.* It lies 9| m. south-west of Kumrabad, 
near the village of Kendghata. 

Tapat-puni, a colloquialism for tapta pdni or ' hot water,' is the 
name of a small sulphuretted spring on the left bank of the Mor river 
near the village of Hetbeliya, about \\ miles north of Kumrabad. Tt 
issues from a sandy pool below a lateritic stratum and near an outcrop 
of coarse conglomerate. The outflow is only about two gallons per 
minute. Sulphuretted fumes are given off, and the j)Ool and its out- 
flowing channel contain a considerable quantity of yellowish flaky 
deposit, evidently sulphur. The temperature of the spring is 102° F., 
while that of the Mor river, about 10 yards off, is 62° F. 

Susum-pdni means ' tepid water ' in the vernacular. This spring 
is situated about 3 miles S. E. of the last noted spring and close to the 
village of Baghrnara, on the opposite bank of the Mor river, in a small 
marsh, which is in line with another outcrop of coarse conglomerate 
dipping to the N. W. The temperatui'e of the spring is only 84° F., 
but it is said to have been formerly much hotter. The temperature of a 
small stream 15 yards off is 62° F. No sulphurous odour is perceptible, 
and the outflow of water is sparse. 

Bhumka, apparently the same name as ' Bhumulc ' applied by the 
Santals to the first noted spring and apparently related to the Hindi 
bhumi earth, is situated in a small marsh on the right bank of the Mor 
river a quarter of a mile from Ranibahal village. It seems an instance of 
a hot spring which has regressed. It has the reputation of having been 
hot till quite recently— the village headman of Ranibahal who led me to 
the spot seemed surprised that the spring was not decidedly hot. Its 
deity, called ' BhumJca burhi,' is still worshipped at the place by the Mai 
Paharias from the hill three miles off, who call the spring ' Ghoto Nun-bil ' 

* Loc. cit., p. 200. 



230 L. A. Waddell — On some new and little known [No. 3, 

to distinguish it from ' the great ' Nunbil already described. The 
outflow is scanty and there are no sensible sulphuretted fumes. 

Singhi Bikh tatal pdni, or the ' hot water (at the shrine) of Rishi 
Singhi,' is a copious hot spring in a gorge among the Singhoul hills. 
It issues in 6 or 7 places from below a high cliff of quartzite and at once 
forms a considerable stream which lower down is called Dahina dah by 
the Kora hillmen. No sulphuretted smell is perceptible. The water is 
drunk. A temple to Mahadeva and a leund for bathing have been 
erected at this highly picturesque site — which is a favourite place of 
pilgrimage, especially on the Sib-ratri festival in February. 

Pdnch-bMir, or the ' five chinks or clefts,' is a spring which emerges 
in five streamlets amidst masses of quartzite rock, from a small hill about 
3 miles east of the highland village of Kachu. The water is heard 
flowing for some distance underneath the decomposed quartzite. On 
coming to the surface it has a temperature of only 84 - 5° F. 

The Tatal-pani, or 'hot water,' spring of Bhimbhand, are well 
characterized by Dr. Buchanan* as " by far the finest in the district." 
The highest temperature recorded by Dr. Buchanan circa 1809 was 
150° F. ; Sherwill in 1854 found it 147°. In January of this year 
the highest temperature found by me was 146'2° F. The water can be 
heard flowing under the masses of qnartzite debris, so that the tempera- 
ture a few feet further in would be doubtless higher. A very faint 
sulphuretted smell is perceptible and in the stream-bed is a slight 
deposit of light yellowish flaky material — this formed such a thin coat- 
ing over the stones and confervoid growth, that I could not obtain a 
pure sample of it. Dr. Buchanan calls it ' siliceous tufa ' — he found it 
did not effervesce with nitric acid. It appeared to me to be sulphurous. 
No blackening of a silver coin occurred after immersion for 5 minutes. 

Sita-kund, or ' Sita's well ' or pond, where according to the legend 
Sita bathed after passing through the fiery ordeal, and so imparted to 
the water the heat she had absorbed from the fire, is a not uncommon 
name for hot springs in India. This particular one near Mungir is well- 
known, and only figures in this list in order to exhibit my observations 
on its temperature, &c. 

The garm-pani, or ' hot water,' of Barde village is practically a 
branch of the above-noted Sita-lcund hot spring. It is found on the 
bank of apondinthe Moslem village of Barde, about 300 yards N. W. from 
Sita-kund. In January it had exactly the same temperature as Sita- 
kund, viz., 137° F. Owing to its unholy situation it is not worshipped ; 
and is only visible as a surface spring in autumn and winter; in 

* Loc. cit., p. 200. 



1890.] Sot Springs in South Bihar. 231 

March when I revisited the spot no spring was visible, and on digging 
down two feet the temperature of the water found only registered 103° F. 
Bdinsa pahdr hot spring is also to be regarded as an offshoot from 
Sita-kund, from which it is distant about one-third of a mile in a south- 
easterly direction. These three last springs lie almost in a straight line 
— Sita-kund being in tbe middle. This spring emerges from a fissure in 
quartzite rock at tbe base of the small hill of Bainsa which also consists of 
similar rock. At my visit in March it was a sluggish spring in a puddle 
polluted both by men and cattle. No sulphuretted smell was perceptible. 
The water is only drunk by cattle. 

Bhaduria bhur, or the ' cleft of Bhaduria ' hill, is a hot spring which 
is locally believed to be a branch of Rishi-kund hot spring about two miles 
further E. S. E. on the other side of the range of hills. The spring, 
which is much cooler than Rishi-kund, emerges at the foot of Bhaduria 
hill from amongst masses of quartzite rock accompanied by a free dis- 
charge of gaseous bubbles, devoid of smell and uninflammable. The water 
is drunk by men and cattle. Much confervoid growth is present. This 
seems to be the spring described by Buchanan* as " about five or six miles 
south from Sita-kunda, at the western foot of the ridge running south 
from Mungger and at a place called Bhurka." The spring, however, is 
over seven miles from Sita-kund, and its temperature at my visit was 
98'5° F., compared with the temperature of 112° given by Buchanan. 

The names of these hot springs, it will be seen, are all trivial, usually 
meaning simply ' hot water.' 

The Chemical Composition of the water and of the gaseous contents 
of the springs could not be very f ally ascertained, owing to the great diffi- 
culty of properly collecting and carrying off from such remote places a 
sufficient quantity of material for analysis. In only four instances was I 
able to collect and safely transport suitable samples of the water, which 
Dr. Warden, the Chemical Examiner, has very kindly analysed with the 
results shown in the accompanying table : — 

* Loc. Git, p. 197. 



232 



L. A. Waddell — On some new and little known 
Table II. 



[No. 3, 







Results 


of Analysis expressed 


in Parts per 100,000. 














c3 


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Of the mineral matter of No. 1 sample a considerable proportion 
seems likely to be chloride of sodium, owing to the large proportion of 
chlorine and the very slight hardness of this water. In No. 2 sample, 
the extreme degree of hardness is accounted for by its traversing a lime 
formation — it seems to contain an excess of carbonate and also of sulphate 
of lime. The Sita-kund water appears to contain chloride of calcium 
and perhaps sodium. The absence of blackening of the solid, residue 
on io-nition indicated the absence of organic matter from all of the 
samples. All contained sulphur in the form of sulphates. 

The ^as evolved at the springs has when sensibly odorous or 
otherwise been noted in column 13 of Table I — very slight traces of 
sulphuretted hydrogen are detectable by smell. Nitrogen is a gas 
which is evolved from hot springs in much greater quantity and more 
frequently than sulphuretted hydrogen,* but samples of the gas evolved 
could not be collected for analysis : one characteristic of nitrogen is 
that it does not support combustion ; and in every case the bubbles of 
gas from the springs extinguished a light, but the bursting of the bub- 
ble on the surface would of itself tend to blow out the light. Oai'bonic 
acid is occasionally evolved from hot springs — in the last two samples 
it could not be present in any quantity, judging from the absence of 
pungency in the taste of these waters : no direct test by lime or other- 
wise was resorted to : in every case the waters were neutral to test-paper. 



* Daubeny on Volcanos, p. 558. 



1890.] Hot Springs in South Bihar. 233 

In many of the springs the gaseous discharge was so great as to agitate 
and spurt about the water as if it were boiling. 

Very few of the European hot springs are in much repute for 
therapeutic purposes, few of them coming under the class of mineral 
springs. Those which are of value are efficaceous mainly as baths, on 
account of the amount of sulphuretted hydrogen with which they are 
impregnated ; and none of the springs here described contain this gas 
in large amount. Most of the above hot springs, however, are held in 
considerable repute by the natives in the neighbourhood as potent re- 
medies, especially for itch, ulcers and other skin affections. But a 
most essential part of the process of cure consists in the preliminary 
worship which must be paid to the presiding deity of the spring. 

Nearly all of these springs, as may be seen from column 14 of 
Table I, are worshipped by the Hindu and semi-aboriginal villagers in the 
vicinity ; for these strange outbursts of heated water, boiling up 
cauldron-like and wreathed in clouds of vapour are regarded by them 
as supernatural phenomena, and the especial expression of the presence 
of a deity. The deity usually worshipped at the springs by the semi- 
aborigines is Mata or Mai, the ' mother ' goddess — one of the forms of 
Kali — and large melas are held in her honour. She is especially wor- 
shipped by those suffering from itch and other skin diseases ; also by 
the barren, both male and female, who all bathe in the water and drink 
some of it. Goats &c. are sacrificed to her, and the rocks are daubed 
with vermillion or red-lead and pieces of coloured rags are tied to the 
nearest bush or tree in her worship. At Tat-loi the mela is held in 
January and is attended by over 100,000 persons. At Nun-bil the goddess 
is called Nun-bil devi and she is believed to especially reside in a large 
sal tree over the spring ; her mela is held in December and also is 
attended by about a lakh (100,000) of persons. The melas at the other 
springs are less numerously attended. At Jhariya, the Bhuinya ghat- 
wals (of Dravidian type, with short frizzly hair) worship with fowl 
sacrifice and offerings of rice, the spirit of Son-mon Pande, a brahman 
priest who is said to have died there. The more Hinduized worshippers, 
however, believe that their favourite god Mahadeva is specially present at 
all those hot springs, and to him they there offer worship, except at 
Sita-kund where worship of Ram and Sita is performed. 

Curiously enough, the thermal springs of relatively low temperature, 
which might perhaps be termed ' warm ' rather than hot springs, are 
believed by the villagers to be hotter in the very early morning and to 
become cooler as the day advances — this opinion is evidently founded 
on the loose subjective sensation of the villagers, who in the cool of the 
morning remark that the spring, being hotter than the atmosphere, 



234 L. A. Waddell — On some new and little hnown [No. 3, 

gives a sensation of decided heat ; which contrast becomes less marked 
during the day when the sun has heated up the earth and air, causing 
these to approach the temperature of the spring. 

The temperature of some of the springs, however, does seem occa- 
sionally to undergo actual fluctuation according to season and other 
conditions not yet well ascertained. This indeed might to a certain 
extent be expected, seeing that hot springs derive their heat more or 
less directly from volcanic action — which is essentially subject to alter- 
nate periods of activity and relative rest. A notable instance of this 
fluctuation is cited by Dr. Buchanan in his report on the Sita-kund 
" spring. He writes : " I visited this spring first on the 7th April, a 
" little after sunrise. The thermometer in the open air stood at 68° F. 
" and in the hottest part of the reservoir where many air-bubbles rose, 
" it stood at 130°. The priests said, that about eight days before it had 
" become cooler, and that the heat would gradually diminish till the 
" commencement of the rainy season. I visited the spring again on the 
" 20th of April at sunset, the air having been hot all day and parching ; 
" the thei'mometer in the air stood at 84°, in the well it rose to 122°. 
" On the 28th April I visited it again a little after sunset, the wind 
" blowing strong from the east, but not parching. The temperature in 
" the air was at 90° ; in the well it only rose to 92°. The water still 
" continued clear ; but soon after, owing to the reduction of the heat, 
" and the natives being in consequence able to bathe in the well, the 
" water became so dirty as to be no longer drinkable by an European. 
" Indisposition for some time prevented me from being able to revisit 
"the place ; but in the beginning of July, on the commencement of the 
" rainy season the water, in consequence of the return of the heat, 
" became again limpid ; and on the 26th of that month a native sent 
" with the thermometer found at sunset that it stood in the air at 
" 90°, and in the water at 132°. In the evening of the 21st September, 
" the thermometer stood in the air at 88°, in the cistern at 138°, and the 
" number of air bubbles had very evidently increased."* That record 
was made about eighty years ago. I find on enquiry from the priests at 
Sita-kund that the water still becomes slightly cooler in early summer, 
but since forty years ago it has never become so cool as to permit of bath- 
ing, and they endeavour to make a miracle of this by saying that the 
annual cooling of the pool ceased immediately after the visit of a certain 
Maharatta raja. In January of this year I found the highest tempera- 
ture to be 137° F., and two months later at the same site the temperature 
registered 130°. When Sir Joseph Hooker visited the place on April 

* Loc. cit., p. 197. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 235 

1st, 1848, he found the temperature to be ouly 104° F. # These remark- 
able fluctuations in the temperature of Sita-kund are well deserving 
of further inquiry, and Sita-kund is so accessible to residents at Mungir 
that frequent thermometric observations could readily be carried out 
there. Several irregular observations by Mr. Masters on the hot springs 
of the ISTamba forest in Assamf also indicated considerable fluctuations 
in the temperature of those springs at different seasons. 

The spi-ings above described, together with some others already 
published, form two well-marked chains running parallel to one another 
in a direction from S. W. to N. E. — the one series being found along 
the southern flank of the Santal Pargana Hills, and the other about 95 
miles further north, in the Kharagpur Hills and chiefly along their 
southern flank. It is interesting to find historic testimony to the 
former existence in this latter region of an active volcano : the Chinese 
pilgrim, Hiuen Tsiang who visited the neighbourhood of Mungir about 
"the year 634 A. D. records J that " by the side of the capital and bor- 
" dering on the Ganges river is the I-lan-no mountain, from which is 
"belched forth masses of smoke and vapour which obscure the light of 
" the sun and moon." 



XIII. — Natural History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer " Investigator," Commander R. F. Hosktn, R. N., Com- 
manding — No. 16. The non-indigenous species of the Andaman 
Flora.— By D. Prain. 

[Received 28th February 1890 ; Read 2nd April 1890.] 

The non-indigenous element in a flora — the weeds of cultivation 
and the cultivated plants — species introduced, involuntarily or inten- 
tionally, by man — is not often dealt with apart, since weeds are rarely in 
themselves interesting, and because a local treatment is hardly satis- 
factory where cultivated forms are concerned. But the intrusion of 
this element is a subject of peculiar interest, particularly when it is 
possible to review it historically, and as opportunities for doing this are 
rare, it is well to make use of all that occur. 

The Indian convict settlement of Port Blair in the Andaman 
islands affords such an opportunity. This settlement was commenced 

* Himalayan Journals, I, p. 89. 

f Reported by Dr. Prain in the Society's Proceedings for 1887, p. 201. 
% Si-yu-U, translation from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang by S. Beal, II, p. 187. 
31 



236 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. S, 

in its present form in 1858, but it occupies the site of a settlement that 
existed for a few years in the end of the 18th century, so that some 
common weeds may possibly have been already introduced and estab- 
lished when the present colony was founded. This prevents us from 
going back without question to the year 1858 as a starting-point in our 
enquiry ; but, while we are unable to do this, we have nevertheless a 
quite satisfactory date of commencement in the year 1866, for in that 
year the late Mr. S. Kurz* paid a botanical visit to the Andamans the 
results of which are enbodied in a Report on the Vegetation of the 
Andaman Islam ds.f As an Appendix to this report (pp. 29 — 59) an 
Enumeration of the Plants on the Andaman Islands is given ; in this 
enumeration and in a tabular Recapitulation (pp. 22, 23) Mr. Kurz has 
distinguished the non-indigenous element and dealt separately with its 
items. The treatment cannot be better explained than it is by Mr. 
Kurz himself in the following passage taken from his Report (p. 24) : — 

"A considerable number of plants on the Andamans are only in- 
" troduced, though some of these species in the surrounding countries 
" are without any hesitation enumerated in their floras as indigenous. 
" I noted not less than 76 of these introduced species, while in Singa- 
" pore the numbers are only 31. This great difference, however, is 
" scarcely a real one, as we can be certain that most plants at the latter 
"place are introduced only when they are known to be non-Indian 
" forms. 

" The introduced herbaceous plants on the Andamans are 74 in 
" number ; thus being in proportion to the woody plants as 37 : 1. Of 
" these, seven only are American ; which are, therefore, surpassed in 
" number by nine times the introduced species from the old Continent. 
"As regards dissemination, the American species supersede the old 
"Asiatic forms (except grasses), however, in number of individuals. 

'• An enquiry into the causes of the different modes of immigration 
" of the non-indigenous plants on the Andamans would show that the 
" whole number has been introduced by the agency of man, direct and 
"indirect — a fact which also proves how little chauce there is for exotic 
" plants to cross the sea. I am inclined also to believe that introduction 
" by means of winds, birds, &c, is applicable only to continents and 
" adjacent islands, but not to isolated groups of islands. The Andamans 
" will become an instructive spot for inquiries into the change of a flora 

* Willi elm Sulpiz Kurz, native of Augsburg, Curator of the Herbarium of the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, from 1863 till his death in 1878. 

t Calcutta; Office of Superintendent of Government Printing, Ed. 2, 1870: 
[the first issue, a purely official document of which the edition quoted is a reprint, 
was circulated by the Government of India in 1867.] 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 237 

" by introductions. As I directed my full attention to herbaceous 
" plants, I hope that I have noted nearly all the plants growing at my 
"visit in the cleared lands." 

During a brief visit to the Andamans, in November 1889, the writer 
made as complete a collection as the time at his disposal would permit 
of the naturalised species in the settlement at Port Blair, in order to 
ascertain the number and nature of the species introduced between 1866 
and 1889. And Dr. King, who paid a short visit to the settlement in 
April 1890, very kindly collected such weeds as were flowering then, but 
had not been seen in the previous November. The results of the visits 
are given below, the plants collected first by Dr. King being indicated 
by a (K) ; che following method has been adopted in presenting them : — 

1. Cultivated species and weeds — enumerated together by Mr. 
Kurz — are here dealt with separately. 

2. Species (of both kinds) present in 1866 are taken from the 
Enumeration by Mr. Kurz referred to above ; for convenience of reference 
the synonymy of the Report has been made to conform with the nomen- 
clature in the Flora of British India* 

3. Additional species (of both kinds) are those first met with by 
the writer in 1889, or by Dr. King in 1890. 

It ought to be noted that the list of cultivated species for 1866, as 
the remarks of Mr. Kurz shew, is not exhaustive. This is equally true 
of the corresponding list for 1890. It has been felt that an exhaustive 
list of exotic species, could serve no useful purpose ; it is sufficient if 
attention be directed to such plants, introduced since 1866, as may bo 
reasonably supposed to be capable of becoming in the course of time 
spontaneous or subspontaneous, and to such plants as possess a direct 
economic interest. The remarks attributed to Mr. Kurz are in every 
case taken verbatim from his report ; where necessary the condition of 
the species in 1889-90 is commented on; when no second remark occurs 
the condition of the species is to be understood as having remained ap- 
parently unchanged during the period between 1866 and 1890. 

* This it has been possible to do with certainty since the original specimens 
on which Mr. Kurz' Report is based are preserved in the Calcutta Herbarium and 
have in every case been re-examined by the writer. 



238 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 
A. Species under cultivation, obviously planted or intentionally 

INTRODUCED. 

I. Species under cultivation or obviously planted in 1866. 





Remarks. 


Name of Species. 






Condition in 1866 (Kurz). 


Condition in 1889-90. 


Mickelia Champaca 


' Cultivated in gardens at 




Linn. 


Port Blair.' 




Cananga odorata H. 


' C nltivated only in the 




F. & T. 


gardens.' 




Anona squamosa Linn. 


' Cultivated only in gardens.' 




*Brassica oleracea 


' Many varieties of this 




Linn. 


plant are cultivated, but 
do not grow well owing 
to the great moisture of 
the atmosphere.' 




5 *B. cnmpestris Linn. 


' As the former.' 




*Kaphanus sativus 


' Cultivated only.' 




Linn. 






Bixa Orellana Linn. 


' Cultivated only.' 


Cultivated and appearing 
spontaneously in waste 
places. 


Hibiscus rosa sinensis 


' Cultivated only.' 




Linn. 






Gossypium barba- 


' Cultivated only.' 


Cultivated and (as on Mt. 


dense Linn. VAK. 




Harriet) appearing spon- 


acuminatum. 




taneously in waste places. 


10 Impatiens Balsamina 


' Cultivated in gardens, and 




Linn. 


sometimes spontaneously.' 




Citrus medica Linn. 


1 Cultivated in the gardens 
of Europeans.' 




C. decumana Linn. 


[Cultivated in the gardens 
of Europeans]. 




Mangif era indica Linn. 


' Cultivated.' 


Not very successfully. 


Moringa pterygosper- 


' A couple of trees observed 


Very common everywhere 


ma Gaertn. 


on Viper island evidently 


throughout the Settle- 




planted.' 


ment. 


15 *Lupinus, sp. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 


Not seen in 1889 or 1890. 


Sesbania grandiflora 


' Cultivated at Hopetown, 




Fers. 


Ross Island, etc' 




*Cicerarietinum Linn 


' Cultivated only.' 




*Pisum sativum Linn. 


' Cultivated only.' 




Clitoria Ternatea 


' Cultivated and sometimes 




Linn. 


as wild.' 




20 Canavalia ensiformis 


' Cultivated only.' 


Mr. Kurz refers to the 


DC. 




form distinguished as C. 
gladiata by M. DeCan- 
dolle. The wild form of 
the plant is indigenous. 






1890.] D. Pram — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 239 



Name of Species. 



Remarks. 



Condition in 1866 (Kurz). Condition in 1889-90. 





Phaseolns, several 


' Cultivated only in gardens.' 


P. lunatus, P. vulgaris and 




species. 




P. Mungo. 




Vigna Catjang Endl. 


' Mucb cultivated by native 
convicts.' 




25 


Pachyrhizus angula- 
tus Rich. 


1 Cultivated.' 






Dolichos Lablab Linn. 


' Cultivated only.' 






Cajanus indicus 


' Cultivated and sometimes 


In many places subsponta- 




Spreng. 


wild.' 


neous or spontaneous. 




Caesalpinia pulcherri- 


' Only cultivated.' 






ma Sw. 








Cassia Fistula Linn. 


' Cultivated in gardens at 
Ross Island.' 




30 


Acacia Farnesiana 


' Much cultivated on Ross 






Willd. 


Island.' 






Leucsena glauca 


' Cultivated on Ross Island.' 






Benth. 








*Eosa, several species. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






*Quisqualis indica 


' In gardens of Europeans, 






Linn. 


cultivated.' 






Psidium Guyava Linn. 


' Cultivated only.' 


A good deal planted on Mt. 
Harriet. 


35 


*Cuphea, sp. 


' Observed occasionally in 
the gardens of Eu- 
ropeans.' 


Not seen in 1889. 




Lawsonia alba Lamk. 


' Only cultivated.' 


Used as a hedge at Aber- 
deen. 




Pnnica Granatam 


' Cultivated only.' 






Linn. 








*Passiflora laurifolia 


' Cultivated in gardens of 






Linn. 


Europeans.' 






Carica Papaya Linn. 


' Cultivated and sponta- 


Now very common along 






neously springing up 


the sides of jungle paths 






around Port Blair.' 


and spreading along the 
coast within the line of 
shore vegetation. 


40 


Trichosanthes cucu- 
merina Linn. 


' Cultivated.' 


Commonly spontaneous.] 




T. anguina Linn. 


' Cultivated.' 


Only in cultivation. 




Lagenaria vulgaris 

Ser. 
Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. 


' Cultivated.' 






' Cultivated.' 


Cultivated and also as an 








escape. 




Benincasia cerifera 


' Cultivated.' 






Savi. 






45 


Momordica Charantia 
Linn. 


' Cultivated.' 






M. dioica Roxb. 


' Cultivated.' 






Cucumis Melo Linn. 


' Cultivated.' 






C. sativus Linn. 


' Cultivated.' 






Citrullus vulgaris, 


' Cultivated.' 






Schrad. 







240 D. Pram — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 







Remarks. 




Names of Species. 
















Condition in I860 (Kurz.) 


Condition in 1889-00. 


50 


Cucurbita maxima 

Duchesne. 
*Opuntia ") 


' Cultivated.' 






*Cereus | g g 
*Melocaotus )• g "S 


'In the gardens of Eu- 






*Epiphyllum | « | 


ropeans.' 




55 


*Ecljinocactus J 








*Caruni Roxburghia- 


' Cultivated.' 






nnm Benth. 








*Pencedanum graveo- 


' Cultivated.' 






lens Benth. 








*Coriandrum sativum 


' Cultivated. 1 






Linn. 








*Cuminum Cyminum 


' Cultivated.' 






Linn. 






60 


*Kondeletia speoiosa 
Lodd. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






*Pentas carnea Benth. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






Zinnia, several species. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 


Frequently subspontan- 
eous. 




*Rudbeckia, species. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






*Coreopsis, several 


[Cultivated in gardens.] 






species. 






65 


Tagetes, several 


[Cultivated in gardens.] 


Also in waste places near 




species. 




the houses of 'self-sup- 
porter ' convict colonists, 
common. 




Plumbago rosea Linn. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






Jasminum, several sp. 


' Cultivated in the gardens 
of Europeans.' 






Allamanda cathartica 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






Linn. 








Thevetia neriifolia 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 






/wss. 






70 


Tinea rosea Linn. 


' Cultivated and sometimes 


Very common in waste 






as wild.' 


places on Ross Island, and 
about Aberdeen. 




Plumeria acutifolia 


' Cultivated only .' 


A very favourite shrub in 




Poir. 




all the European gardens. 




Nerium odornm Sol. 


' Cultivated only.' 






*Heliotropium peru- 


' Cultivated only.' 






vianum Linn. 








Ipomoea Bona-nox 


' Cultivated only in gardens 






Linn. 


of Europeans.' 




75 


I. Quanioclit Linn. 


'Cultivated in gardens, 
and now occurring as 
wild on Ross Island.' 






I. Batatas Lanik. 


' Cultivated only.' 


The Sweet-potato is rather 
largely cultivated in the 
Settlement. 




Lycopersictim escu- 


' Much cultivated by native 






lentum Mill. 


convicts.' 





1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 241 





Remarks. 


Name of Species. 












Condition in 1866 (Kurz). 


Condition in 1889-90. 


Solatium Melongena 


' Much cultivated in native 


Often in waste places along 


Linn. 


gardens and occasional- 


with 8. indicum and S. 




ly as wild.' 


ferox ; less often with S. 
torvum. 


80 Capsicum, several 


1 In cultivation by native 


Both the Chillee (O.fru- 


species. 


convicts.' 


tescens) and the Bird's- 
eye Chillee (Q. minimum) 
are much cultivated and 
the latter — the one with 
small elongated erect 
berries — is now a frequent 
weed in waste places. 
The Big Chillee (C. gros- 
sum) with large round 
red berries is very little 
grown. 


Datura, species. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 


There was no Datura in 






cultivation, so far as I 






could see, but D. fastuosa 
Linn, is now a common 
weed on rubbish-heaps 
and in waste places. 


Nieotiana Tabacnm 


' Cultivated on Mt. Harriet, 


Systematically cultivated 


Linn. 


etc' 


as one^ of the industries 
of the Settlement. 


*Pettinia violacea 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




Linn. 






85 *Kusselia junceaZitcc. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




Justicia Gendarussa 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




Linn. f. 






Graptopliyllum hor- 


' As the former.' 




tense Nees. 






Lantana camara Linn. 


' About Aberdeen, amongst 


Common at Aberdeen and 




the shrubberies as wild 


also on Ross Island where 




but rare.' 


it is planted and trimmed 
into a hedge ! 


Staehytarpheta in- 


' Cultivated in gardens, at 


Now also in many places 


dica Vahl. 


present covering all the 


on the opposite side of 




sides of Ross Island and 


the harbour, as at Hope- 




around Aberdeen.' 


town, Mitakari, etc., but 
never in gardens, either 
native or Burojiean. 


90 *Verbena Aubletia 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




Linn. and other 






species. 






Dnranta Plumieri Jacq. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




Vitex trifolia Linn. 


' Only cultivated in gardens.' 


Cultivated, but much more 
often quite spontaneous. 


Ocimum sanctum 


' Cultivated lands at Ross 


Also in gardens, both of 


Linn, 


Island, introduced.' 


Europeans and natives, 
though very frequent in 
waste places all over the 
Settlement. 



242 D. Praia — The non- indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 



Names of Species. 



Remarks. 



Condition in 1866 (Kurz). Condition in 1889-90. 



*Salvia coccinea Linn. 


' Cultivated in gardens of 




and other species. 


Europeans.' 




95 Plantago major Linn. 


' Cultivated in native gar- 
dens.' 


Not seen in 1889 or 1890. 


Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. 


' Only cultivated in gardens.' 


Now not infrequently 
spontaneous. 


Celosia cristata Linn. 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




Amarantus, several 


' Cultivated in native gar- 


A. paniculatus and A. caii- 


species. 


dens.' 


datus. 


Gomphrena globosa 


' Cultivated and sometimes 




Linn. 


as wild.' 




100 Piper Betle Linn. 


' Cultivated by convicts.' 




*Euphorbia pulcherri- 


' In gardens, cultivated.' 




ina Willd. 






Jatroplia nraltifida 


' Cultivated only.' 




Linn. 






Jatropha pnrgans 


' Cultivated only.' 




Linn. 






Ricinus communis 


' Cultivated only.' 


Cultivated but also spon- 


Linn. 




taneous on all rubbish 
heaps and in every waste 
place aud by roadsides. 


105 Cannabis sativa Linn. 


' Cultivated only.' 




Artocarpus integri- 


' Cultivated only.' 




folia Linn. 






Casuarina equisetifo- 


' At Ross Island, cultivated ' 


Also now extensively 


lia Forst. 




planted on Mt. Harriet 
and many see'dlings ap- 
pearing. This species is, 
however, indigenous in 
the Andamans ; Col. 
Cadell, V. C , Chief Com- 
missioner, tells me it is 
plentiful at Casuarina 
Bay on the west side of 
N. Andaman. 


Curcuma, several 


' Cultivated.' 




species. 






Canna indica Linn. 


' Cultivated in gardens and 
sometimes wild in jun- 
gles, where it has been 
sown.' 




110 Musa sapientum Linn. 


' Cultivated everywhere.' 




Ananas sativa Adans. 


' Now everywhere cultiva- 
ted and producing fruit 
of good quality.' 




*Belamcanda sinensis 


' In gardens ; cultivated.' 




Adans. 






*Zephyranthes, spe- 


' Cultivated in gardens.' 




cies. 






*Hippeastrnm, spe- 


[Cultivated in gardens']. 




cies. 







1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 243 



Names of Species. 



Remarks. 



Condition in 1866 (Kurz). 



Condition in 1889-90. 



115 *AUium sativum Linn 
*A. Cepa Linn. 
Areca Catechu Linn. 

Cocos nucifera Linn. 



' Cultivated in gardens.' 

[Cultivated in gardens]. 

' Cultivated, especially at 
Aberdeen.' 

' Only on the Cocos islands 
indigenous. Now every- 
where cultivated and 
sown along the shores.' 



Panicum jumentorum 

Vers. 
Coix Lachryma Linn. 

120 Zea Mays Linn. 



Oryzas ativa Linn. 



'■ Cultivated at Ross Island 

and Aberdeen.' 
' Cultivated in gardens.' 

' Cultivated in gardens and 
sometimes as wild.' 

' Only in small quantities ; 
cultivated.' 



Saccharum officina- 
rum Linn. 
123 Cynodon Dactylon 
Fers. 



Cultivated by convicts.' 

: The favourite grass here ; 
everywhere sown and 
now occurring wild on 
the cleared lands.' 



Extensively cultivated. 

Very extensively planted 
throughout the Settle- 
ment, many thousands of 
trees of excellent quality 
having been planted in 
the ground reclaimed 
from mangrove swamps. 
The quality of the cocoa- 
nut produced by the trees 
on Great Coco Island is 
comparatively poor. The 
question of distribution of 
this species is hoped to 
be discussed in a future 
note. 



Now in ditches as if wild 
at Aberdeen and Haddo. 

Cultivated largely; not 
seen anywhere as if spon- 
taneous. 

Now a staple crop ; along 
with maize in new forest 
clearings, then rather un- 
successfully, especially 
during the first season, on 
account of an insect-pest ; 
also very largely cultiva- 
ted in the reclaimed man- 
grove-swamp land, there 
producing heavy crops 
of excellent quality. 



Very common everywhere, 
and still the favourite 
grass. 



82 



244 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3 

II. Species cultivated or planted, or obviously introduced, seen in 1889 
and 1890 not present in 1866. 



Names of Species. 


Bemaeks. 


Anona reticulata Linn. 


Cultivated. 


125 Garcinia Mangostana Linn. 


Cultivated and doing well. 


Camellia theifera Griff. 


Systematically cultivated as one of the indus- 




tries of the Settlement ; the tea produced is of 




excellent quality. 


Hibiscus esculentus Linn. 


Cultivated in gardens. 


H. Sabdariffa Linn. 


Cultivated by convicts. 


Durio Zibethinus DG. 


Cultivated. 


130 Swietenia Mahogani Linn. 


Planted. 


S. macrophylla King. 


Planted and thriving well, does much better 




than the true mahogany. 


*Nephelium Litchi Gamb. 


Cultivated but with poor results. 


Phaseolus trilobus Ait. 


Cultivated by convicts, but also very common in 




waste places as a weed. 


Baubinia acuminata, Linn. 


Cultivated, but also appearing spontaneously. 
Planted. 


135 Poinciana regia Boj. 


Brownea, several varieties. 


Planted. 


Amherstia nobilis Wall. 


Planted and thrives very well, 


Tamarindus indica Linn. 


Planted. 


Saraca indica Linn. 


Planted. 


140 Pitbecolobium dulce Benth. 


Planted as a shade-tree and also trimmed as a 




hedge; many seedlings appearing sponta- 




neously. 


P. Saman Benth. 


Planted very generally ; does well on roadsides 




and on ground too indiscriminately cleared 




which few native species will.* 



* Tithecolobium Saman, the Eain-tree, a native of the West Indies, Central 
America, Venezuela and Guiana, though yielding a timber useless except as firewood 
is nevertheless a valuable tree. It is a fast-growing and easily-raised species and, if 
planted along with more valuable kinds, forms an effective nurse for these during 
the earlier years of their growth. It also yields a valuable crop of sweet pulpy pods 
greedily eaten by cattle. It is said, moreover, to improve the quality of land encrust- 
ed with reh inflorescence. The following girth measurements of 13 trees in the 
Botanic Garden, Calcutta, will give some idea of the rate at which the species grows. 
The measurements in every case are taken at 60 inches from the surface of the soil 
— the trees measured were not selected (except No. 13 which was added as being the 
largest in the whole line) but were contiguous trees in the road known as the 
College avenue. The trees all date from 1876 ; the measurements were made in 
January 1890. 

No. 





ft. 


m. 




ft. 


in. 


1. 


5 


5* 


No 8. 


5 


1 


2. 


6 


4 


„ 9. 


5 


4 


3. 


6 


4 


„ 10. 


6 


7 


4. 


5 


7 


„ 11. 


7 


3 


5. 


7 


5 


„ 12. 


5 


HI 
3 


6. 


7 


6 


„ 13. 


8 


7. 


6 


lot 










average girth 


6 


5* 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 245 



Names op Species. 



Remakes. 



Melaleuca Leucadendron Linn. 

Eugenia Jarnbos Linn. 

*Daucus Carota Linn. 
145 Ixora coccinea Linn. 

*Cof£ea arabica Linn. 

Oarissa Oarandas Linn. 

Ipomoea coccinea Linn. 

Solanum tuberosum Linn. 
150 Physalis peruviana Linn. 

Torenia, sp. 

Thunbergia alata Boj. 

T. erecta T. And. 
Dasdalacanthus salaccensis 
T. And. 
155 Tectona grandis Linn. f. 

Bougainvillea glabra Ghoisy. 
Deeringia celosioides Br. 
Cinnaniomum zeylanicum, 

Breyn. 
Euphorbia antiquorum. Linn. 

160 Ficus bengalensis Linn. 
F. Rumphii Blume. 



F. religiosa Linn. 

Ravenala inadagascariensis 

Adans. 
Agave vivipara Linn. 
165 Dioscorea sativa Linn. 

Colocasia antiquorum Schott. 

Bambusa Brandisii Mmiro. 
Dendrocalamus strictns Nees. 
169 Cephalostachyum pergracile 
Munro. 



Planted. 

Cultivated. 

Cultivated. 

Very common in gai'dens of Europeans. 

Cultivated. 

Cultivated, not very successfully. 

In gardens, but also a frequent escape. 

The potato does very poorly. 

Cultivated. 

Cultivated, but also often appearing spon- 
taneously. 

Cultivated, but also appearing as an escape, e. g., 
at Namuna ghat. (K.) 

Planted as a hedge on Mt. Harriet. 

Frequent in gardens. 

The teak-plantations under the care of the 
Forest Department are doing exceedingly well.* 
In gardens of Europeans. 

In gardens, but also appearing subspontaneously. 
Cultivated and doing very well. (K). 

Grown as a hedge-plant. 

Planted. 

Largely planted on roadsides at Aberdeen un- 
der the impression that it was the Pfpal 
(P. religiosa). 

A few trees only. 

Planted. 

Very common in gardens of Europeans. 
Cultivated. 

Cultivated but also appearing spontaneously in 
marshy spots around Aberdeen. 

These Bamboos have been planted somewhat 
extensively throughout the Settlement. 



These intentionally introduced species belong to three distinct 
classes : — 

1. Such as probably never could become naturalized — truly exotic 
species, such as temperate vegetables and garden flowers and plan ts 



The name Rain-tree is derived from a phenomenon of condensation or exuda- 
tion (both explanations have been offered) said to be exhibited by the tree in America ; 
in India nothing of the sort occurs. 

* It should be noted also that the Forest Department is actively engaged in 
propagating Padouk, a very valuable indigenous timber tree (Pterocarpus indie us 
Willd.) and that the Andamanese Pyenmah, another good timber tree (Lagerstrcemia 
hypoleuca Kurz) is extensively planted. 



246 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 

that affect a drier climate than that of the Andamans ; such species 
have been distinguished by an (*) : — 

2. Such as might be expected to hold their own in the struggle for 
existence should the Settlement happen to be abandoned — a class the 
precise limits of which cannot be laid down with certainty ; this is the 
class not marked (*) and at the same time not noted as occurring spon- 
taneously ; it is moreover from this that the next class is recruited ; 

3. Such as are naturalised in the Andamans now — the species for 
which there was evidence either in 1866 or 1890 that spontaneous 
appearance has actually commenced. 

The two former classes do not require further consideration ; taken 
in detail we find that of the last class 14 species were naturalized prior 
to 1866. These were :— • 

Impatiens Balsamina. Lantana camara. 

Clitoria Ternatea. Stachytarpheta indica. 

Cajanus indicus. Ocimum sanctum. 

Carica Papaya. Oomphrena globosa. 

Vinca rosea. Canna indica. 

Ipomoea Quamoclit. Cocos nucifera. 

Solanum Melongena. Cynodon Dactylon. 

Before 1889 14 other species, that had been introduced prior to 1866 
but had not at that date become naturalised, had begun to appear spon- 
taneously. These were : — 

Sixa Orellana. Capsicum minimum. 

Gossypium barbadense. Datura fastuosa. 

Moringa pterygosperma. Vitex trifolia. 

Trichosanthes cucumerina. Mirabilis Jalapa. 

Luffa cegyptiaca. Hicinus communis. 

Zinnia elegans. Casuaria equisetifolia. 

Tagetes, sp. Ooix Lachryma. 

At the same time 9 other species not present in the Andamans at 
all in 1866 were nevertheless appearing spontaneously in 1890. These 
were : — 

Phaseolus trilobus. Ipomcea coccinea. 

Bauhinia acuminata. Torenia, sp. 

Pithecolobium didce. Thunbergia alata. 

P. Saman. Deeringia celosiodes. 

Oolocasia antiquorum. 
So that in 1890 there were in the Andamans no fewer than 37 
species occurring spontaneously that had originally been intentionally 
introduced, as against 14 species of this kind in 1866. 

It is necessary to note further that one species, Zea Mays, which 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 247 

Mr. Kurz found occurring spontaneously in 1866, was only seen culti- 
vated in 1889 and 1890. 



B. Weeds or unintentionally introduced species. 
III. Species unintentionally introduced prior to 1866. 



Name of Species. 



Cleome viscosa Linn. 



Saponaria Vaccaria 

Linn. 
Portulaca oleracea 

Linn. 



Portulaca quadrifida 
Linn. 
5 Sidaoarpinifola Linu. 



Oxalis corniculata 
Linn. 

Cardiosperrmvm Hali- 
cacabum Linn. 

Desmodium triflorum 
DG. 

Cassia alata Linn. 

10 Mimosa pudica Linn. 



Bryophyllum calyci- 
nuni Salisb. 



Ludwigia 
Boxb. 



prostrata 



Mukia scabrella Am. 
Dentella repens Forst. 



Remarks. 



Condition in 1866 (Kurz). 



' Cultivated lands, Boss 
Island, introduced and 
rare.' 

' Cultivated lands near Aber 
deen, introduced and rare.' 

' Cleared lands around Aber 
deen, Haddo, on Ross 
Island, etc., introduced.' 

' Cleared lands around Port 
Blair, introduced.' 

' Cleared lands, Aberdeen, 
Ross Island, etc., intro- 
duced.' 

' Cultivated lands around 
Port Blair, introduced 
and rare. 

' Cleared lands around Aber- 
deen, common but intro- 
duced.' 

' Common in cleared lands 
around Port Blair, intro- 
duced.' 

' Hopetown, as wild, but 
evidently introduced.' 

' Cleared lands around Aber 
deen and Phoenix Bay, 
rare, introduced.' 

' On Ross Island, in culti- 
vated lands, rare, and 
evidently introduced.' 

' From Aberdeen to Haddo 
on wet places, appears to 
be introduced with rice.' 
The L. parviflora of Mr. 
Kurz's list. Both sp. are 
now common but Mr. Kurz 
only gathered this one. 

' Aberdeen, cultivated lands, 
rare, introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands on Boss 
Island, around Aberdeen, 
etc., introduced. 



Condition in 1889-90, 



Still rare. 



Not seen in 1889 or 1890. 

Observed at Rangachang 
also, which is almost the 
extreme limit of the Set- 
tlement. 

Much more unusual than 
the preceding. 

Very common all over the 
Settlement. 

Still exceedingly uncom- 
mon ; not seen on Ross 
Island. 



Very common on the drier 
grassy slopes all over the 
Settlement. 

Very common near Hope- 
town, not seen elsewhere. 

Very common throughout 
the whole extent of the 
Settlement. 

Not seen in 1889 or 1890. 



Common in the rice fields 
reclaimed from mangrove 
swamps all over the Settle- 
ment. 



Not uncommon about the 
Settlement. 



248 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 



Name of Species. 



Eemakks. 



Condition in 1866 {Kurt.) 



Condition in 1889-90. 



15 Oldenlandia corym- 
bosa Linn. 
Vernonia cinerea Less. 



Elepliantopna scaber 

Linn. 
Ageratnm conyzoides 

Linn. 



Blnmea amplectens 
DO. 
20 Eclipta alba Hassle. 



Synedrella nodiflora 
Oaertn. 



Centipeda orbicularis 
Lour. 

Heliotropinm indicum 

Linn. 

Cynoglossum micran- 
thnm Desf. 



2 5 Solanum nigrum Linn. 



Solannm torvuni Sw. 

Solanum xanthocar- 
puin Schrad. 

Angelonia salicariae- 
folia H. B. 8f K. 

Mazus rugosus Lour. 

30 Vandellia Crustacea 
Benth. 
Bonnaya veronicas- 
folia Benth. 



1 Cultivated lands around 
Port Blair, introduced.' 

' Common all over the 
cleared lands but only 
introduced.' 

' Boss island in cultivated 
lands, rare, introduced.' 

' Common on cleared 
ground, rapidly penetra- 
ting into the jungles 
whenever a little cleared, 
introduced.' 

' Phoenix Bay, cleared lands 
introduced.' 

'Common on cultivated or 
cleared lands around Port 
Blair, introduced.' 

' Common on cleared lands 
around Hopetown and 
Aberdeen, introduced. ' 
(Blainvillea latifolia Kurz, 
non DC.) ; ' cultivated 
lands, Ross Island, rare, 
introduced ' ; (Spilanthes 
oleracea Kurz, non Linn.). 

' Cultivated lands on Ross 
Island, around Aberdeen, 
etc., introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands around 
Aberdeen, rare and intro- 
duced.' 

' Between Aberdeen and 
Phoenix Bay, I suspect 
introduced only, as I saw 
it nowhere else.' 

' Cultivated lands around 
Aberdeen, rare, intro- 
troduced.' 

' Around Aberdeen, etc. ; 
introduced.' 

' Cleared lands around 
Phoenix Bay and Aber- 
deen ; introduced.' 

' Common in cultivated lands 
on Ross Island ; intro- 
duced.' 

' Cultivated lands around 
Aberdeen ; introduced.' 

' In cultivated lands around 
Port Blair ; introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands around 
Aberdeen ; introduced.' 



A very common species. 



Not seen in 1889 or 1890. 



Common everywhere, but 
possibly indigenous. 



Extremely common every- 
where and in two striking- 
ly distinct conditions ; one, 
the genuine plant, and an- 
other, larger in habit and 
ranker of growth but 
smoother in all its parts, 
strikingly like Blainvillea 
latifolia at first sight. 



Not very common. 



Not seen in November, 11 
found in April, 1890. 



Very common. 

Very common. 
Not at all common. 

Not common. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 249 



Names of Species. 


Remarks. 








Condition in 1866 (Kurz. 


Condition in 1889-90. 


Scoparia dulcis Linn. 


' Comtnon all over tbe 
cleared lands around Port 
Blair and penetrating 
into the jungles ; intro- 
duced.' 




Rungia parvifloraNees 


' Andarnans.' 


On Ross Island, and evi- 


VAR. peotinata Clarke. 




dently introduced, not 
common. 


Lippia nodiflora Rich. 


' Cleared lands all around 
Port Blair, and becoming 
very fleshy along the sea 
shores ; introduced.' 




35 Leucas linifolia 


'Cultivated lands, on Cha- 


Not yet on the mainland or 


Spreng. 


tham Island ; introduced 


on Ross Island appa- 




and still rare.' 


rently. 


Celosiaargentea Linn. 


' Cleared lands around Had- 
do ; rare ; introduced. 


Still rare. 


Amarantus spinosus 


' Cultivated lands around 


Still rare. 


Linn. 


Phoenix Bay ; introduced 
and rare.' 




A. viridis Linn. 


' Rather common in cleared 
lands at Aberdeen, Ross 
Island, Haddo, etc. ; in- 
troduced.' 


Very common. 


Alternantliera sessilis 


' Common in cleared lands 


Common. 


R. Br. 


along roads, etc., at Port 
Blair ; introduced.' 




40 Polygonum barbatum 


' Some shoots of species of 


Common in the ditches 


Linn. 


this genus I observed 
in the cultivated lands 
around Haddo ; evidently 
introduced.' 


about Aberdeen. 


Euphorbia pilulifera 


' Cultivated lands around 




Linn. 


Port Blair ; common ; in- 
troduced. 




E. thymifolia Burm. 


' Along roads, in cultivated 
lands, etc., around Port 
Blair ; introduced.' 




Cyperus polystachyus 


' Cultivated lands between 




Rottb. 


Aberdeen and Navy 
Point ; introduced.' 




C. distans Linn. fil. 


' Ross Island and other sta- 
tions, in pasture ground ; 




% 


introduced.' 




45 C. compressus Linn. 


' Cultivated lands here and 
there around Port Blair ; 
introduced.' 




C. Iria Linn. 


' Rather rare, in wet places 
at Ross Island, etc. ; in- 
troduced.' 


Not now very rare. 


Kyllinga monoce- 


' Cleared lands around Port 


Common ; both type and 


pbala Rottb, 


Blair ; introduced.' 


Var. subtriceps. K. tri- 
ceps of Kurz' list is only 






this latter variety. 



250 D. Prain— The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 



Names of Species. 



Remarks. 



Condition in 1866 (Km-z.) 



Condition in 1889-90. 



Eimbristylis diphylla 
Vahl. 



Paspalum filiculmum 
Nees. 
SO P. scrobicnlatnm Linn 

Eriocliloa annnlata 

Nees. 
Panicum Colonum 

Linn. 

P. oiliare Betss. 



P. sanguinale Linn. 

55 Andropogon pseudo- 
ischasmum Nees. 

A. contortnm Linn. 

Chrysopogon acicula- 

tum Trin. 
Sporobolus diander 

Trin. 
Eleusine indica Oaertn 



60 E. aegyptiaca Pers. 

61 Leptooliloa filiformis 

B. Br. 



' Common all over the 
cleared lands around Port 
Blair ; introdnced.' The 
F. iniliacea of Knrz' list 
is only another state of 
this species and is not F. 
iniliacea of Vahl. 

' On Ross Island; introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands around 

Port Blair ; introduced. 
' On Boss Island; introduced.' 

' South Point, Aberdeen, 
etc., in cultivated lands ; 
introduced.' 

' Common in cultivated 
lands aronnd Port Blair ; 
introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands around 
Pert Blair ; introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands and gar- 
dens at Ross Island ; in- 
troduced.' 

' Only in garden land on 
Ross Island ; introduced.' 

' Common on Chatham 
Island ; introduced.' 

' Common on Chatham 
Island ; introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands every- 
where around Port Blair ; 
introduced.' 

' Cultivated lands on Ross 
Island ; introduced.' 

1 Along the path from Phoe- 
nix Bay to Aberdeen ; 
scarce; introduced.' 



Perhaps indigenous. 



Common. 



Also about Aberdeen. 



Common everywhere. 

Common thronghout the 

Settlement. 
Very common throughout 

the Settlement. 



Common every where 
around Port Blair. 



IV. Species unintentionally introduced between 1866 and 1890. 



Name of Species. 


Remarks. 


Sida rhombifolia Linn. 

Melochia corchorifolia Linn. 
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. 

65 Crotalaria retusa Linn. 


Everywhere throughout the Settlement and 
quite as common as S. carpinifolia is. 

Occasional. 

On Ross Island, and also at Aberdeen, not yet 
very common. 

Not infrequent about Aberdeen, not seen in 
cultivation. 



1890.] D. Praia — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 251 



Names of Species. 



Remarks. 



Smithia sensitiva Linn. 
Desmodiutn polycarpGn DG. 



D. auricomum Grah. 



Alysicarpus vaginalis DC 
70 Cassia occidentals Linn. 
C. Tora Linn. 

Ammannia bacoifera Linn. 
Jussisea suffruticosa Lamb. 

Ludwigia parviflora Roxb. 

75 Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. 

Oldenlandia diffusa Roxb. 
O. crystallina Linn. 



O. paniculata Linn. ; forma 
' minima ' = Hedi/otis minima 
Bni'm. 

Adenostcmma visoosnm Forst. 

80 Blumea glomerata DG. 

Wedelia calendulacea Less. 
Cosmos sulphurous Gav. 



Tridax procumbens Lim 

Crepis japonioa Benth. 
85 Sonchus arvensis Linn. 
Launea nudicaulis Less. 
Ipomoea aqnatica Forsk. 



Solanum ferox Linn. 
S. indicum Lwm. 



90 Physalis minima Linn. 
Striga lutea Lour. 

Sesamum indicum DG. 

33 



Common on. dry grassy slopes at Aberdeen. 

Common at North Bay and on the cleared hill- 
sides above. Not met with by Mr. Kurz, but, 
perhaps, it may be indigenous for it also 
occurs on Great Coco Island and Barren Island. 

Common along with Smithia and with Desmo- 
dium triflorum. It is rather an interesting 
addition to the Flora, for though a mere weed 
this plant has hitherto only been collected in 
Tenasserim, Martaban and Arracan. 

Common on grassy slopes (K.) 

Common (K.). 

Very common everywhere. 

In wet places, not uncommon. 

In wet places, along with the two Ludwigias and 
much more plentiful than either. 

Common in ricefields, but not quite so frequent 
aa L. prostrata. 

Common on stone walls and roadsides all over 
Boss Island, but not yet present on the main- 
land or on the other islands. 

Aberdeen etc., not very common. 

The commonest Oldenlandia on Ross Island, 
The commonest both at Aberdeen and on 
Mt. Harriet is O. corymbosa. 

Common on Ross Island and obtained both by 
the writer in 1889 and by Dr. King in 1890. 

Only met with in one place on a rubbish heap 
Ross Island. 

Common on Ross Island, etc., (K.). 

Ross Island only (K.) 

Very common on hill sides and waste places. 
This the writer was assured had never been 
grown as a garden plant. It forms large 
patches where it occurs, the individual plants 
being 6 to 10 feet in height. 

Common on Ross, not yet common on the 
mainland. 

Introduced at Aberdeen (K.). 

Common in gravel pits on Mt. Harriet. 

Both on Ross and at Aberdeen (K.J. 

In ponds at Aberdeen ; the mode of introduc- 
tion of this species is open to question. It 
may have been introduced by birds, but it 
may equally well have been introduced as 
a weed. 

Very common all over the settlement on drior 
hill sides along with S. torvum. 

Quite as common as the preceding. [<S. nigrum 
and S. xanthocarpum, though introduced be- 
fore 1866, are by no means so frequent] 

Not at all common. 

Common on dry hill sides at Aberdeen, parasi- 
tic on introduced grasses. 

Frequent (K.). 



252 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 





Names of Species. 


Remarks. 




Phaylopsis parviflora Willd, 


Rare, on Ross only (K.). 




Eygi'ophila quadrivalvis Nees. 


Common in wet places along with Jussicea and 
Ludwigia. 


95 


Lippia geminata H. B. K. 


At Namnna ghat (K), rare. 




Hyptis brevipes Poit. 


Common (K.). 




Bcerhaavia repens Linn. 


Not common and not met with by Mr. Kurz ; 
it may, however, be indigenous ; it certainly 
seems to be so on Great Coco Island. 




Aerna lanata .Tuss. 


Not very common. 




Achyranthes aspera Linn. 


Very common in every part of the settlement 
and penetrating into the jungles. 


100 


Phyllanthus urinaria Linn. 


Common on Ross and on Mt. Harriet ; not so 
plentiful at Aberdeen. 




Monochoria vaginalis Presl. 


In ponds at Aberdeen ; perhaps introduced by 
means of wading-birds.* 




Paspalnm distichum Linn. 


Common on Ross and at Hopetown. 




P. pedicellatum Nees. 


Common on Ross, not seen elsewhere. 




Panicum erucseforine Sibth. 


Aberdeen, common. 


105 


P. excurrens Trin. 


By edge of pond at Aberdeen. 




P. longipes W. 8f A. 


On Mt. Harriet. 




P. myosuroides B- Br. 


Very common. 




Imperata cylindrica Kxinth. 


Common everywhere. 




Rottboellia exaltata Linn. 


Common in marshy ground about Aberdeen 
and Haddo. 



* There is another species that has, however, been excluded from this list, be- 
cause neither Dr. King in 1890 nor the writer in 1889 met svith it, to which the same 
remark applies. This species is Barclay a longifolia. The Andamans is first given 
as a locality for this species in King : Materials for a Flora of the Malayan P-eninsula, 
p. 34. The Andamans specimens were obtained by one of Dr. King's garden col- 
lectors in 1884 in a ditch among rice-fields near Haddo. It may be said with some- 
thing like certainty that the species was not there in 1858 ; at all events there was 
no rice-field and no ditch then. And it is almost as certain that it was not present 
in I860, for Mr. Kurz, as his Report shews, gave particular attention to aquatic 
vegetation, yet he did not meet with it. Probably the ditch where Dr. King's 
collector found Barclays, like the pond where the writer found Monochoria and 
Ceratopteris, did not exist at all in 1886. Another circumstance that tends to con- 
firm the idea of the introduction being recent is that it does not appear to be 
present in any of the ditches or ponds examined by the writer in 1889, and Dr. King, 
to whom this fact was particularly mentioned, and who looked for Barclaya with 
especial care in 1890, was equally unsuccessful in his search. It may, therefore, be 
safely presumed to be still quite local. For the appearance of Barclaya, as for 
that of Monochoria, bird-agency at once suggests itself ; introduction by indirect 
human agency is not, however, precluded in either case. Allowing the mode of 
introduction to be a point altogether doubtful, there still remains an interesting 
fact — this species (like Desmodium auricomum) is one hitherto only known from the 
opposite shores of the Andaman Sea. And this fact weakens the evidence from 
other sources as to introduction ; for it is the Burmese, and particularly the Pegu- 
Tenasserim element, that seems to predominate in the indigenous Andaman flora. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 253 



Names of Species. 



Remarks. 



110 Ischaemum rugosum Nees. 
I. ciliare Retz. 
Anthistiria scandens Roxb. 
Chloris barbata Sw. 
Eragrostis unioloides Nees. 



Aberdeen. 

Aberdeen, rather common. 
Aberdeen, very common. 
Ross Island and Aberdeen. 

Very common on Ross Island, not seen at 
Aberdeen. 



115 f Selaginella proniflora Bah. 

w 

I 

§>-{ Cheilanthes tenuifolia Shv. 
"ja, | Ceratopteris thalictroides 
Brogn. 



I 



Very plentiful everywhere on Ross, bnt not 
present either at Aberdeen, Hopetown or 
Viper. 

On gravelly roadsides at Aberdeen. 

In ponds at Aberdeen ; possibly introduced by 
water-birds ; (see note on Monochoria vagin- 
alis.) 



Comparing the state of affairs in 1866 with that prevailing in 1890 
we find that at the former date there were present in the Andamans 61 
weeds of cultivation of which 58 were again met with, either in Novem- 
ber 1889 or in April 1890. But too great weight should not be placed 
on the absence of any plant, since it is quite possible that in visits of 
such short duration as those of the writer and Dr. King species that 
are not very common might easily be overlooked. 

In November 1889 and in April 1890, on the other hand, we find 
that not only were 58, or 95 °/ , of the weeds of 1866, present, but that 56 
others had found their way into the settlement during the interval be- 
tween 1866 and 1890. 

Briefly reviewed the results indicated by these four lists are : — 

1. That in 1866 15 intentionally introduced plants and 61 weeds 
of cultivation had apparently or actually become so established in the 
Andamans that, though not indigenous plants, they had become an 
integral portion of the Andamans flora. 

2. That by 1890 14 more of the plants intentionally introduced 
prior to, but only seen under cultivation in, 1866 had become similarly 
naturalised ; that along with these 9 species, intentionally introduced 
during the interval between 1866 and 1890, had begun to appear spon- 
taneously ; also, that during the same interval 56 more weeds had been 
introduced. 

3. That, on the other hand, a species appearing spontaneously in 
1866 was only seen cultivated in 1890, and that three of the 1866 weeds 
were not met with in 1889 or 1890. 

The subjoined table exhibits the intrusion of the non-indigenous 
element at present existing in the flora of the Andamans. 



254 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 

Table I. Intrusion of non-indigenous Andamans plants. 

Non-indigenous species : — 



Introduced intentionally : — 



I 

Introduced unintentionally : — 



Prior to 188G :— During 1886-90 :— Prior to 1886 :— 



I 



I 



Natura- Natura- 

lised lised Naturalised Seen in 1889 

in 1866 :— in 1890:— in 1890 :— Seen in 1866 :— or 1890 :— 



[(15-1) +14] 
II 
15. 28. 



61. 



(61-3) 

II 
58. 



During 1886-90. 



Seen in 1889 
or 1890:— 



56. 



Total for 1866. 15 + 61 = 76. 

Total for period 1866-90. 14+ 9 + 56 = 79. 
Total for 1890. 28+ 9 + 58 + 56 = 151. 



During his stay in the Andamans in 1866 Mr. Kurz observed 520 
indigenous species. But be has pointed out (Report, p. 19) tbat this 
" is only an approximation to the actual number existing on the is- 
" lands." Since 1866 the number of indigenous species has been raised 
to about 600. Mr. Kurz has recorded tbe number of specie's found 
growing on 100 square yards in a suitable locality in the interior on the 
eastern side of the island and not far from Aberdeen. He shews 
(Report, p. 21) that an estimate based on this record and extended to 
the rest of the islands of the Andaman group gives scarcely more than 
600 or 700 species for the whole. At the same time, he thinks that an 
estimate of the same kind deduced from the conditions that prevail on 
the western side of the island would give quite other results, and, taking 
everything into consideration, he concludes tha,t " the number of really 
" indigenous phsenogamic plants may range between 1500 and 1800 
" species." In all probability the second estimate is too high and per- 
haps a number nearer 1000 will be ultimately found to express the 
actual total of indigenous phanerogams. But the question need not be 
discussed here, and if in the meantime absolute records of the appear- 
ance of non-indigenous species be supplied, the precise proportion of 
introduced to indigenous species at various periods in the history of the 
islands can easily be ascertained when their flora shall have been com- 
pletely investigated. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 255 

But a relative proportion is only less useful than an absolute one 
would be, aud if we take 1000 as a convenient approximation to the 
actual total we may compare the state of affairs in 1866 with that in 
1890. In this case we must confine ourselves to introduced phanero- 
gams only, and exclude the three cryptogams that have been introduced 
during the interval between 1866 and 1890. The following are the 
results : — 

76 
1866. Proportion of introduced to indigenous species = -——or, 1 : 13. 

76 
Percentage of introduced sj>ecies = — — • or, 7'06°/ o . 

146 
1890. Proportion of introduced to indigenous species = — — or, 1 : 7. 

146 
,, Percentage of introduced species = — — or, 12'74%. 

1146 

The greater number of these introduced plants are herbaceous ; but 
the proportion of woody species is slowly increasing, as the following 
figures shew : — 

2 
1866. Proportion of woody to herbaceous species = — or, 1 : 37. 

2 
„ Percentage of woody species = — or, 2 - 63°/ ' 

7 
1890. Proportion of woody to herbaceous species = — - or, 1 : 20. 

7 
„ Percentage of woody species = — - or, 4 - 79%- 

Human agency is responsible for the introduction of the whole of 
this non-indigenous element in the Flora of the Andamans. That it is 
directly responsible for the introduction of such species as have been 
intentionally introduced that have subsequently become spontaneous is 
self-evident ; that it is equally directly responsible for the unintention- 
ally introduced weeds is hardly less plain. They are with very few 
exceptions the commonest of Indian road-side and rice-field weeds 
whose seeds would readily be found mixed with imported grain or 
attached to the belongings of convict immigrants or of the police sepoys 
of the Settlement. This mode of introduction explains not only the 
occurrence of the weeds of dry ground but of the majority of the marsh 
species, such as Hygrophila, Jussicea, Ludwigia, as well. And species 
pf the only class for which this explanation is not altogether satis- 
factory — water-plants like Monoclwria, Geratopteris, or Ipomwa aqua- 
tica — nevertheless owe their introduction indirectly to human agency, 



256 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 

since but for the existence of the Settlement the ditches and pools in 
which they occur would not exist. The agency of winds, so often 
supposed to be highly effective, suggests itself for very few of the 
species, the mo3t probable being the Selaginella and the Gheilanthes, — 
almost the only posssible one among phanerogams being the Oalotropis. 
But if these be wind-introduced species then as regards all three 
the questions at once arise ; — why were they not to be found in 1866 ? 
and, why are they only to be found within the limits of the Settlement 
now ? And as regards Selaginella a closer enquiry makes the agency 
of wind highly improbable, for it is as yet only to be found on Ross 
Island, although there, as it happens, it is exceedingly common. Now 
Ross Island is the part of the Settlement that is in immediate inter- 
course with Burma and India, and unless it has been imported as a weed 
one can hardly explain its absence from the rest of the Settlement 
where the conditions are quite as favourable for its existence as they are 
on Ross. As regards Oalotropis too thei'e is a striking fact to record. 
It happens to be the chief food-plant of a particular species of but- 
terfly — Danais genutia — which is dispersed throughout India and Burma. 
This butterfly was long supposed to be absent from the Andamans, but 
within the past few years it has been sparingly reported thence.* 
It thus seems as if till the establishment of its food-plant in the Settle- 
ment this butterfly was not known from the Andamans. To what 
agency the introduction of Danais genutia itself is due it is foreign to the 
purpose of this paper to enquire, but it is a suggestive fact that once 
the food-plant had become established the buttei^fly appeared. • And the 
absence of the butterfly while there was no evidence of the presence of 
the plant seems presumptive evidence that the plant was not present 
till very recently, and that, therefore, human agency is not merely in- 
directly responsible for its introduction, by providing conditions suitable 
for the survival of wind-conveyed seeds, but is directly responsible, from 
the unintentional conveyance of its seeds along with grain or in some 
other way. For it is long since these suitable conditions have come 
into existence, and wind-agency, if a factor at all, is in these latitudes 
a fairly constant one. 

Human agency being so completely responsible, one might hope 
that the channels of introduction of particular species, which must 
coincide with the routes of traffic between the Settlement and the 
adjacent mainland, could be easily ascertained. But this is far from 
being the case. These traffic routes are : — ■ 

* This information wag offered by Mr. L. de Niceville in the course of a brief 
conversation that followed the reading of this paper at the meeting of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal in April 1890. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 257 



1. Calcutta to Port Blair ; implying introduction from Northern 
India and especially the Gangetic plain. 

2. Port Blair to Rangoon ; implying introduction from Lower 
Burma. 

3. 

India. 

4, 



Port Blair to Madras ; implying introduction from Southern 

implying introduction from Tenas- 



Moulmein to Port Blair 
serim — a route used by native craft. 

5. Port Blair to the Nicobar Islands ; implying introduction from 
these — the Nicobars are a dependency of the Settlement at Port Blair. 

The distribution of the majority of these introduced species is so 
wide that (with the exception of 4 species whose introduction has al- 
most certainly been confined to the Rangoon or the Moulmein route 
and other 4 almost certainly restricted to the Madras or the Calcutta 
route) any one of them may have equally well reached the Settlement 
by any or all of these routes. This is best shewn by a tabular view of 
the species thus introduced. 



Table II. 



Distributional features of the Non-indigenous element in 
the Flora of the Andamans. 





62 






65 






36 

29 












21 
4 
4 




Confined to India or only extending westward 
Confined to Burma and Malaya or only extend- 


Indigenons in the New World, but now cosmopolitan! or nearly so 


19 



It may therefore be concluded that there is a practical indifference 
displayed as regards route ; here, as everywhere else, when man is en- 
gaged in cultivation he involuntarily introduces weeds, and here as else- 
where a certain proportion of the species introduced by him for economic 
or for aesthetic reasons escape and become spontaneous. 

It has been already said that the present Settlement occupies the 
site of an earlier one. This earlier settlement was founded under the 



25g D. Pram — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. [No. 3, 

name of Port Cornwallis by Lieut. Blair* in 1789, in obedience to orders 
issued in September of that year. In November 1792 orders were issued 
for the removal of the Settlement to another and more spacious harbour 
in North Andaman ; to this new settlement the original name Port 
Cornwallis was again applied. It is nowhere distinctly stated, though, 
considering the transfer of name from the old settlement to the new, it 
is highly probable, that old Port Cornwallis was entirely abandoned in 
1792. "We know, however, that in 1796 orders were issued for the re- 
moval of the whole establishment to Penang. The doubtful point, so 
far as our present enquiry is concerned, is the length of time prior to 
the establishment of the present Settlement that its site was exposed to 
influences favourable for the active introduction of non-indigenous 
species. But we know that altogether these influences only existed for 
six seasons and could only have been active during three seasons ; probably 
they only existed at all during these three seasons. The present Settle- 
ment was commenced in March 1858 ; Mr. Kurz visited it during April- 
July 1866 ; to the eight seasons (1858-66) that had passed between the 
foundation of the Settlement and the date of that visit we must therefore 
add three more seasons (1789-92) in order to make up the whole period 
during which the non-indigenous species recorded by Mr. Kurz were 
beino- introduced. Even if the original site was not wholly abandoned 
in 1792 the subsequent seasons (1792-96) may be neglected without 
producing any appreciable error. Assuming, therefore, that a period of 
eleven seasons has been responsible for the naturalisation and introduc- 
tion of the species in the two lists for 1866 we are able to calculate the 
rates of these processes and to compare them with the rates between 
1866 and 1890. These are shewn in the following table : — 



Table III. — Bate c 


/ Introduction of Non-indigenous Sp 


ecies. 


Non-indigenous species na- 
turalised. 


During Period I. 

Prior to 1866 (1789-92 + 

1858-66) =11 seasons. 


During Period II. 

Bet. 1866 & 1890, (1866-90) 

= 24 seasons. 




No. 

of species. 


Bate 
per annum. 


No. 
of species. 


Bate 
per annum. 


Cultivated plants introduced 

during Period I ... 
Cultivated plants introduced 

during Period II 
Weeds of cultivation 


15 
61 


136 
5-54 


14 

9 

56 


058 

0-37 
233 


Totals ... 


76 


6-90 


79 


328 



* The name of the 1789 Settlement having been transferred to the one founded 
in 1792 the present Settlement, which occupies the site of the 1789 one and which 
dates from March 1858, has been named Port Blair in honour of the original 
founder. The name Fort Cornwallis is still used to designate the site of the Settle- 
ment in North Andaman that existed from 1792 to 1796. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 259 

The rate per annum for the second period requires a slight correction 
by the deduction from it of the rate per annum of disappearance of natur- 
alised species. We have seen that one introduced plant occurring. spon- 
taneously in 1866 was only under cultivation in 1889 and 1890 and that 
three of the 1866 weeds were not met with in 1889 or 1890. These 4 
species, therefore, give a disappearance rate of ■£$ = %, or 0'16 species per 
annum, and the corrected rate for Period II is thus 3'28 — 0'16, or 3'12 
species per annum. 

When we find on comparing the two periods that the rate of in- 
troduction in the second is only 3' 12 species, as compared with 6"90 in 
the first, we naturally endeavour to find some explanation of the dis- 
crepancy. But, unfortunately, no very satisfactory explanation offers 
itself. So far as cultivated species are concerned, we are not in a posi- 
tion to compare the 15 naturalised species of 1866 with the 23 similar 
species of 1890, but only with those 9 species that had been both intro- 
duced and naturalised subsequent to 1866. The pi'oportions indicated 
by these two classes being 1'36 : 37 evidences a rate of naturalisation 
per annum 3| times as great for the earlier as for the later period. But 
when the circumstances of the case are considered we are not surprised 
that the difference should be so great ; we are, rather, astonished at its 
being so small. Owing to the abandonment of the 1789 Settlement the 
species that had been introduced while it existed were left to their fate, 
and it would be no more than reasonable to expect that when the new 
Settlement was founded in 1858, and when Mr. Kurz visited it in 1866, 
the majority of the common tropical cultivated species had already be- 
come fairly naturalised. So far, however, was this from being the case 
that we find there were in 1866 only 15 such species naturalised, and 
we are compelled to conclude either, that the oiuginal settlement was 
very ill provided for, or that the species which on a priori grounds we 
might consider likely to hold their own in the struggle for existence in 
an abandoned settlement are really far from being able to do so. Now 
not only is there no ground for supposing that the Settlement was ill- 
provided for, but there is ample proof, from the evidence that exists of a 
direct and extensive reciprocal correspondence between its founders and 
the first Superintendent of the recently established Hon'ble Company's 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta, that the number of species introduced at Port 
Cornwallis was, for a Settlement so young, unusually high. We are com- 
pelled, therefore, to accept the other explanation and to conclude that 
cultivated species are not as a rule able to exist when they have to 
struggle on equal terms with a native jungle. Without mentioning other 
instances, we may refer to the lists of Cucurbitacece and Leguminosce pre- 
sent in 1866 as cultivated plants only, yet in 1890 beginning to occur 
34 



260 D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora, [No. 3, 

spontaneously and appearing likely as time goes on to increase perceptibly 
the numbers of the non-indigenous flora. The greater number of these 
must have certainly been introduced in the 1789-92 period, and many of 
them are such as at first sight suggest for themselves the possibility of 
survival. 

Perhaps, however, it ought not to surprise us greatly that species 
which readily appear spontaneously elsewhere and which are appearing 
spontaneously in the Andamans now, should, if they were px*eviously in- 
troduced, have perished between 1792 and 1858. Most of them are plants 
that, when they do escape from cultivation and appear spontaneously, 
affect such situations as waste places, rubbish heaps, road-sides, hedge- 
rows and margins of clearings, — situations that have at least this in 
common, that they afford their denizens abundance of air and light. 
Many of them too are herbaceous, or at most fruticose, and the native 
jungle as it reinvades the abandoned clearings overshadows them and 
either chokes them completely, or by merely preventing them from 
flowering*, makes their fate only a matter of time. Even trees that seem 
quite naturalised in clearings must soon succumb to the weight of creepers 
that rapidly overload them in a forest. 

If, however, the survival of even a small proportion of the cultivated 
species abandoned in 1792 will suffice to explain the higher rate of na- 
turalisation during Period I, deducible from the figures in Table III 
(Oarica Papaija and Gocos nucifera are excellent examples of such sur- 
vival), there is no similar explanation possible for the higher rate of weed- 
introduction during the same period. A considei*able number must have 
been already introduced by 1792, and, though many doubtless yielded to 
the influences adverse for naturalised cultivated species, weeds are often 
proverbially tenacious of life and a good few, as the notes against them 
show, in place of avoiding the jungle are actually penetrating into it. 
Taken altogether we find that the rate of introduction during the first 
period was 2| times as high as it has been during the second, and the 
most probable explanation of this higher early rate of weed introduction 
appears to be that in the dirty grain of an Indian bazaar seeds of most 
of the commoner Indian weeds are certain to be present. This being 
the case so many weeds become introduced with the very earliest sowings 
of any grain that the subsequent rate of introduction of species can be but 
small. And it is highly probable that for the same reason the rate of weed- 
introduction becomes year by year diminished. Unfortunately it has not 
occurred to any one to make observations on these weeds during the 
interval 1858-66 or 1866-90. And without repeated observations after 
short intervals of time, especially towards the commencement of a 
settlement, it is impossible to test the adequacy of this explanation. 



1890.] D. Prain — The non-indigenous species of the Andaman Flora. 261 

But it is not inqirobable that by the close of another period equal 
in length to the second the annual fall in the rate of introduction and, 
indeed, the annual rate of introduction itself will have become very 
small. 

There is not likely to be the same falling off in the rate of naturalis- 
ation of intentionally introduced species. For, as the Settlement extends, 
localities suitable for the spontaneous appearance of already introduced 
species become year by year more numerous and at the same time the 
number of species capable of naturalisation becomes increased. 

We find on briefly reviewing the results of our enquiry : — 

1. That the total number both of naturalised and of unintentionally 
introduced species constantly increases. 

2. That the rate of naturalisation of intentionally introduced species 
has hitherto been lower than the rate of introduction of unintentionally 
introduced species. 

3. That in both cases the rate has been lower for the second period 
(1866-90) than for the first (prior to 1866). 

4. That this lower rate for the second period is more apparent than 
real, and is probably due as regards naturalised species to the survival of 
some cultivated species left to their fate when the early Settlement 
(1789-92) was abandoned, and as regards weeds to the fact that the 
greater number of common Indian weeds are necessarily introduced with 
the earliest sowings of grain. 

5. That in both cases the rate has now probably become nearly 
uniform, but that while for naturalised species it is steady or even uni- 
formly increasing, for weeds it is probably uniformly decreasing. 

The first three conclusions are borne out by the facts contained in 
the lists of species : the fourth is an expression of opinion, which it is 
unfortunately now impossible either to endorse or to refute as regards 
the Andamans ; it is, however, a question worthy of attention durino- the 
initial stages of any subsequent similar settlement : the last it will be 

easy for some future student of the subject to finally dispose of. 

In concluding, the writer wishes to express his great obligations to 
Col. Cadell, v. c , Chief Commissioner of the Andamans, but for whose 

kind assistance it would have been impossible to collect so many species 

during his short stay at Port Blair; also to Dr. G. King, f. r. s., c. i. e. 

for his kindness in supplementing the collection of 1889 with many 

specimens collected in April 1890. 



262 F. Moore — On some Indian Psychidse. [No. 3, 

XIV. — On some Indian Psychidae. — By F. Moore, F. Z. S. 
[Keceived 30th October ; read 5th November, 1890.] 

Genus Babula (Moore). — Wings short, broad, sparsely covered 
with short very slender brown hair-like scales. Forewing triangular ; 
costal margin slightly arched from the base to near its end, the apex 
rounded, exterior margin oblique ; cell broad, extending to beyond half 
the length of the wing ; costal vein at its base some distance from the 
costal margin ; sub-costal vein angled near end of the cell, five-branch- 
ed, the first and second branches parallel, the first arising at some 
distance and the second at an angle before end of the cell, third branch 
trif urcate at one-fourth beyond end of the cell ; discocellular veinlets 
bent inward at the middle, the radial vein extending from their angle ; 
within the cell are two discoidal veinlets starting from the upper and 
lower end of the second discocellular, these coalescing near middle of 
the cell area and extending to its base ; median vein four-branched, angled 
at its lowest branch, the two upper branches contiguous and starting 
together from end of the cell, the two lower branches wide apart ; sub- 
median vein convexly-angled upward at its middle, and with a short 
outwardly-oblique lower spur starting from one-fourth of its base. 
Hindwing oval, broad ; subcostal vein two-branched, the first branch 
arising before end of the cell ; the cell broad ; upper discocellular vein- 
let angled outward, the radial extending from the angle ; two dis- 
coidal veinlets within the cell starting from the upper and lower end 
of the second discocellular veinlet and coalescing at the middle of the 
cell area ; median vein angled at end of the cell, four-branched, the 
two upper bi'anches starting from angles at end of the cell ; a sub- 
median and two internal veins. Body slender ; abdomen short, slightly 
pilose ; palpi small, pilose ; antennas short, bipectinated, the pectina- 
tions delicately plumose and long at base of the shaft ; legs slender, 
nearly naked, middle and hind tibise with a long appendage. 

Babula grotei (Moore). — Upper and underside uniformly pale 
cupreous-brown. "Wings sparsely covered with short very slender laxly- 
disposed hair-like scales ; cilia long, dense. Expanse of wings x§-th of 
an inch. 

Habitat. Calcutta. (Type in Coll. F. Moore). — The type speci- 
men was reared from larva, found by the late Arthur Grote, near Cal- 
cutta, feeding upon the Babul {Acacia arabica). The larva forms an 
elongated, narrow, cylindrical case about three-fourths of an inch long, 
and uniformly covered with minute granular particles of bark. 

The following are descriptions of two allied genera and species of 



1890.] F. Moore— On some Indian Psychidaa 263 

Psychids — one of which is found in the Calcutta District, the other in 
the N. W. Himalayas. These two forms are as follow : — 

Genus Rasicota (Moore). — Wings sparsely clothed with short 
whitish hair-like scales. Forewing short, narrow, triangular ; costal 
margin arched before the end, apex somewhat acute, exterior margin 
oblique, posterior margin short ; costal vein short ; subcostal vein three- 
branched, second and third starting from end of the cell ; the cell 
narrowest at its upper end ; discocellular veinlets oblique, angled out- 
ward ; radial vein from their angle ; a discoidal veinlet emitted within 
the cell from end of lower discocellular ; median vein four-branched, 
the two upper branches on a foot-stalk from end of the cell ; submedian 
vein with a lower branch from its middle towards the base. Hindwing 
short, apex convex ; subcostal vein two-branched ; radial vein from 
below end of the cell ; discoidal veinlet within the cell from end of 
lower discocellular ; four median branches ; a submedian and an inter- 
nal vein. Body moderately robust, abdomen extending beyond the 
hindwings ; antennas bipectinated, plumose. 

Rasicota albescens (Moore). — Fuliginous-white, wings and body 
sparsely clothed with short whitish hair-like scales ; antennas and anal 
segments fulvous-yellow. Expanse y^-ths of an inch. 

Habitat. Calcutta District (Arthur Qrote). 

This species forms a long, narrow, somewhat naked fusiform silken 
case. 

Genus Moffatia (Moore). — Foreiving long, rather narrow, apex 
somewhat acute, exterior margin oblique, posterior margin short ; costal 
vein stout, distant at the base from the costa and extending two-thirds 
from the base ; subcostal vein slender, scarcely apart from the costal, 
four-branched, the fourth or lower branch extending to a little below 
the apex, the first branch emitted before end of the cell, second branch 
from end of the cell, third branch at half-way between the cell and 
the apex and terminating on the costa above the apical angle ; discoidal 
cell long, reaching two-thirds of the wing', very narrow at the base and 
widening out at the end ; discoidal veinlet within the cell, slender, 
anastomosing with the median vein near its base ; upper and lower 
discocellular veinlets of equal length, bent inward at their juncture ; 
two radial veins, one from the upper end of the discocellulars, the 
other from the angle of their junction ; median vein stout, four-branch- 
ed, the two lower branches extending to near the posterior angle, 
the two upper to middle of the exterior margin and anastomosed at 
their base ; submedian vein long, extending to the angle, recurved, 
with a wide interspace between it and the median vein, and emitting a 
short, straight lower branch at half its length. Hindwing short, trian- 



264 F. Moore — On some Indian Psychidae. 

gular ; costal margin convex, apex acute, exterior margin convex ; 
costal vein slender, subcostal reaching to the apex ; cell broad ; discoi- 
dal veinlet slender, straight, emitted within the cell from lower angle 
of the upper discocellular veinlet and extending to base of the cell ; 
a radial veinlet emitted from upper angle of the discocellular and ter- 
minating below the apex, lower discocellular oblique, straight ; median 
vein long, three-branched, the branches at equal distance ; submedian 
vein and internal veins long, extending to the margin. Antenna? broad- 
ly bipectinated, the branches plumose to the tip ; thorax thick, round, 
plumose ; head and palpi inconspicuous, hidden in dense plumose hairs ; 
abdomen very long, extensile and mobile, densely covered with long 
plumose hairs, and ending in a naked point which is either concealed 
by the long hairs extending like a tail beyond the abdomen, or exposed, 
the plumose hairs parting and curling outwards and upwards ; legs 
nearly naked ; forelegs very long, tibia with a long spur ; first joint of 
tarsus as long as all the rest ; middle legs shorter ; hindlegs shortest 
and more slender. 

MOFrATiA plumicauda (Moore).— Wings hyaline, fuliginous, very 
spai'sely covered with minute hair-like scales, not sufficiently numerous 
to detract from the perfectly vitreous appearance of the wings ; costal 
margins and the cilia fuliginous-black ; veins distinct and black. An- 
tennae black, bipectinated, the branches plumose to the tip; thorax and 
head covered with dense black plumose hairs ; abdomen of a reddish- 
yellow where naked, but appearing densely black from the long black 
plumose-hairs which cover it ; anal point naked or concealed by long 
plumose-hairs like a tail, the hairs parting and curling outward and 
upward ; legs black. Expanse 1 inch. 

Habitat. Upper Kunawar, N, W. Himalaya. (In Coll. Col, A. M. 
Lang and F. Moore). — "Larval case fusiform, about \\ inch in length, 
formed of tough silk covered with short sticks of dry grass. The larva 
feeds with the three anterior segments protruded from the portable case. 
The pupa before emergence of imago inverts its position within the case, 
and the imago emerges from the upper pointed end, the lower, blunter 
end is closed by a film of silk firmly attached to some rock. The imago 
is observed basking on rocks, and flies off, when disturbed, with very 
rapid and devious flight, more like a wasp or bee than a moth. It is 
seen flying from morning till 4 p. M., chiefly on cliffs, from end of Octo- 
ber and November." (Lang's MS., notes.) 



1890.] E. Y. Watson— Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Madras. 265 

XV. — A new Species of Diptera in the Collections of the Indian Museum— 
Dilophus Graciosus, N. Sp. — By J. M. F. Bigot. 

[Received 31st October; read 5th November, 1890.] 

Long, c? = 2 millim. ? =2f millim. 

d 1 . Omnino nigro nitente, halteribus nigris; alis albidis, stigmate 
parvo, nigro. 

Entitlement d'un noir luisant ; balanciers noirs ; ailes blanchatres ; 
stigmate petit, noir. 

$ . PuXva. Gapite, antennis, palpis, haustello, spinos thoracis, 
halteribus, scutello, dorso segmentis, abdominis tibiis, tarsis, femoribus 
posticis, apice, nigris ; alis pallidissime fusco tinctis, stigmate nigro, 
magno. 

D'un fauve rougeatre ; la tete, les antennes, les palpes, la pipette, les 
epines du prothoras et du tergum, les balanciers, quelques macules 
sur les flancs au dessous des ailes, les tibise, les tarses, l'extremite des 
femurs posterieui'S, le tout, d'un beau noir; les ailes, presqu'hyalines 
tres legerement teintees d'un roussatre tout pale, stigmate grand et noir. 

In copula 1. $ . 1 $ . 

Dharmsala, Indes, Major Sage. 



XVI. — Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Madras. — By Lieut. E. Y. 
Watson. {Communicated by E. Thurston, Esq.) 

[Received July 9th :— Read 5th November 1890.] 

The following list of Madras Butterflies is compiled from a collec- 
tion made between March and the middle of August, 1889. The total 
number of species obtained is only 74 ; but there is no doubt that, if 
the observations had been extended throughout the entire year, this 
number would be increased by at least twenty additional ones. For 
the first three months of this period there was little or no rain ; but 
from the 1st June till the middle of August the rain, though never 
very heavy, was more or less continuous, comparatively few days pass- 
ing without at least a slight shower. It will be noticed that only the 
typical wet-season forms of Mycalesis mineus, Melanitis leda, and Junonia 
asterie were met with. Presumably the corresponding dry-season forms 
would be met with fyom November till February. 



266 E. Y. Watson — Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Madras. [No. 3, 
Family NYMPHALIBvE. 

Sub-family EuPLffiiNiE. 

1. Danais limniace, Cramer. March to August ; very common. 

2. ,, septentrionis, Butler. Juue, July ; occurs occasionally 

with the preceding. 

3. „ chrysippus, Linn. March to August ; very common. 

4. ,, genutia, Cramer. March to August ; very common. 

5. Euploea core, Cramer. March to July ; very common. 

6. ,, coreoides, Moore. June and July; a few specimens 

only. 

Sub-family Satyein.33. 

7. Mycalesis mineus, Linn. April and June, 10th August ocel- 

lated form only. 

8. Melanitis leda, Linn. August ; not common. Form ismene 

not met with. 

Sub-family Acrjsin^!. 

9. Telchinia violce, Fabr. March to August ; very common. 

Sub-family Nymphalin.e. 

10. Ergolis ariadne, Linn. July, August ; not common. 

11. Atella phalantha, Drury. April to August ; Very common. 

12. Precis ipliita, Cramer. May to August ; very common. 

13. Junonia almana, Linn. The ocellated form, J. asterie, occurs 

commonly from March to August. 

14. „ lemonias, Linn. March to September ; very common. 

15. „ hierta, Fabricius. March, June, and August ; fairly 

common. 

16. „ orithyia, Linn. March, May and August ; fairly 

common. 

17. Neptis varmana, Moore. April to August; not uncommon. 

18. Hypolimnas bolina, Linn. March to August ; very common. 

19. „ misippus, Linn. March, April, July and August; 

not so common as H. bolina. 

20. Cyrameis cardui, Linn, One specimen obtained in October, 

1888. 

21. Cliaraxes fabrius, Fabricius. One specimen obtained in April. 

Family LYGM^IBM. 

22. Curetis tlietis, Drury. June and July ; not common. 

23. Chilades laius^ Cramer. April to August : very common. 



1890.] E. Y. Watson— Preliminary List of the Butter-flies of Madras. 267 

24. Zizera gaiha, Trimen. Only observed in May, but probably 

common. 

25. ,, otis, Fabricius. April to August ; very common. 

26. ,, lysimon, Hiibner. April to August : very common. 

27. Tarucus plinius, Fabricius. May to July ; fairly common. 

28. Castalius rosimon, Fabricius. May : a few specimens only. 

29. Everes argiades, Pallas. Only a single male obtained in May. 

30. Gatochrysops strabo, Fabricius. May ; very common. 

31. ;, corejtis, Fabricius. April and May ; very common 

32. ,, coniracta, Butler, July ; very common. Possibly 

a form of the preceding, but the male is easily 
distinguished by its smaller size, and brighter 
colours. 

33. „ pandava, Horsneld. July and August ; very 

common. 

34. Polyommatus baiticus, Linn. May ; not common. 

35. Lampides celianus, Fabricius. April to July ; common. 

36. Bathinda amas, Fabricius. A single specimen in July. 

37. Dendorix epijarbas, Moore. A single specimen obtained by 

the Museum collector in July. 

38. Bapala melampus, Cramer. May and July ; not common. 

39. Viracliola isocrates, Fabricius. A single specimen in July. 

40. Aphnaius elima, Moore. A single specimen in June. 

Family PAPILIONILVE. 
Sub-family Piekinjs. 

41. Leptosia xiphia, Fabricius. March to August ; very common. 

42. Terias hecabe, Linn. Typical. May and June ; common. 

,, ,, form hecabeoides. June and July ; common. 

,, ,, ,, msiope. May to July. The commonest of 

the three forms. 

43. ,, venata, Moore. A single pair in July. 

44. Catopsilia catilla, Cramer. March to August ; very common. 

45. „ crocale, Cramer. May to August ; very common. 

46. „ gnoma, Fabricius. July, August ; not common. 

47. ,, pyranthe, Fabricius. May to August ; very common. 

48. Ixias pyrene, Linn. April to August ; very common. 

49. ,> marianne, Linn. Of this two varieties occur. The 

first, which is near to I. meridionalis, occurs com- 
monly from April to August ; and the second, 
which is close to I. depulpoora, occurs appai'ently 
only in July and August. 
35 



268 E. Y. Watson — Preliminary List of the Butterflies of Madras. [No. 3, 

50. Teracolus eucharis, Fabricius. Common from April to August. 

The specimens obtained from June to August are 
referable to T. pseudevanthe, Butler. 

51. „ dance, Fabricius. May to August ; very common. 

52. ,, amata, Fabricius. April to July ; very common. 

53. Catophaga lankapura, Moore. July and August. The speci- 

mens obtained seems referable to this species. The 
females differ greatly in the depth of the yellow 
colouration of the underside. 

54. Appias libythea, Fabricius. May to August ; not uncommon. 

55. Huphina phryne, Fabricius. April to August ; very common. 

56. Belenois mesentina, Cramer. March to August ; very common. 

57. Delias eucharis, Drury. July and August. 

Sub-family Papilionin^;. 

58. Papilio dissimilis, Linn. Two specimens in May. 

59. „ panape, Linn. A single specimen in May. Approach- 

es F. dravidarum. 

60. ,, hector, Linn. June to September ; very common. 

61. ,, aristolochice, Fabricius. March to Juue ; not very 

common. 

62. „ erithronius, Cramer. March to August ; very common. 

63. „ polxjtes, Linn. March to August ; common. All 

three forms of female occur. 

64. „ polymnestor, Cramer. Three specimens in June. 

05. ,, agamemnon, Linn. March to August. The com- 

monest Madras Papilio. 

Family HESPERIID^J. 

66. Badamia exclamationis. Fabricius, June to August ; common. 

67. Parata chromus, Cramer. June to August ; common. 

68. Chapra matliias, Fabricius. April and May ; probably com- 

mon, but only a few specimens obtained. 

69. Pamara guttata, Bremer. Two specimens of the form bada 

obtaiued in July. 

70. Suastns gremius, Fabricius. June to August ; common. 

71. Telicota bambnsce,'Moore. April to August ; common. 

72. Ampittia maro, Fabricius. A single female in July. 

73. Taractrocera mcevius, Fabricius. A single specimen in Sep- 

tember. 

74. Astictopterus salsala, Moore. A few specimens of the form 

stellifer in June and July. 
In addition to the species recorded in the above list the Madras 
Museum collection contains the following species captured within the 






1890.] J. H. T. Walsh— A new Trap-door Spider from Orissa. 269 

limits of the city of Madras: — Curetis plicedrus, Fabricius ; Hebomoia 
glaucippe, Linn ; Nepheronia fraterna, Moore (form ceylonica) ; Gomalia 
albofasciata, Moore; JJdaspes folus, Cramer, and TLesperia, galba, Fa- 
bricius. 

XVII. — A new Trap-door Spider from Orissa. — By Surgeon J. H. Tull 

Walsh, I. M. &'. 

[Received Oct. 27 th :— Read 5th November, 1890.] 
MYGALID^E. 

Adelontchu, n. g. 

Adelonycliia nigrostriata, ? , n. sp. — At present the following de- 
scription will be that of the genus also. The spider, which I think is 
not full grown, measures 10 mm. The falces are reddish-brown in colour 
with long fangs which act vertically. Pedipalpi of medium length, 
the terminal joint furnished with a black pad of strong hairs. Eyes : 
anterior and central pairs large and of a blackish-brown colour, the hind 
centrals and hind-externals small and pearly white. Cephalothorax 
reddish-brown above, whitish yellow below ; fovea transverse with eight 
dark, shallow grooves radiating from it. The cephalothorax is markedly 
convex in front between the two anterior dark markings and slightly 
convex over the remaining part. Abdomen oval, truncated in front and 
more convex on the upper than on the under surface. The ground 
colour above is greenish-grey with a central black stripe and seven 
well mai'ked black lateral striae directed downwards and slightly back- 
wards from the central line. The entire tipper surface of the abdomen 
is covered with fine light-coloured hairs. Under surface of abdomen 
dull grey, the four lung sacs visible as small whitish spots ; two pairs of 
whitish spinnerets. Legs: relative length 4, 1, 2, 3, pale reddish yellow 
above, almost white below. Tarsi without hooks (?) but terminatino- 
in brush-like black pads. Falces, pedipalpi and legs thickly covered 
with strong blackish-brown bristle-like hairs. 

On the 19th January of this year I was out looking for ants in the 
forest near Khurda and while digging round the roots of a Banyan tree 
I turned up a tube with a lid which I at once recognised as the home 
of a trap-door spider of the " cork nest " class. I had unfortunately 
cut obliquely through the tube, but the lid and hinge were intact. 
Having found one tube I began to dig carefully round the tree, and was 
successful in finding an almost perfect specimen with the spider inside. 
The trowel cut through the extreme lower end of the tube and dis- 
closed the spider who made no attempt to escape downwards but cluno- 
tenaciously to the under surface of the lid. In order to enclose the 
spider and complete the tube, I went down to a neighbouring tank and 



270 J. H. T. Walsh— A new Trap-door Spider from Orissa. [No. 3, 1890.] 

covered the cut end with mud. Although I continued to dig for some 
time in the neighbourhood I did not find any more specimens, and 
shortly afterwards was obliged to leave Khurda and return to my head- 
quarters, taking with me the two nests and the captive spider. The 
situation of these nests is worthy of notice. They were in a cool 
sheltered spot which, as the tree would be a favourite resort for insects, 
no doubt formed an excellent hunting-ground for the spiders. The 
ground in which the tubes were found was sloping and bare. The 
sjnder found in the second nest was kept alive until the 8th of February 
and fed on flies, small beetles etc., but although I watched very carefully 
I never saw her come out of her nest and failed even to surprise her 
at night. All these spiders are shy and nocturnal in their habits, and 
there is no doubt that she did come out, as the bodies of flies placed 
close to the door of the nest at night were always found to be sucked 
dry in the morning. On one occasion I lifted the door and propped it 
half open with the body of a spider ; during the night the body was 
removed and the lid closed down. Once or twice when I endeavoured 
to raise the lid of the nest the spider strenuously opposed me by cling- 
ing to the undersurface ; at other times I was able to raise the lid and 
then the spicier retreated to the bottom of her tube and never made any 
attempt to escape. "When I wanted to remove the spider to put her 
into spirit I was obliged to stir her up with a straw before she would 
bolt. She rushed out and ran down on to the floor, but stayed there 
crouching close down to the matting and was evidently much dazzled 
by the bright sunlight. 

The larger tube measured 30 mm. by 16 mm. at the opening and 20 
mm. at the widest part near the lower extremity. The whole inner 
surface was lined with a tough whitish brown fibrous membrane. The 
hinge was of the same material and covered about one-third of the 
edge of the lid. The diameter of the lid on the upper surface was 
about 20 mm., and this surface was covered with earth of exactly the 
same colour as the surrounding ground, making discovery almost im- 
possible except by accident. The under surface of the lid was strongly 
convex and covered with tough web similar to that lining the tube. 
The greatest thickness of the lid was in the centre, gradually decreasing 
towards the margin which was thin and fitted tightly over the aperture 
of the tube. 

The tube in which the living spider was found was much smaller 
than the one just described, and as I wished to preserve the specimen 
intact, I did not make any measurements. There can, I think, be no 
doubt that both tubes belonged to the same species, and Moggeridge 
distinctly states {Trap-door Spiders, pp. 123, 127, Ed. 1873) that as the 
spiders increase in size they enlarge their dwellings accordingly. 




CONTENTS 

OF THE NATURAL HISTORY PART (PT. II.) OF THE 

JOURNAL OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL FOR 1889. 



No. 1, (issued May 21st, 1889). A new Species and Genus of 
Coccidae. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. (With Plate I.)— On the Species 
of Thelyphonus inhabiting Continental India, Burma, and the Malay 
Peninsula. — By Eugene W. Oates, P. Z. S. Communicated by The 
Superintendent op the Indian Museum. (With Plate II.) — Notes on 
Indian Rhynchota ; Heteroptera, No. 5. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A.— 
On certain Earthworms from the Western Himalayas and Behra Bun. — 
By Alfred Gibes Bourne, D. Sc. (Lond.), 0. M. Z. S., P. L. S., Fellow 
of University College, Bondon, and Madras University. Communicated by 
The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate III.) — Notes 
on Assam Butterflies. — By William Doherty, Cincinnati, U. S. A. 
Communicated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With 
Plate X.) 

No. 2, (issued September 3rd, 1889). The Tornadoes and Hailstorms 
of April and May 1888 in the Boab and Bohilhhand.' — By S. A. Hill, 
B. Sc, Meteorological Beporter to the Government of the N.-W. Provinces 
and Oudh. (With 6 Charts — Plates IV. — IX.) The Geometric Inter- 
pretation of Mange's Bifferential Equation of all Conies. — By Asutosh 
Mukhopadhyay, M. A., P. R. A. S., P. R. S. E. Bescription of a Stag's 
Head allied to Cervus dybowskii, Tac, procured from the Barjeeling 
Bazaar. — By W. L. Sclater, Beputy Superintendent of the Indian Mu- 
seum. (With Plate XI.) — On the Volatility of some of the compounds of 
Mercury and of the metal itself.— By Alex. Pedler. — Some applications 
of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean Values, {First Paper) . — By 
Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., F. R. A. S., P. R. S. E. (With a 
Wood-cut). — Some applications of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean 
Values (Second Paper). — By Asutosh Mukhopadhyay, M. A., P. R. A. S., 
P. R. S. E. — A Bescriptive Bist of the Uredinese, occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood of Simla (Western Himalayas). Part II. Puccinia. — By A. 
Barclay, M. B., Bengal Medical Service. (With Plates XII. — XIV.) — 
Befinitions of three new Homoptera. — By M. L. Lethierry. Communi- 
cated by E. T. Atkinson, Esq. — Notice of a Neolithic Celt from Jashpur 
in the Chota Nagpur Bistrict. — By J. Wood- Mason, Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, and Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College of Bengal, Calcutta. (With Plate XV.) 



No. 3, (issued November 7th, 1889). Novicise Indicse I. Some 
additional species of Pedicularis. — By D. Prain. Communicated by Dr. 
G. King, F. R. S. — Natural History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Marine 
Survey Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., 
D. S. 0., commanding. — No. 10. List of the Pleuronectidse obtained in 
the Bay of Bengal in 1888 and 1889, with descriptions of new and rare 
species. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B., (Aber.), Surgeon-Naturalist to the 
Marine Survey. (With Plates XVI., XVII., and XVIII.)— Natural 
History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Survey Steamer 'Investigator,' Com- 
mander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., D. S. O., commanding. — No. 12. 
Descriptions of some new and rare species of Fishes from the Bay of Bengal, 
obtained during the season of 1888-89. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B., 
(Aber.), Surgeon-Naturalist to the Marine Survey, (With Plate XXII.) — 
The Ethiopian and Oriental Representatives of the Mantodean Sub-family 
Vatidas. — By J. Wood-Mason, Superintendent of the Indian Museum, and 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical College of Bengal, 
Calcutta. 

No. 4, (issued December 27th, 1889). On, the Tortoises described as 
Chaibassia. — By R. Ltdekker, B. A., P. G. S. — E'tude sur les Arachnides 
de V Himalaya recueillis par MM. Oldham et Wood-Mason et faisant partie 
des collections de V Indian Museum. Ire Partie. Par E. Simon. Communi- 
cated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. — Notes on Indian 
Rotifers— By H. H. Anderson, B. A. (With Plates XIX.— XXI.) 
Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. — By George -King, 
M. B., LL. D., P. R. S., P. L. S., Superintendent of the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta. — On certain Lycsenidse from Lower Tenasserim. — By 
William Dohertt, Cincinnati, U. S. A. Communicated by The Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum. Communicated by The Superinten- 
dent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate XXIII). 



<J NEW SERIES. VOL. LIX. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



-SSS^_»- 




ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 

Vol. LIX, Part II, No. IV. -1890. 

EDITED BY 
W. L. SCLATER, 




" The bounds of its investigation will be the geographical limits of Asia : and 
within these limits its inquiries will be extended to whatever is performed by 
man or produced by nature." — Sir William Jones. 

* # * Communications should be sent under cover to the Secretaries, Asiat. Soc, 
to whom all orders for the work are to be addressed in India ; or, in Lon~ 
don, care of Messrs. Trubner and Co., 57 8f 59, Ludgate Bill, 



CALCUTTA: 

J^RINTED AT THE pAPTIST /llSSION J^ESS, 

AND PUBLISHED BY THE 

^SIATIC ^SOCIETY, 57, J^AKK J3TREET. 




1891. 




Price (exclusive of postage) to Subscribers, Be. 1-8-0. To .Non-Subscribers, 

Bs. 2-0-0 Price in England, 3 Shillings. 

Issued 14th March, 1891. 



CONTENTS. 



XVIII. — Natural History notes from H. M.'s I. M. Survey Steamer 
" Investigator," Commander R. P. Hosktn, R. N., Command- 
ing. — No. 17. A List of Diamond Island Plants.' — By D. 
Prain 

XIX. — Novicise Indicse. III. Some additional species of Labiatse. 
—By D. Prain 



Page 



271 



294 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 

Part II.— NATURAL SCIENCE. 
No. IV.— 1890. 



XVIII. — Natural History Notes from H. ilf.'s I. M. Survey Steamer 
" Investigator, " Commander R. F. Hoseyn, R. N., Commanding — 
No. 17. A List of Diamond Island Plants. — By D. Peain. 
[Received and read— 7th May 1890.] 

§ Ikteoductoey. 

Diamond Island is a small lozenge-shaped islet off the Arracan 
coast. It is situated at the mouth of the Bassein River, in Long. 94° 
18' E. and Lat. 15° 51' N\, about 5 miles from Pagoda Point, 8 from 
Cape Negrais, and 9 or 10 from the lighthouse on Algunda reef. Its 
length is somewhat under a mile and a half, and it is about three quar- 
ters of a mile wide. The N". B. and S. W. corners which terminate its 
longer axis rise rather abi'uptly from the sea. Except, however, at the 
extreme eastern end its shore all round is rather bluff and rises rapidly 
to what is rather a central small plateau than a ridge, the general level 
of this central portion being about sixty feet above the sea. There are 
three small breaks, however, in the sea- face ; a little water-channel, dry 
in November, opens to the north ; another, with a very little water in 
November, opens to the south ; a third, somewhat larger and quite near 
to the last, has at one time found its way to the sea through the small 
patch of flat land on the east, but a bund having been thrown across its 
course, about 100 yards from the sea, its channel has been converted into 
a tank about 150 yards long and 40 wide. 
36 



272 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4j 

The island is said never to have been occupied by the Burmese, and 
lias evidently been originally densely wooded. 

The greater part of it is indeed densely wooded still, but a corner 
has been completely cleared between tbe watercourse tbat has been 
converted into a tank and the watercourse that passes soutb. On the 
cleared high ground between these two streams stands a telegraph office 
with a house for the telegraph-master attached ; a little way off are 
servants' quarters. The clearing has been extended across this latter 
stream for a short distance, so as to provide a site for a shelter-hut for 
Bassein pilots while they await vessels bound for that port. Between 
the tank-bund and the sea, but nearer to the tank and close to its over- 
flow, stand two Burmese huts occupied by collectors of turtles' eggs ; 
between these huts and the beach is situated a small European grave- 
yard. At the outlet of the other streamlet and opposite tbe safest 
lauding place is a boat shed ; from this point eastward for about 400 
yards — along the sea-view of the telegraph-office, in fact — the jungle 
lias been cleared away down to the beach. Everywhere else tbe jungle 
along the sea-face of the island remains intact. A plantain garden and 
a paddock of considerable size have been cleared on the central plateau 
behind the telegraph-office ; elsewhere the jungle remains untouched ; 
altogether between two-thirds and three-fourths of the suifaceof the island 
has not been interfered with. The beach itself consists of deep soft sand 
in wbich the streamlets disappear before they reach the sea ; at low tide, 
however, long reefs, extending south and west of the island proper for half 
a mile or more, are laid bare. On the east side, where the telegraph cable 
lands, no reefs appear ; at the north-west corner they do, but only ex- 
tend seaward for 50 or 60 yards. The reefs consist of the same sand- 
stone that forms the Arracan Yomah and that appears again first in the 
Andaman, and afterwards in the Nicobar group of islands; they are 
altogether without coral. 

The reefs and pools between them are remarkably destitute of 
marine vegetation, Padina pavonia and Caulerpa clavifera being the 
principal species, and both being in very small quantity. Not only are 
there very few growing Algae, but very few are washed ashore ; these 
consist chiefly of a small green Sargasso,. Tbe absence of the submarine 
meadows of marine Hydrocliaridw, so characteristic of the otherwise 
similar pools among the coral-encrusted reefs of the Great Coco, is very 
striking. There is no mangrove belt on any part of the shore, unless it 
be considered as represented by some small patches of Avicennia offici- 
nalis on the reefs about 30 paces from the beach ; the individual plants 
send their roots along the seams between the layers of sandstone for 
considerable distances, and these give off rootlets that rise vertically 



1890.] D. Brain—- 4 List of Diamond Island Plants. 273 

through the sand and mud, exposing to the water of the sea at high tide, 
to the air and the sun at low tide, from 6 inches to a foot of a structure 
as thick as the little finger and of the consistence of solah pith. The 
jungle along the south and east sides of the island commences at the 
edge of the sandy beach, the roots of the trees being washed by the 
waves at very high tides ; the trees that grow at this line are Thespesia 
populnea, Pongamia glabra, Erythrina indica, Terminalia Catappa, Stephe- 
gyne diversifolia, and Ficus Bumphii. Bast of the cleared part in front 
of the telegraph office and round as far as the graveyard, are a number 
of large Tamarind trees ; it is not improbable that these have been 
planted. One specimen of Terminalia Catappa growing close beside the 
boat house differed from all the others in being in flower. There is no 
doubt that this particular tree is T. Catappa, and there is hardly a doubt 
that it is an introduced tree. But that the others (and it is a plentiful 
species in Diamond Island) which were all, like those on the coast 
near Port Blair in the Andamans, and like those seen a week later on 
Table Island and the Great Coco, in almost ripe fruit in November and 
December, are quite wild and indigenous in the island scarcely admits 
of a doubt.* Underneath these trees along the south side occur Hibiscus 
tiliaceus, not plentifully, however, and, especially towards the south- we ;t 
angle of the island, Desmodium umbellatum. On the west side of the 
island, which is the most weather-beaten side, the trees are not so tall, 
and they are fewer in number, though all these species except Pongamia 
appear. But close to the beach we find there is a dense hedge-like mass 
of Desmodium umbellatum, Tabemaemontana crispa, Premna integrifolia 
and Clerodendron inerme, with here and there some bushes of Vitex 
Negundo. All these species occur on the north side of the island also, 
and at the extreme north-east corner there is a considerable patch of 
Quettarda speciosa. All round the island Canavalia ensiformis is plenti- 
ful ; it is associated on the western sea-face with Pueraria phaseoloides, 
Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea digitata ; the last named species is 
common also in the interior. On the south side a form of Capparis 
sepiaria, the most plentiful of the interior climbers, comes to the verv 
outer limit of the jungle all along ; it is here and there accompanied by 
Colubrina asiatica. There are several patches of Ipomoea biloba on the 
beach, but the species is not so common as it usually is in such situa- 
tions ; and Ipomoea dentimdata, which has no t been generally believed 
to occur so far north, is many times more plentiful. Near the mouths 
of all three streamlets, and also at the almost bare south-western corner 
of the island, there are considerable patches of Cyperus pennatus. The 
cleared space near the telegraph-office is mainly covered by a short turf 

# As regards Great Coco Island a doubt on the point is impossible. 



274 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

in which Eleusine indica is the only grass that appears in tufts ; behind 
the boat house is a tangled patch of Colubrina asiatica and Caesalpinia 
Bonducella ; on the road leading from the boat house to the telegraph 
office is a quantity of Ipomoea denticulata, at the back of the office a 
large patch of Adenostemma viscosum, between the office and the servants' 
quarters a large patch of Ocimum oasilicum, lower down and near the 
tank two or three extensive patches of Cassia alata. Vernonia cinerea is 
very common all over the older clearing', but Ageratum conyzoides, 
usually such a common weed, is quite rare as yet. Urena lobata is com- 
mon towards the edge of the clearing nearest the jungle, but is less com- 
mon than Melochia corchorifolia is ; the latter is also the commonest 
weed in the newer cleai'ing in the centre of the Island. Scoparia dtdcis 
is plentiful in both the old clearing and the new, but the common Sidas 
are conspicuous by their absence. The wet soil near the edge of the 
tank is covered with broad patches of Euphorbia thymifolia ; associated 
with it is Vandellia Crustacea which is, however, less plentiful : nearer 
the tank still, or even growing in the shallow water at the eastern end, 
are Splienoclea zeylanica, Hydrolea zeylanica, Limnophila conferta, Scir- 
pus articulatus and Geratopteris tlialictr aides, all very profuse. In the tank 
itself grows Nympliaea Lotus, but not very commonly ; the red form is 
not present* ; Nympliaea stellata too is absent ; Nelumbium speciosum, 
however, is there. Perhaps the most interesting water plant present is 
Limnanthemum parvifolmm, only known previously from the transgan- 
getic peninsula through a gathering in Chittagong by Hooker and 
Thomson and one in Tavoy by Wallich. The present gathering thus 
comes in midway between these two and perhaps indicates that the 
species only requires to be looked for in order to be found elsewhere in 
lower Burma. Besides the Tamarinds already referred to, there are 
near the houses of the Burmans some trees of Moringa pterygosperma 
that have evidently been introduced ; in the same situation there are 
also a few Coco-nut trees and some Plantains. In the central clearing 
the teleoraph master shewed me what he imagined to be Mangosteen 
trees belonging to him ; the trees are, however, not trees of Garcinia man- 
qostana but of Garcinia cornea. He had, beside these, some trees of 
Citrus medica and G. Aurantium not doing very well ; there were close by 
also some trees of each of the species Myristica glauca, Artocarpus 
Chaplaslia and Antiaris toxicaria, all either planted or preserved when the 
clearing was made ; the present telegraph-master, who has been there 
many years, says they have been there since before his time. In his plan- 
tain warden, where he has some of the finest fruit-giving varieties and all 

* In Great Coco Island it is only the red variety of N. Lotus that occurs in its 
small lake. 



1890.] D. Fvain—A List of Diamond Island Plants. 275 

bearing well, there are the ordinary tropical vegetables ; the only one that 
is noticeable from our present point of view is the bird's-eye chillie 
(Capsicum minimum) which here, as in the Andamans and in Great 
Coco Island, has spread itself everywhere about the clearing and is even 
penetrating into the adjacent jungle. In front of the telegraph-office 
there are two rows of very weather-beaten Coco-nut trees of which only 
14 are now left ; probably if planted or sown along the edge of the beach 
they would have done much better ; there is not at present, it may be 
remarked, a single Coco-nut tree in this situation anywhere round the 
island. 

The commonest tree throughout the island is Bombast malabaricum, 
and next to it in point of numbers is Albizzia procera ; towards the 
western end of the central table-land the latter is the more plentiful 
species, those trees at the extreme edge being stunted and weather-worn. 
Among the other trees and shrubs observed were Ghailletia gelonioides 
(vei'y abundant on the south side of the island,) Gonnarus gibbosns, 
Ellipanthus sterciiliaefolius, Onestis ramiflora (also very abundant on the 
southern slope of the island,) Lagerstrcemia Flos-Reginae (a common 
tree on the Eastern part of the island,) Ixora rugiilosa, Pavetta indica, 
Psyclwtria adenophijlla, Ehretia laevis, Heterophragma adenopliyllum (not 
uncommon,) Bridelia tomentosa and Flueggia microcarpa (both frequent,) 
Ficus Tiispida (not frequent,) Macaranga Tanarius (the only Macaranga 
present and common on the south side of the island.) A common and 
very striking undershrub is Leea parallela; in the opener ground on 
the western weather-beaten side Osbechia chinensis, Vernonia cinerea and 
Anisomeles ovata are common herbs ; along the water course leading to 
the north side of the island Adiantum lanulatum occurs, not frequently, 
however, and it does not appear to be anywhere else on the island ; 
the only other ferns met with were the water-fern Geratopteris, and a 
climbing species, Lyg odium flexuosum. Quite as striking as the absence 
of ferns is the absence of any species of Selaginella ; still more striking, 
perhaps, considering the proximity of the island to Burma, is the 
absence of Bamboos. 

In the interior the climbers met with were Oyclea peltata (frequent,) 
Abrus precatorius (exceedingly common,) Mucuna monosperma, Entada 
scandens, Luffa mgyptiaca (only on the western side and, like the Gap- 
paris and like Ipomoea digitata, spreading over the sea-face as well as 
common in the interior jungle.) Willughbeia edulis (only met with 
once,) Ichnocar pus frutescens and Dregea volubilis (both common,) Erycibe 
paniculata (spreading over adjacent species, but hardly a climber,) 
Thunbergia laurifolia very common, as are Dioscorea glabra and 8 mil ax 
macrophylla ; a Calamus (C. tigriwus Kurz ?) forms a great part of the 



276 D. Prain— A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

interior jungle; Scindapsus officinalis is very common everywhere in the 
interior and coast zones alike and is the principal epiphyte. Not a 
single orchid was seen anywhere in the island. A few Fungi were 
found growing on dead wood ; the season of the visit was apparently 
unsuitable for terrestrial species. 

The visit of H. M.'s I. M. Survey Steamer "Investigator", in 
November 1889, to leave a survey-party is not the first scientific visit 
that has been paid to this island. Almost exactly one hundred years 
before it was visited by Captain Kyd and Lieut. Colebrooke* who in 
December 1789 determined its position, both absolutely and in relation 
to the adjacent headland on the Arracan coast. It is not probable that 
botanical collection engaged the attention of these officers ; but during 
another visit by a scientific party (April 1866) in H. M's. I. M. S. S. 
" Prince Arthur " Mr. Kurz, who was on board, landed and collected a few 
specimens. Mr. Kurz makes a very interesting remark on this visit 
which is worth repeating here : — " I had only a few minutes stay at 
" Diamond Island in Pegu, but I was struck, when afterwards coming 
" to the Andamans, by the similarity, nay rather identity, of the shore 
" vegetation. "t The present collection is itself the result of only a few 
hours' work, and is larger than it otherwise could have been, owing to 
the help given by Dr. Alcock, Surgeon-Naturalist of the " Investigator," 
who devoted the time during which the state of the tide prevented him 
from being on the reefs to assisting the writer in obtaining specimens of 
plants. The 95 species that it includes form it is true only a part of 
what the island would yield to any one whose stay there could ' be pro- 
longed ; but it is hardly too much to assume that they are fairly re- 
presentative of the flora of this island. And as its geographical position 
and geological structure both point to it as the first stepping-stone in 
the series of islands connecting Arracan with Sumatra (through the 
Andamans and Nicobars) the nature of the flora seems worthy of investi- 
gation. 

The following is the method of presentation adopted: — 

1. A list of the plants collected is given ; any interesting feature 
as regards a particular species is noted where it seems necessary to do 
so, and in every case the dissemination of the species is adverted to. 

2. A tabular view of the distribution of the species is presented, 

* Asiatic Eesearches, Vol. IV, p. 317 ; the date of this visit was 14th December 
1789. 

f Report on the Vegetation of the Andaman Islands, (1870) p. 15. Mr. Kurz uses 
the word Pegu in an extended sense which means all Lower Burma ; Diamond Island 
belongs to Arracan, not to Pegu proper ; Mr. Kurz's remark itself will be discussed 
further on. 



1890.] D. Prain— A List of Diamond Island Plants. 277 

the distribution within transgangfctic India beino; sub-divided as fol- 
lows : — a. Arracan, Chittagong, Assam ; b. Pegu, Tenassei'im, Malay 
Peninsula; c. Andamans (including Coco Islands,) Nicobars, Sumatra 
and Java. This is necessary for a proper understanding of the peculiar 
features of the flora of the island which forms (or at any rate is an ex- 
cellent representative of) the area wherein these three lines of distribu- 
tion meet and in which their species intermix. 

3. An analysis in terms of the preceding sections is undertaken 
and the arithmetical values of the various relationships computed. 

§ §. List op the Plants collected in Diamond Island. 
MENISPERMACE^. 

1. Cyclea peltata Hook. F. and Thorns. Common. 

NYMPH^ACE/E. 

2. N7M?HiEA Lotus Linn. In the only tank, uncommon ; the red 
form is not present. 

3. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. In the tank. 

CAPPARIDE^E. 

4. Capparts sepiaria Linn. var. grandifolia Kurz (MSS. in Herb. 
Calcutta) ; forma ramis foliisque glabris, foliis floribus et fructu quam in 
formis varietatum aliarum mulfco majoribus. Distrib. Table Island 
and Great Coco Island, (ipse) ; South Andaman, (Kurz). In Madura 
Island and in Bali, (Teysmann in Herb. Calcutta). In Timor and in 
Cochin-China (as Mr. Hemsley informs me) occur forms that connect 
this very distinct looking- form with the typical plants. Branches oreen ; 
leaves regularly elliptic, retuse ; petioles 05 — 0"7 cm. long ; laminse 6 — 10 
cm. long by 4 — 5 cm. broad, quite glabrous both above and below, or 
with a few scattered hairs, that soon disappear, on young leaves beneath • 
flowers 15 mm. in diam. ; pedicels 18 mm. long ; gynophore 8 mm. long • 
fruit 12 mm. in diam. (in Java specimens) to 14 mm. (in Diamond 
Island ones). 

In the ordinary Indian plant, which also occurs without any con- 
siderable variation in Burma and in Perak, as well as in the S. Indian 
variety (incanescens) and in the Ceylon variety (retusella), the mea- 
surements are ; petiole - 2 — 04 cm., lamina 2 — 3 cm. long by 15 2 

cm. broad ; flowers 7 — 12 mm. in diam., pedicels 16 mm. long ; gyno- 
phore 5 — 6 mm. long ; fruit 7 — 8 mm. in diameter. 

Except, however, in the greater size of all its parts— most notable 
as regards the anthers — which in var. grandifolia more than thrice exceed 



278 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

those in any of the other varieties — this plant differs in no essential 
character from ft sepiaria, Wall. ; the ovary as in the type is glabrous, 
ovoid and pointed, the fruit is spherical and black. It is an extensive 
climber and in the interior jungle is one of the commonest species ; 
it also extends into and covers the shrubby species of the coast zone. 

GUTTIFER^E 

5. Garcinia cornea Linn. In the telegraph-house garden, cul- 
tivated. 

MALVACEAE. 

6. Urena lobata Linn. Clearing behind telegraph-office. 

7. Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn. Coast plant, south side of Island. 

8. Thespesia populnea Corr. Coast ; very frequent all round the 
Island. 

9. Bombax malabaricdm DC. The commonest tree in the Island. 

STERCULIACE^. 

10. Melochia corchorifolia Linn. Very common in the central 
clearing. 

RUTACEJ3. 

11. Citrus medica Linn. In the telegraph-house garden and else- 
where ; planted. 

CHAILLETIACEJ3. 

12. Chailletia oelonioides Hook. f. Very abundant on the south 
side of the Island. 

RHAMNACEJ3. 

13. Colubrina asiatica Brongn. One large bush beside the boat- 
house, and here and there throughout the Island. 

AMPELIDE^E. 

14. Leea parallela Wall. Very common throughout the Island. 

MORINGACE^E. 

15. Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. Some trees near the huts 
of Burmans, between the tank and the sea. 

CONNARACEiE. 

16. Connarus gibbosus Wall. In the interior jungle. 

17. Cnestis ramiflora Griff. Very abundant towards south side 
of Island. 

18. Ellipanthus sterculi^folius Prain. Coast zone, south side. 



1890. J D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 279 

LEGrUMINOS^E. 

19. Desmobium umbellatum DO. Shore species ; frequent, especi- 
ally on the west and north sides of the Island. 

20. Abrus precatorius Linn. Very frequent everywhere in the 
Island. 

21. Ertthrina indica Lamk. A purely coast species here, as it 
also is in the Andamans and in Great Coco island. In the Great Coco 
it is, however, rather uncommon : a striking contrast with the conditions 
in Diamond Island where this tree forms an almost unbroken ring round 
the coast. 

22. Mucuna monospermy DC. Very common in the interior 
jungle. 

23. Pueraria phaseoloides Benth. Common on the western sea- 
face of the Island, climbing over bushes of Taberncemontana crispa and 
creeping in the grass at the bare south-western corner of the Island. 

24. Canavalia ensiformis DC. A climber all round the coast, 
especially common on west and north sides of the island ; not met with 
in the interior. 

25. Pongamia olabra Vent. Frequent in the line of trees imme- 
diately behind the sandy beach. 

26. Cesalpinia Bonducella Ham. A thicket behind the boat- 
house. 

27. Cassia alata Linn. Two or three large thickets between the 
telegraph-office and the tank. 

28. TamarinduS indica Linn. Several large trees behind the 
beach, between the telegraph-office and the graveyard. 

29. Entada scandens Benth. Common all over the island. 

30. Albizzia procera Benth. A common tree, especially in the 
western half of the island ; those trees exposed to the S. W. monsoon 
are gnarled and dwarfed and weather-beaten. 

COMBRETACE^E. 

31. Terminaua Catappa Linn. Frequent in the beach ring of 
trees. One tree overhanging the boat-house, and probably an intro- 
duced one, was in flower in November ; the others were all, as they were 
in South Andaman and in the Great Coco, in fruit. 

MELASTOMACE^. 

32. Osbeckia chinensis Linn. ; C. B. Clarke in F. B. I. Frequent 
in the bare grassy slope at the south- western corner of the Island. The 
form present in Diamond Island differs from typical 0. chinensis some- 
what in size and form of leaves and calyx ; in these specimens, leaves 

37 



280 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

7 cm. : 3 cm., ovate, acute, base subcordate ; inflated ovai'y 6 mm. : 4 
mm.; tubular neck of calyx 4 mm. long: 3 mm. diam. at junction of 
inflated and tubular portions and 5 mm. diam. at moutb. The speci- 
mens of this gathering precisely accord with specimens collected by 
Kurz in Arracan ; they agree as to calyx with specimens collected by 
R. Scott in Pegu ; as to leaves they resemble specimens collected on 
Parasnath and in Chutia Nagpur by T. Thomson, by Kurz, and by J. J. 
Wood. 

LYTHRACE^E. 

33. Lagerstrcemia Flos-Regi:n.e Retz. A common tree in the 
eastern part of the Island and to the north of the tank. 

CUCURBITACE^]. 

34. Luffa jigyptiaca Mill. Not infrequent on the western side of 
the Island. 

RUBIACE.E. 

35. Stephegtne diversifolia Hook. f. Frequent in and immedi- 
ately behind the coast zone. 

36. Guettarda SPECI03A Linn. Common on the north coast of the 
Island ; this appears to be the first occasion on which the species has 
been collected so far north as Arracan. 

37. Ixora RUGOSULA Wall. Frequent in the interior ; previously 
only known from Pegu and Tenasserim ; now, therefore, from Arracan 
also. 

38. Pavetta indica Linn. Common in the iuterior. 

39. Pstchotria adenophtlla Wall. Common in the interior. 

COMPOSITE. 

40. Veenonta cinerea Less. Waste ground about telegraph- 
office ; also on bare ground at the south-western corner of the Island. 

41. Adenostemma vioCOSUM Forst. var. parviflora Hook. f. Be- 
hind the boat-house. 

42. Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Only a few plants seen near the 
side of the tank. 

GOODENOVIEJ3. 

43. Scevola Kcenigii, Vahl. On the west and north shores ; 
common. 

CAMPANULACE^E. 

44. Sphenoclea zeylanica Gsertn. At the margin of- the tank 
eastern end ; profuse. 



1890.] D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 281 

APOCYNE^E. 

45. WiLLUGHBEiA EDCLis Roxb. In the interior jungle, only once 
met with. 

46. Tabernjemontana crispa Roxb. Very abundant on the west 
and somewhat less frequent on the north shore. A distinct northern 
extension to the distribution of this species which has been hitherto 
known from the Andamans and the Nicobars only. Follicles 3-keeled, 
green, 2'75 cm. long, 1 cm. anteroposterior, 0'75 cm. lateral diams., 
sessile avicular (beak slender recurved 6 mm. long) semicircular (ven- 
trally convex, dorsum straight or very slightly concave), when opened 
flat 2 "25 cm. across ; endocarp brilliant scarlet. 

47. Icitnocarpus frutescens P. Pr. Extensive climber ; frequent 
in the interior. Flowers sweet smelling ; corolla here pure white, not 
purple. 

ASCLEPIADACE.E. 

48. Dregea volubilis Penth. In the interior jungle ; frequent. 

GENTLANACE^E. 

49. Limnanthemum PARViEOLiUM Griseb. Plentiful near the west- 
ern end of the tank and the only species present. A species with, so 
far as is known, a somewhat detached distribution.* It is plentiful in 
the western Deccan and in Ceylon. This gathering is intermediate as 
to situation between that of Hooker and Thomson (Chittagong) and 
that of Wallich (Tavoy) — the only two previous gatherings recorded 
from the Trans-gangetic Peninsula • perhaps it indicates that it would be 
oftener found if particularly looked for. J 

HYDROPHYLLACE^E. 

50. Htdrolea zeylanica Vahl. Swampy ground at west end of 
tank : plentiful. 

BOBAGINACEtE. 

51. Ehretia LiEvis Roxb. Common; all the specimens from this 
locality are absolutely glabrous ; there is no indumentum or any trace of 
such, even on young branches, on young leaves, or on the youngest flower- 
buds. 

* Another species with a similarly detached distribution is L. aurcmtiacum Dalz., 
a common species in the western Deccan and Ceylon (from Bombay southwards), 
and hitherto supposed to be confined te this area. Excellent specimens have, how- 
ever, been sent (14th December 1889) by H. T. Peter, Esq., from Narayangunge near 
Dacca, and identified by Dr. G. King, f. r, s. 



282 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

CONVOLVULACE^E. 

52. Erycibe panicdlata Roxb. var. peguensis, Clarke. A small 
subscandent wide-spreading tree ; leaves elliptic cuneately acuminate ; 
at both ends secondary nerves scarcely visible beneatb with dense pan- 
cles, wbite flowers and rusty-tomentose shoots. The present locality 
stands intermediate between those hitherto recorded for the variety — 
Chittagong (Hooker,) and Moulmein (several collectors). 

53. IposiiEA GRANDIFLORA Lamk. Very common, climbing amongst 
the Coast species on the western and northern sides of the Island, and 
also for a little way amongst the adjacent inland species. 

54. I. dtgitata Linn. Common with the preceding on the western 
side of the Island. 

55. I. denticulata Choisy. By the side of the stream between 
the boat-house and the pilots' house, beside the path from the boat-house 
to the telegraph-office, along the cleared slope between the telegraph- 
office and the sea, and again at the north-east corner of the Island, al- 
ways plentiful. The distribution of this species, so far as was known in 
1883, was (P. B. I. iv, 208) " Malay Peninsula ; from Mergui south- 
" wards. Ceylon; near the sea at Galle. Nicobars," its further dis- 
tribution being " Malaya, Australia, Polynesia, Seychelles." But it is 
now known to extend further up the Bay. It occurs in the Andamans, 
is exceedingly plentiful on the Great Coco, was collected by Kurz at 
Kobah on the shores of S. Burma during his latest journey, is very 
plentiful here in Diamond Island, and was collected by Kurz at Akyab 
which is still further north. In the Great Coco a curious feature in this 
species and the next is their habitat. This species converts raised 
coral " shingle " beaches into purple meadows ; on this shingle not a 
single plant of I. bilooa is to be met with ; flat crescentic stretches of 
level sand at the heads of bays are completely covered with I. biloba 
and not a plant of I. denticulata is to be seen. Whenever a little cleared 
patch of soil occurs near the sea the two sjaecies appear in it plentifully 
side by side. 

56. I. BILOBA Porsk. Sand-beaches on north and west side of 
island, not plentiful. Also with the preceding species between the 
boat-house and the telegraph-office. 

SOLANACE^E. 

57. Capsicum minimum Roxb. In the telegraph-master's garden, 
cultivated ; but also all over the central clearing, spontaneous. 

SCROPULARIACEYE. 

58. LiMnophila conferta Benth. ; Hook. f. In marshy ground 
along with Hijdrolea. 



1890.] D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 283 

59. Vandellia ceustacba Benth. On wet banks of the tank at 
west side. 

60. Scoparia dulcis Linn. In cleared space behind telegraph- 



office. 



BIGNONIACB^J. 



61. HeterOPHEAGMA adenopryllum Seem. Frequent in the in- 
terior. 

ACANTHACE^. 

62. Thunbergia laurifolia Lindley. Common. 

VERBENACE^E. 

63. Premna integrifolia R. Br. Littoral species ; common. 

64. Vitex Negundo Linn. Leaves mostly 4-pinnate. On the sea- 
shore of north side of Island, but only in two places. 

65. Clerodendron inerme Gaertn. Very common on the coast 
here, and also throughout the whole of the Andaman group. 

66. Avicennia officinalis Linn. On the sandstone reefs, but 
only in two or three places, to the south and west sides of the Island. 

LABIATES. 

67. Ocimum Basilicum Linn. Waste ground behind servants' 
quarters of telegraph-office buildings. This is only Ocimum that has 
here become spontaneous. In South Andaman the true Tulsi (0. sanc- 
tum) is the one that has become naturalised ; in the Laccadiye group it 
is the Sam-tulsi (0. gratissimum) that occurs as if wild. 

68. Anisomeles ovata R. Br. Here and there in opener parts of 
the interior and plentiful on the bare part at the south-west corner of 
the Island ; not in the cleared space near the telegraph-office. 

MYRISTIOACEiE. 

69. Mtristica glauca Blume. Only one (female) tree seen, near 
the Garcinia. 

EUPHORBIACE^}. 

70. Euphorbia thtmifolia Burm. On wet banks of the tank, 
plentiful ; seeds red. 

71. Bridelia tomentosa Blume. Plentiful ; absolutely glabrous 
in every part and in this respect quite like specimens collected by Kurz 
in Pegu. 

72. Elueggia microcarpa Blume. A small tree ; common in the 
interior. 



284 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

73. Macaranga Tanarius Muell.-Arg. Plentiful on the south 
side of the Island. This locality is a very distinct extension northwards 
for the distribution of this species which has been hitherto known only 
from South Andaman, Nicobars, Perak and Malacca. Dr. King has veiy 
kindly verified this determination for me. 

URTICACEJ3. 

74. Artocarpus Ceaplasha Roxb. Only once seen, near the Qar- 
cinia and Myristica. 

75. Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. Only once seen ; the tree is close 
beside the preceding and is said by the Burmans (turtle-collectors) to 
be the only one on the Island ; it may have been planted, but it ia 
difficult to suppose by whom. 

76. Ficus Rumphii Blume. Littoral ; a very large tree, common- 
est on the south side, but plentiful all round the Island. 

77. F. hispida Linn. f. In the interior, not very common. 

SCITAMINE^J. 

78. Musa sapientum Linn. Planted in the telegraph-master's 
garden. 

DIOSCOREACE^E. 

79. Dioscorea glabra Roxb. Common. 

LILIACE^E. 

80. Smilax macrophtlla Roxb. With Calamus and Dioscorea 
forms much of the interior jungle. 

PALMEJE. 

81. Calamus tigrinus Kurz ? Very plentiful ; not in fruit. 

82. Cocos nucifera Linn. Planted only ; a double row contain- 
ing 14 trees in front of the telegraph- office and a few others near the 
Burmans' huts. 

AROIDE^E. 

83. Scindapsus officinalis Schott. Epiphyte common in the 
coast zone and the interior also. 

CTPERACE^E. 

84. Ctperus pennatus Lamk. On all bare places round the coast 
whether grassy or rocky ; also in mud beside the tank outlet and on 
the banks of the water-course beside the boat-house. 



1890.] 



D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 



285 



85. Scirpus articulatus Linn. In the shallow water at west end 
of tank. 

GRAMINE^]. 

86. Eleusinb indica Geertn. Tufts of this grass occur along the 
path from the shore to the telegraph-office. 

FILICES. 

87. Adiantum lunulatum Burm. Only along the water-course 
on the north side of the Island. 

88. Ceratopteris thalictroides Brongn. Common at the west 
end of the tank. 

89. Ltgodium flexuosum Sw. Common in the interior. 

FUNGI* 

90. Hexagonia similis Berk. On dead wood ; interior. 

91. Hirneola polttricha Mont. On dead wood : interior. 

92. Stereum CYATH1FORME Fries. On dead wood : interior. 

93. Poltporus occidentals Berk. On dead wood : interior. 

AhGM. 

94. Padina pavonia Gaill. On sandstone reefs. 

95. Caulerpa clavifera Agardh. On sandstone reefs. 

§§§ Distribution of the Species observed in Diamond Island. 













Name of Species. 


B. Special. 


A. General. 


Trans- 

gangetic. 


Cis-gan- 
getic. 


o 
m 

s 

-A 


£3 

3 


a 

'o 

- 


n 

-P 

m 

pi 


A 

< 


a 

o 

C3 

-5 


a 

So 

Pi 


0. 
OS 

a 


A 


a 

o 

a 


o 
X 


X 

o 
X 


D 

X 


X 

o 

X 


X 
X 
X 

X 

o 

X 
X 


Cyclea peltata 
Nymphaea Lotus 
Nelnmbium speciosum 
Capparis sepiaria 

var. grandifolia 
Garcinia cornea 
Urena lobata 


X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 

X 
X 


X 

X 
X 


X 
X 
X 

X 
X 


X 

X 
o 

X 



* Mr. Masses, through the good offices of Mr. Hemsley, f. r. s., has very kindly 
supplied the names of these Fungi. 



286 



D, Pram — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 



[No. 4, 















B. Special. 


A. UENERAL. 














Trans. 


Cis- 


gan- 




Names of Species. 


gangetic. 


ge 


;ic. 






_c3 


c* 








A 






c3 




'm 


JZ 






a 




3 




. 




a 


IB 

a 


re 


2 




03 

o 


60 


a 




o 


S 




*o 


c 


X 




i-t 


0) 


fl 


(3 


a> 


«i 


< 


* 


<i 


< 




< 


P-, 


< 


O 


X 


X 


X 


x 


X 


Hibiscus tiliaceus .. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Thespesia popnlnea 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Bombax malabaricum 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


+ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Melochia corcborifolia 


X 


X 


+ 


X 


X 


X 


■ 


X 


X 


X 


Citrus medica 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


- 


X 


Chailletia gelonioides 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


X 


Colubrina asiatica ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


- 


- 


- 


X 


Leea parallela ... ... 


X 


X 


— 


— 


- 


— 


x 


- 


- 


X 


Moringa pterygosperma 


it 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Connarus gibbosns ... 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Cnestis ramiflora 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 


X 


Ellipanthus sterculisefolius 


X 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


X 


■ 


- 


+ 


Desm odium umbellatum ... ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Abrus precatorius .. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


X 


— 


X 


Erytbrina indica 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Mucuna monosperma 


X 


X 


— 


X 


X 


— 


- 


- 


- 


X 


Pueraria phaseoloides 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


X 


x 


A 


X 


X 


Canavalia ensiformis 


X 


X 


X 


X 


+ 


— 


X 


X 


+ 


+ 


Pongamia glabra ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Csesalpinia Bonducella 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Cassia alata 


X 


X 


X 


l — 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Tamarindus indica ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Entada scaudens 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Albizzia procera 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


X 


Terminalia Catappa 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


X 


Osbeckia chinensis ... ... 


X 


X 


_ 


X 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 


X 


Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginse 


X 


X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Luff a aegyptiaca 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


- 


— 


- 


X 


Stephegyne diversifolia 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Guettarda speciosa ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Ixora rugulosa 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


X 


Pavetta indica 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


- 


- 


- 


- 


X 


Psychotria adenophylla 


X 


X 


X 


- 


= 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Vernonia cinerea ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


■■ 


X 


Adenostemma viscosum 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Ageratum conyzoides 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


X 


X 


X 


Scaevola Koenigii 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


+ 


X 


Splienoclea zeylanica ... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Willuglibeia edulis ... 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


X 


Tabemsemontaua crispa 


X 


— 


X 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 


X 


X 


Ichnocarpus frutescens 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Dregea volubilis 


X 


— 


— 


X 


X 


* rr 


— 


— 


— 


X 


Limnanthemum parvifolinm 


X 


X 


— 


X 


X 



1890.] 



D. Pram — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 



287 



A. General. 





£ 


s 


o 




^3 


^ 










«h 


o 




< 


Ph 


< 



Names of Species. 



x'x 



x 
x 
x 

x 
x 

X 

x x 
x x 

X X 



x Hydrolea zeylanica... 
' Ehretia lcevis 

Ei-ycibe paniculata ... 

var peguensis 

Ipomoea grandiflora... 

I. digitata 

I. denticulata 

I. biloba 

Capsicum minimum 

Limnophila conferta 

Vandellia Crustacea 

Seoparia dulcis 

Heteropbragma adenophyllum 

Thunbergia laurifolia 

Premna integrifolia 

Vitex Negundo 

Clerodendron inerme 

Avicennia officinalis 

Oeimum Basilicum ... 

Anisorneles ovata ... 

Myristica glauca 

Euphorbia thymifolia 

Bridelia tomentosa 

Flueggia niicrocarpa 

Macaranga Tanarius 

Artocarpus Chaplasha 

Antiaris toxicaria .. .. 

Ficus RumpMi 

P. bispida 

Musa sapientum 

Dioscorea glabra ... .. 

Smilax macropbylla... 
Calamus tigrinus ? ... 
Cocos nucifera 
Scindapsus officinalis 
Cyperus pennatus ... 
Scirpus articulatus... 
! Eleusine indica 
Adiantum hmnlatum 
Ceratopteris tbalictroides 
Lygodium flexuosum 
Hexagonia similis ... 
Hirneola polymelia 
Stereum cyatbiforme 
Polyporus occidentalis 
Padina pavonia 
Caulerpa clavifera ... 



B. Special. 



Trans- 
gangetic. 



Cis-gan- 
getic. 



x 

X 

X 

x 
x 
x 
x 

X 
X 

x 
x 
x 
x 
x 

X 
X 

X 

x 
x 

X 
X 
X 



38 



288 



D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 



[Sfo. 4, 



Examining first the general distribution of the Flora we find 
Ihat, of the 95 species, 36 are species cosmopolitan in the tropics, while, on 
the other hand, no fewer than 38 are confined to Asia. Of the remain- 
ing 21, whose distribution is confined within the old world but extends 
beyond the limits of Asia,, only four occur in Australia, Polynesia and 
Africa as well as in Asia ; two occur in Asia, Australia and Polynesia ; 
four in Asia, Australia and Africa ; and three in Asia, Polynesia and 
Africa. Six are confined to Asia and Australia, two to Asia and Africa, 
one to Asia and Polynesia. The following table shews this more clearly, 
and at the same time indicates the relationships that subsist between 
the distributional features of the species and, on the one hand, their 
habitat, on the other, their habit. 

Table I. Relationship of General Distribution to Habit and Habitat. 



Habit. 










H 


ABITAT. 
















■i 


Distributional 


u 
o 




p. 


p\ 




6 


CD 








CO 

0.' 


rC 






1 
- 

:; 

S 


Featoees. 


Co -+_> 

3 p. 
o 




a 

"3 
i—i 


m 
U 


w 
o 

o 


43 

P. 


o 




O 

H 


32 


\ 
4 


5 


18 


5 


Cosmopolitan in the Tro- j 




























pics ... ... ... I 5 


8 


5 


3 


5 




4 


2 


32 


1 






1 




Almost ditto : absent from 1 




























Australia ... ... 








1 










1 


6 


2 


1 


2 


1 1 Throughout Tropics of Old 
World 








1 


4 






1 


6 


2 




2 




In Asia, Australia and 




























Polynesia 






1 




1 








2 


4 




2 


1 


1 


In Asia, Australia and 
Africa 






3 




1 








4 


2 




1 


l'.,.|ln Asia, Polynesia and 




























Africa 




1 














2 


7 


2 


■1 


2 


lj In Asia and Australia ... 






is 


1 










7 


1 


1 






...1 In Asia and Polynesia ... 










i 








I 


3 


1 




2 


.. 1 In Asia and Africa 


l 

















3 


37 


13 


10 


3 


111 Confined to Asia 


4 




23 


2 


7 


i 






37 


5 


23 


23 


30 


19| Totals 


10 


9 


3b 


10 


20 


i 


4 


3 


95 



There is no progressive feature in the general distribution of the 
species ; while the highest number of any of the classes is that of 
species confined to Asia, the next highest is that of species cosmopolitan 
in the tropics. The cosmopolitan or nearly cosmopolitan species 
are however, to a large extent cultivated plants and weeds of 
waste places or marshes. In the case of the species confined to Asia 



, 



1890.] 



D. Pram — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 



289 



the proportion of forest species to the whole is 30 : 37, or 81 per cent, 
whereas in the case of the cosmopolitan and almost cosmopolitan species 
the proportion of forest species to the whole is 10 : 39, or 25f per cent, 
only. 

To complete the account of the distribution of these species it is 
necessary to examine their special distribution throughout South- 
eastern Asia. From this it is possible to compute the relationships of 
the Diamond Island flora to those of the three adjacent areas Arracan- 
Assam, Pegu-Malaya, Andainans-Nicobars respectively. 

We find that 77 species are in distribution both Cis-gangetic (i. e., 
are present in India, or in Ceylon, or both) and Trans-gangetic (i. e., 
are present in some or all of the three areas whose influences meet in 
Diamond island). The remaining 17 species are Trans-gangetic only. 
So that as regards the composition of the Diamond Island flora the 
Indo-Chinese influence bears to the Indian a proportion of 95 : 77 (or 
very nearly of 9 : 7) ; in other words the Indo-Chinese influence is -|--§-, 
or just under 19 per cent, stronger than the Indian. The details of 
this distribution are more compactly given in the subjoined table. 



Table II. Distribution of the Diamond Island species in S. E. Asia. 
Species both Cis-gangetic and Trans-gangetic ;— 77 



Common to all the districts , 56 

Absent from a Cis-gangetic district ; — 7 



Absent from Ceylon only . 6 

Absent from India only {Ipomcea denticulata)... 1 



Absent from Trans-gangetic districts; — . 



10 



Absent from Andamans-Nicobars only 8 

Absent from Pegu-Malaya only (Vitex Ne- 

gundo) 1 

[This sp. is only represented in Arracan 

by the Diamond I. gathering] : 
Absent from both Andaman and Pegu (Bre- 

gea volubilis) 1 



Absent both from a Cis-gangetic and a Trans-gangetic dis- 
trict ; 

[These sp. are all absent at once from the Andamans 
and from Cejdon]. 



Species Trans-gangetic only : — 

Common to the three Trans-gangetic districts : 



10 



Distributed throughout Arracan- Assam dis- 
trict ... 7 

Represented in Arracan by the Diamond I. 
gathering only ... 3 



18 



Carried over ... 



95 



290 D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 

Bronght forward 
Absent from the Andaman-Nicobar district only ; 5 

Distributed throughout Arracan-Assam dis- 
trict 3 

Eepresented in Arracan by the Diamond I. 
gathering only 2 



;no. 4, 

... 95 



Absent from the Pegu-Malaya district only 2 

[These sp. are both represented in Arracan by the Dia- 
mond I. gathering only.] 
Present only in Diamond Island (Ellipanthus sterculicefolius) 1 



Total 



95 



The following' remarks on this table may not be out of place. The 
absence at once from the Andamans and from Ceylon of certain species 
is at first sight good negative evidence of a statement made by Mr. 
Kurz (I. c. p. 15) concerning the Andamans ; — " A few Ceylon species 
" indicate some relationship between the Andamans and that island." 
But it is unwise to believe that a thing does not exist because it has 
not been seen, and it is, as regards the Andamans at least, no evidence 
because these species have not yet been met with yet that they do not 
occur there. The positive evidence from the species that occurs in 
Ceylon and is very frequent all along the Andamans group (Ipomcea- 
denticulata) but that nevertheless is absent from the western or Indian 
shore of the Sea of Bengal is also without value. The curious but 
constant feature as regards its habitat already remarked on, may ex- 
plain its absence from the long line of sand-dunes that stretches from 
the Coromandel Coast up to Orissa. At the same time, it must not be 
supposed that Mr. Kurz'a remark has been based on facts that are as 
easily explained as these are.* 

In order to provide a basis for the computation of the relative value 
of the Arracan, Pegu, and Andaman influences in the composition of 
the Diamond Island flora, it is necessary to tabulate further the facts of 
distribution so far as these three districts alone are concerned. 



* The writer has himself to add an instance quite as striking as any of those 
that were met with by Mr. Kurz. In November 1889 he collected on Mount 
Harriet in S. Andaman Strongylodon ruber Vogel, a Polynesian species that has a 
somewhat peculiar distribution in that it also occurs in Ceylon ; to the Ceylou 
locality baa now to be added that of S. Andaman also. 



1890.] 



D. Prain — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 



291 



Table III. Relationship of Transgangetic Distribution to Habit 
and Habitat. 



Habit. 


Distributional Features. 


Habitat. 


-4-< 

c 
E-< 


CD 

H 




D3 

rg 

w 


to 
CD 

S 


T3 o 
CD -p 

!■§ 

6° 


•J. 

CD 

O 
!> 


EG 

ca 

r. 


A 
w 

08' 
— 1 
P3 


.-* 

m 

-p 

- 

o 
O 




CQ 

CD 

— 
o 

O 

vi 


CD 


3 

O 


70 

3 


16 
1 
4 
1 

1 
23 


16 

2 
2 

1 

2 
23 


25 

5 

30 


13 

4 

1 
1 

19 


In all 3 districts and widely distributed in 

the Arraoan- Assam district 
In all 3 districts but represented in Arra- 

can by the Diamond I. gathering only ... 
Absent from Andaman-Nicobars, bnt 

widely distributed in Arracan... 
Absent from Andaman-Nicobars and only 

represented in Arracan by the Diamond 

I. gathering... 
Absent from Pegu ; and at the same time 

only known from Arracan by the Dia- 
mond I. gathering 
Absent from Pegu and Andamans ; widely 

distributed in Assam- Arracan... 
Only known from Diamond Island 


8 
1 
1 

10 


8 

1 

9 


22 
2 
9 

2 

1 

1 
1 

38 


7 


117 


1 


4 


3 


70 
8 


15 
2 


3 


1 




15 


3 
1 




2 






3 

1 


1 










1 




10 


20 


1 


4 


3 




95 


Totals 


95 



The first line of this table represents that element in the flora of 
the island wherein the influence of the three adjacent districts may be 
assumed to act indifferently ; the second line that wherein the influence 
of the Arracan district is to be eliminated and only Pegu-Malayan and 
Andaman-Nicobar influences (presumably equally) prevail ; the third 
line that wherein Pegu-Malayan and Arracan- Assam influences prevail, 
while Andaman-lSTicobar influences do not act ; the fourth contains the 
element representative of Pegu-Malayan influences alone ; the fifth that 
representative of purely Andaman-Nicobars influences ; the sixth that 
indicating purely Assam- Arracan influences ; the last, like the first, in- 
dicates an element wherein the influences of the three areas act in- 
differently but in the opposite way. As however this element (the 
endemic) is here only represented by one species, it is not convenient 
or useful to employ it in computation, and since Diamond Island is 
geographically inseparable from Arracan this species is treated as 
indicative of Arracan influence. 

Reasoning from particulars the Andaman influence is stronger 
than either the Pegu or the Arracan influence is, so far as positive evi- 
dence goes, for there are here three exclusively Andamanese species as 



292 D. Pram— A List of Diamond Island Plants. [No. 4, 

compared with only two exclusively Arracan and two exclusively Pegu 
species. The negative evidence, however, points quite the other way, 
for there are no fewer than eighteen species* indicating the absence of 
Andaman influence, as against oidy fivef indicating the absence of 
Arracan influence, and fii-e% indicating the absence of Pegu influence. 
But it has to be kept in mind that the Andaman flora is by no means 
so well-known as the floras of the other two districts are and this nega- 
tive evidence may be expected to be decreased, while there is no reason 
why the positive evidence may not be increased. The figures are in 
every case too small for special inferences being drawn from them. 

The comparative values of the influences of these three adjacent 
areas are more accurately determinable from general evidence. In 
applying this it is necessary to use in succession as numerators the 
figures yielded by each possible distributional arrangement in which 
adjacent areas are concerned and as denominators in each case the num- 
ber of adjacent areas involved ; by adding together the fractions affect- 
ing particular adjacent districts we obtain a number that indicates the 
proportional influence of each of them in the composition of the flora of 
the island. The following are the results : — 

I. Andaman-Nicobar influence V + f +f =27|, or 29'29%. 

IT. Pegu-Malayan influence ™ + 1 + JJL-f| =3% or 36-14%. 

III. Assam- Arracan influence ^+ -y.+i+i =32f, or 3457%. 



95. 100. 



This method of computation may be extended to each of the sub- 
divisions under the general headings ' habit ' and habitat.' For some 
of these it is not, however, necessary ; from others no particular informa- 
tion is to be derived. Under the heading of habitat, however, an 
analysis of the classes of inland and of coast plants is not without in- 
terest, especially when their results, expressed as per-centages, are com- 
pared with those afforded by the general total. They are as follows : — 
Inland species : — 

Andamans, = -^- + 1 + 1 = H or, 24-56%. 

Pegu, = V + 1 + f + \ = 1 4| or, 39 03%. 

Arracan, = ¥ + 1 + t + t = 13f or, 36"41%. 



38. 100 00. 



* Obtained by adding together the totals of lines 3, 4 and 7. 
t Obtained by adding together the totals of lines 2 and 4,. 
X Obtained by adding together the totals of lines 5, 6 and 7. 



34+12 



1890.] D. Pram — A List of Diamond Island Plants. 

Coast species : — 

51x19. 

= 7f or, 38-34%. 
= V = H or, 30;83%. 
= V=6f or, 30-83%. 



293 



-o.uua,ii±a,us, 


- 3 ■ I X - 6 


Pegu, 


34 + 3 

3 I" 2 " g 


Ariacan, 


34 + 3 

= »-7 +- i = 

3 ~ a a 



20. 



100-00. 



Comparing the results in these three series of figures we find the 
general influence differs from the special influence exhibited in the 
statistics of the inland and the coast element of the flora as follows : — - 

Table IV. Comparison of Results. 







Species in flora 
generally. 


Inland 

species. 


Coast 
species. 


Andaman influence 
trodnotion of 


responsible for in- 


29-29%. 


24 56%. 


38 31%. 


Pegu ,, 


)} >> 3> 


36-14%. 


3903%. 


30-83%. 


Arracan „ 


„ 


31-57%. 


36-41%. 


30-83%. 



It will at once occur to the reader that a fallacy underlies this cal- 
culation so far as the Andaman influence is concerned, when he notes 
the low figure at which that influence as regards inland species is given. 
This low figure, however, only affords corroboration of the justness of 
the system, since it is exactly the inland portion of the Andaman flora 
that is as yet inadequately known. The Andaman coast species 
are, however, nearly if not quite as well known as the Burmese or 
Malayan coast species, and it is interesting to find that for this element 
the equivalent numerical expression of the Andaman influence is dis- 
tinctly higher than are the figures for Pegu or Ariacan. The only 
fallacy underlying the evidence from these figures is that which attends 
all calculations from numbers that are absolutely somewhat small. At 
all events they show how just was the passing observation made by 
Mr. Kurz on his visit to Diamond Island in 1866.* The only point on 



* Already given in the text (p. 276) and referred to in footnote f. 



294 D. Pram — Some additional species of Labiatae. [No. 4, 

which emphasis requires to be put in connection with the remark is 
that this striking " similarity, nay rather identity, of the shore vegeta- 
tion " is due less, as Mr. Kurz appears to imply, to the general connec- 
tion that subsists between the Andamans as a whole and Burma- 
Malaya as a whole than to a special connection that subsists between 
Diamond Island as the first segment, and the Andamans as the contin- 
uation of a special geographical district whereof both are membra 
disjecta — a connection quite as strikingly exhibited in these features 
wherein they together differ from Burma and Malaya as in the features 
wherein they alike agree with those two areas. 



XIX. — Novicias Indicse. III. Some additional species of Labiate. — 

By D. Prain. 

[Received 7th November 1890 ;— Head 3rd December 1890 ] 

The account of the Indian Labiate in the Flora of British India, 
vol. iv, pp. 604 — 705 was published in August 1885, and since then a 
number of forms new to India, including a few new to science, have been 
reported from outlying portions of the Indian Emphe. Having been 
directed by Dr. King to arrange the Indian material of the order pre- 
served in the Calcutta herbarium, and having had at the same time the 
advantage of the use of the material of the order in the Saharanpur her- 
barium, kindly lent for study by Mr. Duthie, as well as of that in the 
private herbarium of Dr. Watt, kindly placed at my disposal by its 
owner, I have taken the opportunity to provide diagnoses of all the forms 
new to India arranged according to the method of the Flora and now 
present these to the Society in the hope that they may prove of interest 
to members who may be botanising in the field near the various Indian 
frontiers. 

1. OCIMUM Linn. 

6. Ocimum exsul Coll. fy Hemsl. ; stems erect simple hispid, leaves 
shortly petioled decussately paired, rather thick, hispidly hairy beneath, 
glabrous above, narrowly obovate-lanceolate obtuse remotely obscurely 
toothed paler beneath, lateral veins' about 7 pairs oblique distinct ; 
racemes long lax, bracts small subrotund coloured, whorls 4-6 flowered 
pedicels short, calyx hirsute campanulate, 2 lower teeth contiguous very 
shortly acuminate aristate, fruiting enlarged dry, rigid conspicuously 
nerved upper lobe orbicular slightly recurved ; corolla blue puberulous 
tube slender lower lip slightly concave upper 4-fid, filaments naked far 



1890.] D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatse. 295 

exserted upper pair slightly thickened at the base ; nutlets ovate-orbi- 
cular, pale, smooth. — Ocimum exsul Coll. Sf Hemsl., Jour. Linn. Soc. 
xxviii, 112 (1890). 

Burma :— Meiktila, Gollett n. 877. 

Apparently perennial, stems more than 30 cm. high ; leaves 2 - 5 — 3'5 
cm. long, Q'75 — 1 cm. across, distinctly gland-dotted ; racemes terminat- 
ing in a few sterile coloured bracts, bracts 25 mm. diani., pedicels 1 — 4 
mm., calyx 3 mm. long 2 mm. across (fruiting 8 mm. long 4'5 mm. across, 
lower teeth strongly aristate), corolla tube 8"5 mm long, externally 
puberulous as are the lips, lower lip 3'5 mm. long ; stamens 10 mm. 
long ; nutlets 3 mm. diam. 

A very interesting species unlike any Indian Ocimum and belonging 
to § Ocimodon (Hiantia) ; nearly related to the African 0. obovatunt 
and 0. filamentosum. 

7. ORTHOSIPHON" Benth. 
* * * Calyx-throat naked, stamens far exserted. 

8 b. Orthosiphon Parishh Prain; slender, glabrous, stem short or 
long, leaves decussately paired, pairs 3, lowest usually smallest evanes- 
cent, middle pair largest, all long petioled, ovate-acute gradually taper- 
ing from widish truncate or cuneate base, margin distinctly serrate or 
sinuate or entire, upper surface sparsely hairy under surface glabrous 
except the nerves, racemes very long, bracts narrowly ovate-acuminate 
slightly exceeding pedicels, calyx hirsute campanulate 2 lower teeth 
subulate, corolla blue, tube very slender 3f times as long, lower lip nar- 
row concave, upper 3-fid, margins glabrous, filaments naked, twice as 
long as corolla ; nutlets broadly oblong, compressed, minutely reticu- 
lately rugulose. 

Burma: — Tenasserim, Parish; Shan Hills Terai, 2000 feet, Gollett; 
Meiktila, Prazer ; Maymyo, Dr. King's collector. 

lioofstoch short nodular woody i"5 cm. long 0'5 cm. thick, leafy stem 
12 — 20 cm., iuternodes about 3 cm., petioles 2 — 5 cm. long; lamina? of 
middle pair 7 — 13 cm. long 5 — 6 cm. across, of other pairs 3 — 7 cm. 
long 2"5 — 4 cm. across, racemes 6 — 14 cm. long, whorls 6-fld. about 25 
cm. apart, bracts 5 mm. long, 15 mm. wide, margin ciliate hirsute, pedi- 
cels 3 mm. long; calyx 4 mm. long (in fruit 7'5 mm. long) ; corolla-tabe 
15 mm. uniform externally puberulous as are the lips, lower lip 6 mm. 
long 2'5 mm. across, upper lip 3 mm, long 5 mm. across, filaments in- 
serted below apex of tube 24 mm. long, stigma clavate sub-capitate 
slightly notched, nutlets 1'75 mm. long 1 mm. across. 

Nearest to Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. of which it repeats all the 
characters of flower and fruit, but which has much smaller leaves and an 
39 



296 D. Pram — Some additional species of Labiatae. [No. 4, 

altogether different habit. In habit this approaches 0. scapiger Bentli. 
from Nepal and Kamaon, as does another plant from Manipur (Watt n. 
7718) which has been collected without corollas or fruit ; the calyx in 
Watt's plant is like that of 0. Parishii but the bracts are rather longer 
(7 mm.) and the pedicels distinctly shorter (hardly 1 mm.) while the 
leaves are in 4 (not 3) pairs, are deeply cordate at the base, and have 
branches in the axils of the 3 lowest pairs. 

8. PLBOTRANTHUS L'Herit. 
§ Isodon. (F. B. I. iv, 616). 

* * * Fruiting calyx indistinctly 2-lipped, shortly h-toothed. Corolla 
| — -| in. long, tube straight equal at the base. 

lib, Plectkanthus Brandish Train; stems simple or branched 
ascending leafy puberulons, leaves petioled lanceolate serrate above the 
middle, puberulous beneath, snbglabrous above, cymes panicled, corolla- 
tube short broad, lips subequal ; fruiting calyx red-punctate scaberulous, 
3 upper teeth acute, 2 lower broader triangular acute or sometimes ob- 
tuse ; nutlets narrowly ovoid. 

Burma; Pegu, Brandis n. 813; Kurz nn. 575, 2101, 2405, 2406, 
2407. 

Stems slender angles obtuse 50 — 80 cm. long, branches spreading 
sometimes 30 cm. long, petioles 2 — 4 cm. long, laminse 5 — 12 cm. long, 
1*5 — 2'5 cm. broad, membranous ; panicles pyramidal branches slender, 
flowers white speckled with red, stamens far exserted. Flowers in 
January. 

Leaves and habit of P. Walheri and P. Stracheyi with inflorescence 
of P. striatus and a speckled calyx like that of P. Stochsii to which this 
bears the relationship that P. Stracheyi bears to P. striatus. It is re- 
ferred to in F. B. I. iv, 018 under P. Stracheyi by Sir Joseph Hooker 
as a plant very like but probably distinct from that species ; the speci- 
mens available being neither in flower nor with fruit could not be then 
described. 

* * * * Fruiting calyx longer than broad, 2-lipped or subequally 
h-toothed. Corolla ~ — g- in. tube declinate or abruptly decurved (almost 
straight in P. repens and P. Kurzii), base usually gibbous. 

16 b. Plectranthus Kurzii Brain; stem simple ascending gla- 
brous, leaves broadly orbicular obtuse, base cuneate entire narrowed 
gradually into the short petiole, above the middle few wide toothed, the 
terminal tooth always longest often very large and blunt, cymes in 
narrow racemes shorter than the stem, corolla tube nearly straight, cy- 
lindric, obtusely spurred at the base above, stamens included, fruiting 
calyx glabrous teeth subequal subacute, nutlets small broadly ovoid. 



1890.] D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatse. 297 

Sikeim ; Ratong to Yoksum, 2500—5000 feet, T. Anderson, Eurz. 

Stems 30 — 40 cm. rather bluntly 4-angled flaccid, leaves 4 — 4.5 
cm. long and 4 — 5 cm. wide thinly membranous, narrowed gradually into 
a petiole 1 — 3 cm. long, serrations 3 — 7 on each side, central tooth 0'75 
— 1*5 cm. wide, panicles solitary and terminal or few axillary, 6 — 10 cm. 
long, lax-fid. 

Most resembles P. excisus Maxim, but is smaller in all its parts. 

20 b. Plecteanthus pharicus Prain; shrubby dwarf tomentose 
or puberulous, leaves small sessile or subsessile ovate or rounded crenate, 
cymes in distinctly peduncled rather dense few-fid .axillary racemes, 
corolla tube short wide, lips very large, fruiting calyx narrow sub-2- 
lipped subhispid strongly nerved, teeth acute, nutlets oblong. 

Eastern Himalaya : Phari, King's collectors. Distkib. S. Tibet. 

Small shrubby, stems woody and rounded below, 4-angled above, 
15 — 30 cm. high, leaves 1 — 1"25 cm. long under 1 cm. broad, glabrate 
above tomentose at least on the nerves beneath, peduncles 0'5 — - 75 
cm., calyx 4 mm. (in fruit 7 mm.) long, 2'5 mm. broad, 2 lower teeth \ 
longer than the 3 upper, tube contracted above nutlets in fruit, pedicels 
2 — 3 mm., corolla 9 mm. long (tube 4 mm. long 2'5 mm. wide), lower lip 
5 mm. long, nutlets pale faintly reticulated smooth, 25 mm. long 1"5 
mm. broad. 

A very distinct species, nearest to P. melissoides and P. rugosus 
between which it stands intermediate, 

10.* HrPTIS Jacq. 

1 b. Hyptis capitata Jacq. ; erect, stem glabrate, leaves petioled 
ovate oblong incised sei'rate glabrate on both surfaces, peduncles longer 
than the globose heads, bracts ovate-lanceolate or linear, calyx glabrous, 
teeth erect subulate shorter than tube. — Hyptis capitata Jacq., Ic. rar. i, 
t. 114; Benth., DG. Prodr. xii, 106. 

Lower Bengal ; introduced ; Kurz, etc. Distrib. Tropical America, 
introduced into Formosa, Philippines and India. 

An erect often branching annual, leaves 8 — 10 cm. long 5 — 6 cm. 
wide, nerves beneath minutely puberulous ; heads 20 — 25 mm. (f in. or 
over) in diameter, enlarging in fruit, bracts renexed and often hidden, 
corolla longer than calyx. 

12. POGOSTEMON" Desp. 

5. Pogostemon PURPUKASCENS Dalz. ; add to localities of Flora of 
British India, iv, 632. 

Manipur ; Kassome range, 3 — 4000 feet, Watt n. 5078. 

After repeated examination I can find no character to separate the 



298 D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatse. [No. 4, 

Concan from the Manipur plant. This species therefore repeats the 
detached distribution exhibited by Pogostemon paniculatus, which occurs 
in Lower Burma and in the Western Deccan but apparently nowhere 
between. The principal difference between P. purptirascens and P. 
parviflorus consists in the former having longer calyx teeth and larger 
flowers than the latter. 

24 b. Pogostemon Wattii C. B. Clarice • simple or branched, puber- 
ulous with reflexed hairs, leaves elliptic-ovate acuminate, dentate except 
the base, lamina decurrent on the long petiole, nerves densely elsewhere 
sparingly puberulous above, glabrous except the nerves beneath, spikes 
narrow terminal and axillary sparingly softly hairy, whorls close set or 
shortly interrupted, bracts minute linear, calyx distinctly pedicelled, 
tubular, hirsute externally on the nerves, teeth triangular the 2 lower 
slightly exceeding the 3 upper, corolla tube distinctly exserted, lobes 
puberulous, filaments sparingly puberulous, nutlets on a short gyn- 
ophore. — Pogostemon Wattii G. B. Clarice, Jour.- Linn. 8oc. xxv, 59. 

Manipoe ; Kassome range, 3 — 4000 feet ; near Kongal Thana, 3500, 
Watt nn. 5079, 6613. Assam ; Naga Hills, at Kohima, 4750, Clarke. 

Stems 40 — 60 cm. rather slender terete, petioles 3 — 4 cm., lamhuB 
6 — 9 cm. long 3 — 5 cm. wide, spikes 6 — 11 cm. long under 1 cm. wide, 
pedicels 3 mm., calyx 5 mm. lower teeth 1 mm., corolla 7 mm. long tube 
annulate within (the annulus of star-like processes and incomplete 
behind where the style is lodged), stigma shortly 2-fid, nutlets 1 mm., 
gynophore 0'5 mm. 

A very distinct species. 

13. DYSOPHYLLA Blume. 

* Calyx tube terete or obscurely angled. 

f Leaves opposite. 

3 b. Dysophylla Andersoni Prain; dwarf, stout, erect, stems and 
leaves on both surfaces adpressed pubescent, leaves sessile lanceolate 
or oblong-lanceolate acute quite entire, spikes short, stout, softly tomen- 
tose, calyx short glabrescent, teeth bluntly triangular half as long as 
tube. 

Sikkim ; Terai, Dr. T. Anderson. 

Stems only 8 — 15 cm. branched, branches erect stoutish woody, 
leaves 3 — 4 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, spikes 15 — 20 mm. long 10 mm. 
wide, sessile, whorls confluent, calyx in fruit 2 mm. long teeth erect, 
teeth hirsute, tube glabrous externally, corolla tube included, lobes 
sparingly hairy, nutlets globose, smooth, shining, red-brown not tri- 
gonous. 

Allied to D, rngosa and to D. salicifolia but very distinct from both. 



1890.] D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiates. 299 

4 b. Dysophylla communis Coll. Sf Hemsl. ; annual, puberulous, 
leaves large, membranous, oblong, obtuse, narrowed at the base into a 
long winged petiole, margin widely crenate, sparsely hirsute witb flaccid 
white bairs on both surfaces, spikes 1 — '6\ in., calyx cylindric, pnberulous, 
equally 5-tootbed, corolla tube not exceeding calyx.— Dysophylla com- 
munis Coll. 8f Hemsl., Jour. Linn. Soc. xxviii, 114 (1890). 

Burma : — Shan bills at 4000 feet, very common. 

Sparingly branching, branches 4-angled, internodes usually shorter 
than the leaves ; leaves as much as 3f in. long, paler beneath, the 
lateral nerves (about 4 pairs) prominent, flowers rose-pink subsessile 
and aggregated in dense spikes, corolla If— 2 lines long, externally 
pilose ; filaments shortly exserted, glabrous. Nutlets not seen. 

" This approaches D. auricnlaria Blume, wbich is easily distin- 
" guished by the thicker substance of the leaves and by being densely 
" villous all over " (Hemsley 1. a). 

There is no example of this plant at Calcutta. It differs from 
all other species of Dysophylla in having naked filaments. The descrip- 
tion is taken from the paper by Genei'al Oollett and Mr. Hemsley on 
plants from Upper Burma and the Shan hills collected by General 
Collett. 

t t Leaves in whorls of three or four (rarely more). 

9 b. Dysophylla peguana Prain ; slender, erect, simple or branched, 
uniformly adpi-essed puberulous, leaves 4 in a whorl sessile linear entire, 
spikes elongate, uninterrupted, tomentose, teeth of fruiting calyx erect. — 
Dysophylla verticillata Benth. VAR. ? gracilis Benth., DC. Prodr., xii, 158. 

Pegu ; Maclelland, B. Scott n. 354, Kurz nn. 2401, 2405 ; Moulmein, 
Griffith. 

Stems 30 — 40 cm. higb, slender, as thick as a crowquill, branches 
erect, leaves 25 — 3 cm. long, 25 an. wide not deflexed, spikes 3'5 — -5 cm. 
long, 0"5 cm. wide, never interrupted, corolla tube very short, filaments 
far exserted, calyx densely hirsute externally, teeth in fruit erect, 
nutlets narrowly ovate, pale, shining. 

Most like D. verticillata but very distinct owing to its adpressed 
hairy stem, its calyx more densely hirsute with teeth erect and not stellate 
patent in fruit, and its shining nutlets which are paler in colour rather 
longer and much narrower. One of the most distinct species of the genus. 

15. BLSHOLT^IA Willd. 

7. Elsholtzia Gripfithii Hook. f. var. typica ; add to localities of 
Flora of British India, iv, 644. 

Upper Burma ; Maymyo, 4000, King's collector. 

var. SACRA Prain; glabrate, leaves petioled or sessile, linear, spikes 



800 D. Praia — Some additional species of Labiatse. [No. 4, 

rather long terete dense-fid., calyx in flower narrow teeth triangular 
subequal. 

Upper Burma; Shan Hills at Toungyi, 5000 feet, Collett, n. 57; 
Mayuiyo, 4000—4500, Kings collector. 

Stems 30 — 80 cm.., round, rigid, dark brown, leaves 3 — 5 cm. long 
lower petioled upper sessile, 0"25 — 35 cm. wide, coarsely serrate through- 
out, lower petioles 0"5 — 1 cm. long, spikes 5 — 6 cm. long, l - 25 cm. wide, 
bracts setaceous not exceeding calyx, calyx pubescent, corolla tube \ 
longer than calyx, lobes puberulous. 

A very distinct variety. Bundles of this are sold and used by Shans 
as votive offerings at pagodas. 

21 b. ZATARIA Boiss. 

Undershrubs with small orbicular leaves shortly petioled distinctly 
glandular punctulate, whorls axillary sessile or in pedunculate cymes 
and paniculate towards the ends of the branches, flowers very small. 
Calyx 5-uerved ovate equally 5-toothed, teeth erect, mouth hirsute. 
Corolla tube sub-included, limb 2-lipped upper entire lower 3-lobed. 
Stamens 4 included lower slightly longer, anther-cells distinct parallel, 
at length diverging. Style shortly 2-fid upper lobe slightly shorter. 
Nutlets smooth. — Species 2, Oriental. 

1. Zataria multiflora Boiss ; much branched, branches slender 
white puberulous, leaves puberulous, whorls dense, axillary, sessile, bracts 
oblong equalling calyx, bracteoles shorter than calyx, calyx teeth much 
shorter than tube, corolla upper lip equalling the lateral lobes of lower lip, 
ovary subsessile. — Zataria multiflora Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, v, 18; Benth., 
DC. Prodr. xii, 183 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 561 ; Hook., Ic. PI. xv, t. 1428. 

Beluchistan : — Assigned districts, Qnetta, Lace, n. 3936. Distrib. 
Persia. 

Diffusely branching, leaves 0'75 — 1 cm. long - 5 cm. wide, calyx 2'5 
mm., teeth 0'5 mm., corolla 4 mm., long. 

2. Zataria bracteata Boiss ; much branched, branches slender 
brown glabrous, leaves glabrous, whorls peduncled spicate, spikes 
paniculate, bracts ovate acute longer than flowers, bracteoles linear as long 
as calyx, calyx teeth slightly shorter than tube, corolla upper lip much 
shorter than lateral lobes of lower lip, ovary shortly but distinctly stalked. 
Zataria bracteata Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, iv, 12. — Z. multiflora Benth. 
in Gen. Plant, ii, 1186. — Z. multiflora var. elatior Boiss., Flor. Orient. 
iv, 562. 

Gilgit; Giles. Distrib. Afghanistan. 

Rigidly branching leaves 1 — 1'5 cm. long, 0'75 — 1 cm. wide, calyx 
2"25 mm. teeth 0"75 mm., corolla 4 mm. long. 



1890.] D. Prain — So me additional- species of Labiatae, 301 

28. SALVIA Linn. 

[Salvia coccinea Linn, is not infrequently found as an escape from 
cultivation in the Nilghiri hills, Sikkim etc. S. utilis Braun, and S. 
verbenaca Linn, also occur as escapes in the Nilghiris.] 

§ Eusphaoe Benth. Shrubs or herbs, leaves entire or pinnatisect 
floral small or not, upper calyx lip very shortly 3-toothed, corolla tube 
subexserted annulate within, upper lip erect emarginate, connectives 
with an imperfect cell behind. 

1.* Salvia cabulica Benth . ; a branching shrub, leaves long-pe- 
tioled small, softy villous, cordate ovate-orbicular, crenate, rugulose, floral 
small oblong lanceolate, whorls 2 — 4-flowered few, subterminal, calyx 
pedicelled campanulate 2-lipped, upper lip shortly 3-toothed lower 2-fid 
teeth all mucronate, corolla 2,\ times as long as calyx. — Salvia cabulica 
Benth., DO. Prodr. xii, 268 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 594. 

Panjab Frontier ; Suleiman hills Steivart, Duke, Hamilton. Dis- 
trib. Beluchistan, Afghanistan. 

Stems 80 — 100 cm. bushy, old branches with white flaking bark, 
young branches short slender rigid, petioles 0"5 — 1 5 cm., lamina; 1 — 2 
cm. long I — 15 cm. wide, pedicels 5 mm , calyx 11 mm., corolla 15 mm. 
(tube 11 mm. lips 4 — 5 mm.), nutlets 4 mm. suborbicular, often one or 
more abortive, testa mucilaginous when boiled. 

A very distinct species, obtained by nearly every one whc has col- 
lected within or beyond the N.-W. Frontier. 

§ § Hymenosphace Benth. Shrubs, rarely herbs, leaves entire or 
pinnatisect floral smaller, upper calyx-lip entire or shortly 3-toothed, 
corolla tube exserted or not, annulate within, upper lip suberect or falcate 
hardly compressed, connective with an imperfect cell behind. 

1. * * Salvia hydrangea DC. ; woody below, adpressed hoary, 

branches erect simple white, leaves petioled pinnatisect, segments 3 4- 

paired oblong obtuse entire pubescent or hirsute on both surfaces 
lateral lanceolate-oblong or linear, terminal elliptic oblong larger, floral 
leaves sessile lower pinnatisect longer than flowers, upper ovate entire 
shorter than flowers coloui-ed deciduous, whorls 6 — 10-fl.owered distant 
flowers shortly pedicelled, calyx very large rose pink thinly membranous 
glabrous except the distinct sparingly hiisute nerves, lips lar°-e, upper 
broad blunt sinuate emarginate, lower 2-fid lobes ovate subacute, corolla 
tube slightly exserted. — Salvia hydrangea DG. mss. in Benth., Lab. 
Gen. fy Sp. 717 and Prodr. xii, 271 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 606. 

Panjab Frontier ; Suleiman range ; Duke, Bind, etc. ; common, 
like the preceding, all along and beyond the N. W. Frontier. 

Stems 60 — 100 cm., leaves 6 — 8 cm., petioles 0'5 — 1 cm., terminal 



302 D. Pram — Some additional species of Labiatge. [No. 4, 

leaflet 3 — 4 cm. long 2 cm. across, lateral 15 — 2 cm. long 1 cm. across, 
calyx 20 mm. long, (tube 10 mm. long upper lip 20 mm wide, lobes of 
lower lip each 12 mm.), corolla 25 mm. (tube 20 mm. lips 5 — 6 mm.), 
nutlets smooth subglobose 4 mm. long. 

A handsome species with a striking appearance on account of its 
large, delicate rose-pink calyces. The Panjab plant connects true 
8. hydrangea with 8. Sheilei Boiss. 

§ § § § ^thiopis Benth. (Sect. 2 ; F. B. I. iv, 654). 

5 b. Salvia macrosiphon Boiss., tall, slender, hirsute, leaves petioled 
rugose densely hirsute above and beneath oblong obtuse base rounded mar- 
gin subentire, floral submembranous ovate long-acuminate shorter than 
calyx, whorls 2 — 4-flowered distant, calyx long tubular, teeth straight 
lanceolate acute, corolla white 1^ times as long as calyx, tube exserted, 
upper lip suberect. — Salvia macrosiphon Boiss., Biagn., ser. 1, v, 11 
(1814); Benth., BG. Prodr. xii, 282 (1848); Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 
615 (1879). — Salvia macrosiphon vab. cabulica Benth., DC. Prodr., xii, 
282 (1848). — Salvia macrosiphon var. Kotschyi Boiss., Flor. Orient., 
iv, 615 (1879).— Salvia Kotschyi Boiss., Biagn., ser. 1, vii, 46 (1846). 

Panjab Frontier; Beluchistan, assigned districts, Pitman, Buke; 
Suleiman range, Saunders. Distrib. Beluchistan, Afghanistan, Persia. 

Stem 40 — 60 cm., petioles 3 — 5 cm., leaves 4 — 8 cm. long 2 — 5 cm. 
wide, calyx 20 — 25 mm. long 7 mm. wide, corolla 25 — 30 mm., nutlets 
orbicular ovate subcompressed, pale green, shining and marbled with 
dark reticulations. 

[Salvia spinosa Linn, and Salvia Sclarea Linn, have been repeatedly 
collected just beyond the N.-W. Frontier but not as yet within British 
territory.] 

28 b. ZIZIPHORA Benth. 

Dwarf annual herbs or spreading perennial small shrubs with rigid 
stems, often hoary-tomentose, with small entire or slightly toothed leaves, 
floral like cauline or shorter and broader, whorls few-flowered axillary 
often crowded towards the apex of the stem, flowers subsessile or shortly 
pedicelled, bracteoles very small, calyx tubular elongated 13-nerved 2- 
lipped (upper 3- lower 2-toothed), throat villous, teeth in fruit subcon- 
nivent, corolla small, tube hardly exserted glabrous within somewhat 
dilated upwards, upper lip erect entire, lower spreading 3-fid, mid-lobe 
emarginate ;stamens, 2 perfect (anterior), ascending under upper lip or 
subexserted, anthers linear perfect or with the lower cell empty, upper 
staminodes small or 0, disc uniform, style 2-fid lower lobe longer, nut- 
lets ovoid, smooth. — Species about 12; Cent. Asian, Oriental, Mediter- 
ranean. 



1890.] D. Praia — Some additional species of Labiatae. 303 

* Perennial. 

1. Ziziphora CLINOPODIOIDES M. Bieb. ; shrubby, branching from 
the base, leaves glabrous or pubescent, ovate oblong or lanceolate, floral 
similar smaller shorter than the flowers, whorls capitulate, calyx nar- 
rowly cylindric, teeth very short linear lanceolate blunt upper rather 
longer, corolla tube shortly exserted, anthers-cells equal. — Ziziphora 
clinopodioides M. Bieb., Flor. Taur.-Oauc, i, 17 ; Benth., DG. -Prodr. 
xii, 364 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient., iv, 585. 

Rootstock stout woody, stems or branches usually numerous 6 — 15 
cm. high, often fastigiafce, leaves 0'5 — 0'75cm. long - 25 — 0"35 cm, wide, 
capitula 15 cm. long 2 cm. across, calyx 8 mm. long 2 mm. wide, corolla 
11 mm. long. 

The typical form of this variable plant does not occur within Indian 
limits, the following varieties are reported : — 

a. Var. Benthami ; calyx pilose with white spreading hairs. — ■ 
Ziziphora clinopodioides var. canescens Boiss., Flor. Orient., iv, 585 
(1879) [not Z. clinopodioides var. canescens Benth., Lab. Qen. et Sp. 321 
(1833) and DO. Prodr. xii, 3fa5 (1848)]. — Z. canescens Benth., Lab. Gen. 
et Sp. 621 (1833) and DG. Prodr. xii, 365 (1848) ; Aitch. Sp Hemsl., 
Trans. Linn. Soc, n. s. iii, 96 (1888). 

N. W. Himalaya ; Gilgit, Giles. Distrib. Soongaria, North Per- 
sia, Kurdistan, Armenia. 

After close examination it seems impossible to deal with this plant 
otherwise than as M. Boissier has dealt with it. As regards floral struc- 
ture it in no way differs from typical Z. clinopodioides. M. Boissier's 
varietal name is, however, preoccupied ; it was employed by Mr. 
Bentham 46 years previously to designate precisely the plant termed by 
M. Boissier, loc. cit., Z. clinopodioides var. serpyllacea. 

/?. Var. rigida; calyx hirsute with adpressed hairs or almost 
glabrous. — Ziziphora clinopodioides VAR. rigida Boiss., Flor. Orient., iv, 
586 (1879). 

Panjab frontier ; Beluchistan, assigned districts, Lace. Distrib. 
Beluchistan, Afghanistan, Persia, Armenia. Leaves usually much 
smaller and stems more rigid than in the other varieties. 

* * Annual. 

2. Ziziphora tenuior Linn. ; hei'baceous, simple or branching 
from the base, leaves distinctly nerved scabrid ciliate narrowly lanceo- 
late acute, floral similar longer than the flowers, whorls axillary along 
the stem in lax or dense oblong spikes, calyx narrowly cylindric, teeth 
very short triangular-ovate blunt, corolla tube shortly exserted, lower 
anther-cell small empty. — Ziziphora temiior Linn., Sp. PI. 21; Benth., 
Lab. Gen. et Sp. 322 and DG. Prodr. xii, 366 ; Boiss , Flor. Orient, iv, 

40 



304 D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatae. [No. 4, 

587 ; Aitch. &f Hemsl., Trans. Linn. Soc, n. s. iii, 96. — Z. persica Bunge, 
Lab. Pers. 39 (fide Boiss.). — Faldermannia parviflora Trautv., Bull. Ac. 
Imp. Peter sb. vii, 21. 

Panjab Feontieb ; Suleiman range, Bulce. Disteib. Beluchistan, 
Afghanistan, Persia, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Soongaria. 

Root slender, stems 10 — 15 cm. high, leaves 1'5 — 2'5 cm. long 0'25 — 
0*5 cm. wide, whorls often in spikes the whole length of the stem, 1*5 — 2 
cm. wide, calyx 8 mm. long 2 mm. wide, corolla 11 mm. long. 

29. NEPETA Linn. 

A. Whorls in simple terminal oblong or cylindric spikes, which are 
rarely interrupted at the base. (F. B. I., iv, 657.) 

* * Leaves entire or crenate sessile or subsessile. 

6 b. Nepeta podostachys Benth. ; stem tall subsimple glabrescent, 
rootstock elongated prostrate, leaves small sessile lineai^-lanceolate acute, 
base narrowed entire margin elsewhere coarsely serrate, spikes narrowed 
sometimes interrupted at the base, bracts linear-lanceolate nrucronulate, 
calyx sessile, teeth very slender sparingly ciliate. — Nepeta podostachys 
Benth., BO. Prodr. xii, 372; Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 639. 

Westeen Tempeeate Himalaya; Gilgit, at Ghizeh, 10,000 feet, in 
irrigated soil, Giles. Disteib. Afghanistan (Griffith n. 4000). 

Stems 40 — 60 cm., rootstock 8 — 10 cm. slender, leaves i — 2 cm. long 
under 0'5 cm. wide, spikes 5 — 8 cm long 1*5 cm. wide, bracts 5 mm. long, 
calyx 8 mm. long, tube 4'5 mm., teeth 3'5 mm., corolla 12 mm. long. 

Nearly related to N. campestris, nervosa and eriostachya but well 
distinguished by its smaller leaves and narrower bi*acts. It bears to N. 
nervosa something of the relationship that N. campestris bears to N. 
eriostachya. 

8. Nepeta cceeulescens Maxim., Mel. Biol, xi, 306 (1881); Forbes 
8r Hemsl., Jour. Linn. Soc. xxvi, 289 (1890). — N. Thomsoni Benth. mss. 
ex Hook, f., Flor. Brit. Ind. iv, 658 (1885). — Disteib. Lhassa (Herb. 
Calcutta) ; Kansu. 

D. Whorls in branched panicles some or all more or less peduncled. 
(F. B. I. iv, 661.) 

* Corolla less than f in. long. 

25 b. Nepeta glomeedlosa Boiss. ; erect branched from the 
woody base, branches slender hoary tomentose simple or again branching, 
leaves small ovate, crenate, linear-rugose, shortly petioled below, sessile 
above, whorls small few-flowered lower pedunculate distant upper sessile in 
interrupted nai'rovv spikes, bracts membranous ovate acute entire, equalling 
sessile hirsute calyx with oblique mouth and lanceolate teeth shorter 
than the tube, corolla \ longer than calyx, nutlets minutely tuberculated. 



1890.] D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatee. 305 

— Nepeta glomerulosa Boiss., Diagn., ser. 1, v, 21 ; Benth., J)G. Prodr., xii 
379 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient., iv, 651. — N. juncea Benth., DG. Prodr, xii, 
379 ; Boiss,, Flor. Orient., iv, 651. — N. glomerata Herb. Ind. Or., nee 
Mont, et Auch. 

Panjab frontier ; Suleiman range Stewart, Duke. Distrib. Belu- 
chistan, Afghanistan, and Persia. 

Stems 20 — 50 cm., petioles 0"5 — 1'5 cm., lamina? 0"75 — 2 cm. long 
0"5 — 1 cm. wide, lower peduncles 4 — 7 mm., bracts 35 — 4"5 mm. long, 
2 mm. wide, calyx 5 mm. long, corolla 7 mm. long, nutlets 2 mm. long. 

There are no very good characters whereby Nepeta juncea (the Panjab 
Frontier, Afghan and Beluch plant) can be separated from Nepeta glo- 
merulosa proper (the Persian plant) — the secondary branches are more 
numerous, the leaves and bracts are rather smaller and the calyx teeth 
somewhat shorter in the more eastern form but the corollas and nutlets 
of the two are quite indistinguishable. 

26 b. Nepeta lagofs:s Benth. ; softy hirsute with spreading white 
hairs, much branched, branches slender, erect or prostrate, short or long, 
leaves small, short-petioled, ovate, obtuse, coarsely blunt-toothed, whorls 
dense softly hairy distant axillary subsessile or on peduncles as long as 
the flowers, bracts subulate as long as the calyces, calyx teeth su- 
bulate almost as long as the tube, corolla hardly exserted. — Nepeta 
lagopsis Benth., DG. Prodr., xii, 397 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient., iv, 640, 

Western Panjab ; on Sheik Budeen, Steioart, Saunders. Dtstrib. 
Afghanistan (Griffith n. 494). 

Branches 10 — 40 cm., leaves 1 — 1'5 cm. diam., petioles 05 — 075 
cm., pedicels 2 — 7 mm. long, calyx 5 mm. long, bracts 5 — 6 mm., corolla 
8 mm. 

Nearly related to the Persian N. prostrata. 
* * Corolla more than -| inch long. 

31 b. Nepeta Hemsleyana Oliv. mss. ex He>nsl. in I'M.; tall erect 
branched finely pubescent, leaves sessile narrowly ovate-lanceolate entire 
whorls 8— 12-flowercd distant axillary peduncled, calyx nerves hirsute teeth 
obtuse, triangular shorter than tube, corolla twice as long as calyx 
gradually expanded to wide limb, filaments prolonged beyond anthers, 
anther-cells at length confluent, nutlets narrowly ovate. 

Eastern Himalaya; S. B. Tibet beyond Phari, Lama Ujyen Gyatsko 
n. 93. 

Stems 60 — 80 cm., branches 8 — -15 cm., leaves 2 — 3 cm. long 0'5 — 
0*75 cm. wide, lower peduncles 4 — -5 mm., calyx 12 mm. long 3"5 mm. 
wide, corolla 25 mm. long limb 8 mm. wide, hirsute externally, nutlets 
2 mm. long. 

Characters of Nepeta (§ Macronepeta) but the stamens with filaments 
prolonged beyond the anthers as in Hypogomphia, and the anther-cells 



306 D. Pram—- Some additional species of Labiatas. [No. 4, 

at length confluent 1-locular. This plant I had therefore at first thought 
might have to be generically separated from Nepeta, but Professor 
Oliver who has very kindly examined specimens at Mr. Hemsley's re- 
quest finds this is uunecessaiy ; the character of prolonged filaments 
occurs in other species of the genus. 

E. Dwarf species; leaves crowded, cymes or whorls axillary, floral 
leaves as large as the cauline and close-set (Glechoma L.). 

32 b. Nepeta pharica Prain ; erect, sublanate, leaves sessile orbic- 
ular rugose crenate, cymes all axillary few-flowered shorter than the 
leaves, calyx softly tomentose sub-2-fid upper lip longer and with 
broader less deeply divided teeth than lower, tube villous within, sta- 
mens included or upper pair subexserted, nutlets linear oblong smooth. 

Eastern Tibet; Phari, King's collector ; between Phari and Lhassa, 
Lama Ujyen Gyatsko n. 106. 

Rootstock creeping, stems 4 — 10 cm., leaves P5 — 2 cm. across, 
very close set, base crenate, cymes sessile, bracts minute, calyx 9 mm. 
long, corolla 16 mm., tube straight slightly dilated at throat, nutlets 
2 - 75 mm. long. 

P. Annuals ; calyx-mouth straight. 

34. Nepeta bracteata Benth. ; dwarf, stem very slender branch- 
ing from the base, branches spreading subrigid, leaves petioled oblong 
or rhomboid distant toothed apex acute base cuneate, floral leaves 
sessile surrounding and generally exceeding the dense heads, bracts 
numerous oblong or ovate longer than flowers, submucronate, promin- 
ently nerved with margins entire, whorls condensed in ovate "heads, 
calyx teeth straight subulate ciliate half as long as tube, corolla tube 
included, nutlets oblong shining smooth. — Nepeta bracteata Benth., DO. 
Prodr. xii, 395 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient , iv, 667. — Zataria humilis Benth., 
BO. Prodr., xii, 183. 

Beluchistan ; assigned districts at Shelabagh, 6,000 feet, Lacen. 
3331. Distrib. Persia. 

Stems 5 — 15 cm., leaves l - 5 — 2 cm. long 1 cm. wide, floral leaves 
1 cm. long, 035 cm. wide, bracts 8 mm. long, calyx 6 % 5 mm. long, corolla 
8 mm. long, nutlets 2"5 mm. 

30. DRACOCEPHALUM Linn. 

4. Dracocephaltjm heterophtllum Benth.,- add to localities of 
Flora of British India, iv, 666. 

Eastern Tibet ; Phari 11-14000 feet, Dr. King's collectors; Karoo- 
la, near Lhassa, Dr. King's collector. 

7. Dracocephaltjm tangtjticum Maxim., Mel. Biol., xi, 307 (1881). 
— D. Hookeri 0. B. Clarice in Hook, f, Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 606 (1885). 



1890.] D. Pfain — Some additional species of Labiatte. 307 

Eastern Himalaya ; Phari, frequent, Dr. King's collectors ; East 
Tibet, common, Lama Ujyen Oyatsko. Disteib. W. Kansu. 

32. SCUTELLARIA Linn. 

§ Flowers not secund. 

* Flowers in short leafy terminal spikes that are Wangled in bud, 
tracts leafy. 

2 b. Scutellaria Stocksii Boiss. ; dwarf, softly hirsute, woody at 
the base, much branched, old branches prostrate, young ascending, leaves 
small elliptic-oblong, shortly petioled, apex acute base cuneate margin 
entire, spikes few-flowered subcapitate, corolla pubescent much longer 
than calyx. — S. Stocksii Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, iv, 28; Flor. Orient., iv, 
684. 

Panjab frontier ; assigned districts of Beluchistan at Pil Rift near 
Quetta, Lace n. 3881. Disteib. Beluchistan (Ohehen Tun, Stocks). 

Habit of 8. prostrata and 8. Heydei but more compact and with 
shorter branches and fewer- flowered heads. Leaves 1 cm. long 0"75 
cm. wide, bracts similar but smaller, heads few-fid almost hidden by the 
leaves, corolla 18 mm. long. 

A very distinct species. 

* * Flowers more or less laxly racemose. 

2 c. Scutellaria multicaulis Boiss. ; much branched from a woody 
base, branches erect virgate simple slender shortly puberulous, leaves 
small hoary-tomentose and subglandular beneath, distinctly petioled, 
apex acute, base cuneate or subtruncate, margin bluntly or deeply few- 
toothed, flowers few distant opposite, bracts small ovate entire hardly 
exceeding calyx, corolla puberulous much longer than calyx. — Scutel- 
laria multicaulis Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, vii, 61 ; and Flor. Orient., iv, 685 ; 
Benth., DO. Prodr., xii, 414. — S. nepetasfolia Benth., DO. Prodr., xii, 414. 

Gilgit; Hindu Kush, Giles. Distrib. Afghanistan, Persia. 

Branches 20 — 25 cm. long, petioles 0'5 cm. long, lamina? 1 cm. long 
0'75 cm. wide, bracts 3'5 mm. long, calyx 3 mm. long, corolla 25 mm. 
long, yellowish with purple patches. 

§ § Flowers opposite racemose secund. 

* * * Floivers in long narrow racemes, bracts shorter than the pedicel 
and calyx. 

4 b. Scutellaria andamanica Drain; quite glabixms, stems many 
from a woody rootstock with clustered rootlets, erect, simple or branched, 
rigid, leaves long petioled oblong-lanceolate obtuse crenate-dentate 
except tapering cuneate base, flowers opposite or in whorls of 3 except 
the upper, corolla blue with centre of lip white, nutlets pale brown scabrid. 

South Andaman ; Rungachang, in stream bed, 25 feet above sea- 
level, Prain. 



308 D. Praia — Some additional species of Labiatae. [No. 4, 

Stems woody below and subterete, 4-angled above and grooved, 
20 — 25 cm. bigb, leaves few, petioles 3 — 4 cm. almost equalling laminos 
4 — 4'5 cm. long and 1 — 1*5 cm. across, denatures 7 — 8 on each side absent 
from basal J or J, racemes 8 — 10 cm., bracts 3 mm. long equalling pedi- 
cels, calyx 3 mm., corolla 16 mm., nutlets 1 mm. 

Nearly allied to S. discolor Colebr. of which it has all the characters 
of corolla and has also, near the top of the spike, the scattered flowers ; it 
bears to that species the relationship that S. oblong a Benth. bears to 8. 
violacea Heyne. Flowers November to January. As to foliage it most 
nearly approaches S. oblonga, with which species Mr. Hemsley, who has 
kindly examined it, suggests its union. That species however, besides 
differing in having all the flowers opposite, occurs at 5000 feet elev. and 
flowers in April. 

* * * * Floivers in long narrow racemes, bracts longer tlian the 
pedicels and calyx but hardly leafy. 

7 b. Scutellaria, petiolata Hemsl. 8f Lace ; glabrous, steins 
slender tufted from thick woody rhizome, leaves petioled ovate acute, 
base truncate entire, sides each with 2 — 3 crenations, anterior third 
entire, bracts ovate entii'e petioled only the lowest exceeding the 
calyx, pedicels short, corolla tube 5 times exceeding calyx, upper lip 
notched, nutlets granulate. — Scutellaria petiolata Hemsl. 8r Lace, Jour. 
Linn. Soc. ined. 

Beluchistan ; assigned districts, Mr. Duthie's collectors. Distrib. 
S. Afghanistan at Ziarat. (Lace 4006). 

Rootstock 1 cm. thick, stems 13 — 25 cm. long round hardly as thick 
as crow quills, petioles - 75 — 3 cm. long, lamina? 2 — 3 cm. long 15 — 2 
cm. across, crenations shallow, both surfaces quite glabrous, bracts 8 mm. 
long 3 mm. across, pedicels 2 mm., calyx 4 mm. long 3 mm. wide, corolla 
tube 22 mm. long, limbus 5 mm. across upper lip 4 mm. long lower 6 mm., 
nutlets elliptic 2 mm. long. — Dries pale reddish brown. 

10. Scutellaria scandens Don, Prodr. Flor. NepaZ. 110 (1825) ; 
Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp. 444 (1834).— S. angulosa Benth. in Wall. Cat., 
2139 (1828), PI. As. Par. i, 67, (1830), DO. Prodr. xii, 430 (1848) ; 
Hook. /., Flor. Brit. Ind., iv, 669 (1885).— S. celtidifolia A. Ham., 
Monogr. Seidell., 27 (1832). 

***** Floivers all axillary. 

15. Scutellaria kingiana Prain ; stems puberulous decumbent 
slender several from creeping slender rootstock, leaves pubescent pe- 
tioled ovate orbicular obtuse crenate except the rounded base, flowers 
axillary pedicelled few, pedicels short, calyx puberulous, corolla large 
white. 

Eastern Himalaya : — Kang-ma, 60 miles north of Phari and on the 
banks of the Pe-na-mong Chu. Dr. King's collector. 



1890.] D. Prain — Some additional species cf Labiataa. 309 

Stems 15 — 18 cm. long, petioles 5 — 6 mm., lamina? 18 mm. long by 
14 mm. wide, denatures few wide (11 — 15), calyx 4 mm. by 3 mm. at 
mouth, corolla puberulous 30 mm., long (tube 22 mm. long limbus 5 
mm. diam.), filaments glabrous ; nutlets not seen. — A very distinct 
species only once reported ; flowers in August. 

34 a. CHAMJ3SPHACOS Schrenk. 

Annual dwarf erect branching herbs. Leaves shortly petioled ; 
whorls 2-flowered. Calyx campanulate subequally 5-toothed, 10-nerved 
with ring of hairs at limbus within, subinflated in fruit, corolla tube 
exserted or included, throat hardly widened, upper lip erect emarginate, 
lower spreading 3-lobed. Stamens exserted or sub-included, anther- 
cells confluent, oblong. Style subequally 2-fid. Nutlets oblong nar- 
rowed. — Species 4, Western and Eastern Turkestan, Afghanistan, Per- 
sia, Beluchistan. 

§ EuCHAMiESPHACOs ; stamens exserted, calyx teeth setaceous, nut- 
lets apiculate above. [Chamaesphacos Schrenk, Enum. PI. Nov. i, 27.] 

§ § Tapeinanthus ; stamens sub-included, calyx teeth herbaceous, 
nutlets rounded above. [Tapeinanthus Boiss. mss. apud Benth. in DG. 
Prodr. xii, 436.] 

1. Cham^sphacos brahuiccts Aitch. 8f Eemsl. ; densely villous, 
usually much branched from the base, branches erect, leaves entire, lan- 
ceolate, acuminate or acute, narrowed into a short petiole, flowers axillary, 
shortly pedicelled, calyx externally densely villous with spreading hairs, 
teeth triangular, lanceolate, subulate acuminate, shorter than the tube 
corolla pink, tube slightly exserted. — Chamassphacos brahuicus Aitch. 
8f Hemsl., Trans. Linn. Soc. n. s. iii, 97. — Tapeinanthus brahuicus Boiss., 
PJiagn. ser. 2, iv, 29 and Flor. Orient, iv, 680. 

Panjab Frontier; Suleiman range, Duke. Peshin valley, Lace. 
Distrib Beluchistan, Khorasan. 

Stems 6 — 9 cm. high, leaves 2 - 5 — 3 cm. long, 1*25 — l - 5cm. wide, calyx 
8 mm. long, 35 mm. wide (in fruit 5' mm. wide), corolla 10 mm. lono- } 
nutlets 3'5 mm. long. 

35 a. MICROTCENA Prain. 

Perennial erect branching herbs. Leaves long petioled ; cymes pani- 
culate or thyrsoid. Calyx ovoid, fruiting globose, equally 5-toothed 
12-nerved ; throat constricted glabrous within. Corolla, upper lip 
large galeate concave entire, lower spreading 3-fid mid-lobe smaller than 
lateral. Stamens ascending under the upper lip ; anther-cells divaricate 
when young, at length confluent explanate. Style bifid, upper lobe very 



310 D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiataa. [No. 4, 

short. Nutlets very minute, apices ovate subtriquetrous, below smooth. 
— Species 4, S. Chinese and Indo-Chinese. 

1. Microtcena CYMOSA Prain; minutely tomentose, leaves widely 
ovate-acute base subcordate margin creuate-dentate, cymes rather lax, 
calyx teeth triangular, galea throat below 2-auriculate rather longer 
than tube, lateral lobes of lip ovate-rotund thrice exceeding central 
narrowly elliptic, nutlets very minute. — Microtcena cymosa Prain in 
Hook., Icon. Plant, xix, t. 1872. — Microtama cymosa Forbes 8f Hemsl., 
Jour. Linn. Soc. xxvi, 306 and xxviii, 116. — Gomphostemma insuave 
Eance, Jour, of Botany, 1884, p. 231. — Plectranthus Patchouli Clarke in 
Hook. /., Flor. Brit. Ind. iv, 624 and Jour. Linn. Soc. xxv, 58. 

Assam: Naga Hills, Jenkins; Manipur, Clarke; Khasia hills at 
Sohra 4000, cult., Clarke; Shillong 5000, cult., Mann. Burma; Slian 
hills, at Fort Stedman, 3000, Collett n. 921. Distrib. S. China. 

Stems 40 — 100 cm., lower branches 15 — 20 cm. petioles 2 — 3 cm. 
long, laminse 4 — 7 cm. long 3 — 5 cm. wide, hairy on both surfaces, cymes 
sometimes loosely paniculate irregularly bi'anched, calyx 25 mm. (tube 
2 mm.), corolla 14 mm. (tube infundibnliform 6 mm., upper lip 8 mm.), 
pollen grains minute oval smooth, nutlets 1*25 mm. — The cultivated 
plant smells very strongly of Patchouli, much more so than does the 
Patchouli plant of commerce, but it is only grown as a cariosity; the 
natives of the hills of Assam do not grow this plant or the true Patchou- 
li plant, nor do they know or use the prepared article : the Shan hill 
plant is devoid of smell. 

2. Microtcena Griffith ti Prain; glabrescent, leaves widely ovate- 
acute, base cuneate margin duplicate-crenate, cymes rather dense, calyx 
teeth deltoid acuminate, galea throat entire half as long as tube, lateral 
lobes of lip rounded half exceeding central ovate, nutlets small. 

Assam : — " Eastern Bengal " (probably Mishmi hills), Griffith, n. 
4059 Kew distrib. ; Dibroo Mukh, Masters, 1072. 

Stem 40 — 100 cm., lower branches 15 — 20 cm,, petioles 4 — 5 cm. 
long, lamina? 7 — 9 cm. long 4 — 7 cm. wide, glabrous thinly membranous, 
cymes thyreoid, calyx 6 mm. (tube 4 mm.), corolla 16 mm. (tube slightly 
infundibuliform above 11 mm., galea 5 mm.), pollen grains minute 
spherical rugulose, nutlets 3 mm. 

39. STACHTS Linn. 

* * Herbs, stem 4<-angled. Whorls few-flowered, bracts minute. 

lb. Stacitys corbtfolia Prain; ascending, stems sparsely hirsute 
with long spreading white hairs, leaves long petioled, ovate obtuse or sub- 
acute, deeply cordate, crenate, hispid on both surfaces with long simple 
hairs, floral small shorter than the calyx, ovate subsessile, whorls 4 — 6- 



1890.] D. Prain— Some additional species of Labiate. 311 

flowered, distant, calyx glandular- pubescent teeth triangular acute, corolla 
tube exserted. 

Upper Burma ; Mawyne on the Yunnan frontier, J. Anderson. 
Distrib. S. W. Yunnan, at Momien, Anderson. 

Bootstock slender creeping, stem 25 — 30 cm. simple or branching 
at the base, radical leaves very small (1* cm. long 0'75 cm. wide, petioles 
as long), cauline 2 - 5 cm. long 2' cm. across, petioles 1"5 — 2 cm., hirsute 
with spreading hairs, calyx widely campanulate, slightly oblique, 5 mm. 
long (tube 35 mm., teeth 1/5 mm.), corolla 12 mm. long (tube 7 mm.), 
pale piuk. 

A very distinct species. 

42 b. MOLUCELLA Linn. 

Annual or perennial glabrous herbs, leaves opposite petioled or 
sessile, incised crenate or entire. Whorls many-fid., all axillary, brac- 
tioles subulate pungent. Calyx obliquely campanulate below, striately 
5 — 10-nerved, dilated above into a broad reticulated limb elongated be- 
hind and marginally 5-muconate or 5 — 10-spined. Corolla tube included, 
obliquely annular within, slightly enlarged upward, limb 2-lipped, upper 
erect concave entire or emarginate, lower 3-fi.d, lateral lobes oblong sub- 
erect, mid-lobes spreading obcordate. Stamens 4, ascending didynamous 
lower longer, anthers conniving 2-locular. Style 2-lobed, lobes subequal 
subulate. Nutlets triquetrous truncate smooth. — Species 3, Mediterra- 
nean and Orient. 

§ § Chasmonia ; calyx-limb 2-lipped, prolonged behind as an ei'ect 
spinescent tooth and in front as a spreading 3- parted lip with smaller 
radiating marginal lateral spines. 

1. Molucella otostegioides Prain; glabrous, leaves sessile lan- 
ceolate acute quite entire nerveless, bracts 3-partite subulate spinescent. 

N. W. Frontier; Suleiman range, in the Zam defile leading to 
Waziristan, 3500 feet, Stewart. 

Erect, branches slender 4-angled, green, leaves 4 cm. base narrow- 
ed, tips sharp but hardly pungent, whorls distant, bracts all spiny, calyx 
9 — Ll-toothed, glabrous rigidly coriaceous, tube 8 mm. exceeding bracts 
throat naked, upper tooth 6 mm., lower 3 mm. long 4 mm. across, corolla 
7 mm., tube short, upper lip entire villous, stamens exserted. 

Habit of Otostegia Aucheri Boiss. with calyx like that of Molucella 
sjpinosa Liun. only much smaller ; excluded from Lagochilus by its 
glabrous anthers. 

42 c. LAGOCHILUS Bunge, 

Smooth rigid herbs or undershrubs with incised leaves often with 
spinescent-tipped lobeSj bracts foliar decreasing upwards. Whorls 
41 



132 D. Prain— Some additional species of Labiate. [No. 4, 

axillary few-fid. bracteoles acicular often spinescent. Calyx tubular- 
campanular 5-nerved, mouth equal or oblique, teeth 5 subspitiescent equal 
or with the upper prolonged. Gorolla tube often shortly exserted, an- 
nular-pilose within slightly enlarged upwards, limb 2-lipped, upper lip 
erect, oblong, 2-fi.d subconcave, lower 3-fid, lateral lobes short acute erect, 
central spreading wide emarginate. Stamens 4, didynamous, lower 
longer ascending, filaments adherent, anthers 2-locular, lobes parallel or 
divergent, margins ciliate. Style 2-fid, lobes subequal subulate. Nutlets 
3-quetrous apex truncate. — Species about 15, Oriental. 

* Lower axils armed with sterile spinescent bracts. 

1. Lagochilus cabulicus Bentli. ; stems pubescent, setose or 
glabrous, white, leaves palmately 3-5-fid, lobes oblong entire or incised 
obtuse or acute mucronate or not, calyx, hispid hirsute or glabrous, 
teeth oblong subcuneate obtuse mucronate longer than the tube, corolla 
tube short, upper lip villous. — Lagochilus cabulicus Bentli., DG. Prodr. 
xii, 515 ; Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 769. 

Gilgit ; Giles. Distrib. Afghanistan, Turkestan. . 

Stems 18 — 25 cm. high 4-augled smooth, leaves 2 cm. long 1'5 cm. 
across, petioles 1 cm., lobules 2 mm. across, only those of the uppermost 
leaves and bracts usually mucronulate, barren spines 8 — 10 mm. long 
glabrous, with a pair of minute lateral suberect spinules on upper sur- 
face near base, floral spines 22 — 25 mm. long, hispid setose or at length 
glabrous with the lateral spinules 10 mm. long, acerose and setose-hispid, 
calyx tube 5 mm., lobes 8 mm. long, 4'5 mm. across, margins of lobes 
hispid-haired, tips acuminate mucronulate. 

44. OTOSTEGIA Bentu. 

1. OtoSTEGIA limbata Boiss. in Flor. Orient, iv, 778 (1879) ; 
Benth. mss. in Flor. Brit. Ind. iv, 680 (1884). 

2. Otostegia Aucheri Boiss. ; glabrous, leaves subsessile ellqjtic- 
lanceolate acute with spinescent tips, quite entire, nerveless, bracts 
subulate spinescent. — O. Aucheri Boiss., Diagn. ser. v, 40 ; Bentli. in 
DG. Prodr. xii, 523; Jaub. et Spdch, III. PI. Or. iv, 124, t. 3S2 ; Boiss., 
Flor. Orient, iv, 778. 

British Beluchistan ; Nal, Duke ; Quetta, Lace, 3666 (in Herb. 
Watt.) Distrib. Throughout Beluchistan and S. Persia. 

An erect spiny bush branching below, young branches slender 4- 
angled green, spines 6 — 12 mm., leaves 2"5 cm. base narrowed, minutely 
puberulons below, smooth above, tips pungent, whorls distant, bracts all 
spiny rounded straight pungent, calyx sparsely hairy, throat naked, 
flowering 6 mm , turbinate with broad membranous 5-toothed limb, upper 
tooth ovate acuminate, lateral smaller, lower very large rounded spine- 



1890.] D. Praiu — Some additional species of Labiatse. 313 

tipped, corolla 13 mm., tube short, upper lip short emarginate villous, 
stamens exserted, nutlets smooth truncate flattened, 3 mm. long. 

Very closely related to Otostegia limbata Boiss. (Flor. Orient, iv, 
778) from which it differs by its glabrous habit, spinesceut-tipped leaves, 
bract-spines all rounded, broader lower calyx lobes and shorter corolla 
upper lip. 

45. LBUOAS R. Br. 

§ § Ortholeucas. 

* * Perennial rooted. Branches 4-angled, hairs on them erect or 
spreading (not deflexed). Calyx teeth not | the length of the tube. 

5 6. Leucas Collettii Prain ; everywhere densely softly silky 
with long spreading hairs, stems simple their hairs spreading and 
angles obtuse, leaves all sessile very small thick ovate acute, bases 
truncate or subcordate entire their margin elsewhere coarsely serrate, 
whorls many flowered, bracts linear short, calyx truncate teeth minute 
erect, corolla tube exannulate. 

Upper Burma; Popah hill, 5000, Collett n. 29. Distrib. S. China. 

Rootstock woody, stems short 8 — 15 cm. rather stout bluntly angled 
and distinctly grooved, leaves 15 cm. long 1*25 cm. wide close set softly 
silky below and above, calyx 5 mm. long, corolla 7 mm. long, tube not 
exserted. 

Very like a densely silky form of Leucas lanata from the dry hills 
of the Deccan (L. collina Dalz.) but easily distinguished on analysis 
by the calyx, within densely villous at the mouth only and not (as in all 
forms of L. lanata) sparsely hirsute throughout the upper third, and 
by the much shorter corolla without any trace of an annulus. 

48. NOTOCH^TE Benth. 

1. Notocilete hamosa Benth.; add to localities of Flora of Brit. 
India iv, 694. 

Assam : Naga Hills, 4000—6000 feet, Clarke, Prain. 

49. EREMOSTACHYS Bunge. 

4. Eremostachys thyrsiflora Benth.; root-leaves obtusely incised 
toothed narrowed into a long petiole, floral sessile oblong dentate, lower 
as long as flowers, whorls in lax 5 — 7-flowered cymes forming lax ra- 
cemes, the terminal flower of each cyme sessile, the others pedicelled along 
one side of the cyme branches, bracts 2, linear-subulate softly hairy erect 
as long as the calyx, calyx hoary-tomentose infundibuliform, teeth long 
subulate from a wide base shorter than the corolla.-— Eremostachys 



314 D. Prain— Some additional species of Labiate. [No. 4, 

thyrsiflora Benth., DO. Prodr. xii, 248; Boiss., Flor. Orient, iv, 797; 
Bnnge, Lab. Pers. 79; Begel, Acta Hort. Betrop. vi, 381 and ix, 567, 
(Monogr. Eremostach. 41), t. 9, f. 4, 5. 

Western Panjab ; Suleiman bills, Duke; Assigned districts, Hamil- 
ton; Lace. Distrib. Afghanistan {Griffith, Bellew) ; Belncbistan 
(Stocks'). 

Rootstock woody, stem short rather thick simple leafless hoary 
pubescent or glabrate 20 — 30 cm. high, radical petioles 3 — 6 cm. long, 
laminse 5 — 8 cm. long 3 — 4 cm. wide, floral leaves 4 cm. long 1*5 cm. 
wide, cymes 3 — 5 cm. long, bracts 20 — 30 mm. long 2 — 3 mm. wide, 
pedicels 1 — 3 mm. long, calyx tube 17 — 28 mm. long 8 mm. wide, teeth 
5 mm. long, corolla tube 22 mm. long, lips 9 mm. long, ovary densely 
villous. 

51. GOMPHOSTEMMA Wall. 

1 b. Gomphostemma Wallichii Prain; stems densely tomentose 
stout erect, leaves rugose, petioled truncate or subcordate at the base, 
margin sei'rate, apex acute, densely tomentose beneath, spikes erect inter- 
rupted, bracts truncate cordate at the base decreasing upwards, corolla 
tube hirsute within more than twice as long as calyx. — G. strobilinum 
TAR. elatius Benth. in Wall. Oat. n. 2151/2 and PI. As. Bar. ii, 12. — G. 
strobilinum Benth. Lab. 647 and DO. Prodr. xii, 500 ; Walp., Bep. iii, 
892 ; Miq., Flor. Ind. Bat. ii, 989 (all in part and not G. strobilinum 
Wall. Cat. n. 2151/1. — G. strobilinum var. typica Hook. /., Flor. Brit. 
Ind. iv, 696 (in part). — " G. elatius" Wall. wiss. 

Assam ; Naga Hills, Kohima, 4500 feet, Phesama, 4000 feet, Prain. 
Upper Burma; Taong-doung Mts, Wallich ; Karen hills, O'Biley ; Shan 
hills, at Pwehla, Gollett ; Maymyo, 4000 feet, King's collector. Distrib. 
Western Yunnan. 

Stems 200 — 250 cm. high, petioles 1 — 2 cm., laminae 11 — 14 cm. 
long-, 7 — 9 cm. wide, calyx 11 mm. long, corolla 30 mm. long, pale sulphur 
or white, rarely pink, bracts quite sessile cordate at the base, lower 
40 X 20 mm., upper 12 x 8 mm. 

The species resembles O. Heyneanum (G. strobilinum VAR. Heynea- 
num Hook, f.) which is, however, distinct and is recognised at once by 
its small purplish corollas hardly longer than the calyx. Its nearest ally 
is G. nutans which has the same calyx and corolla, but differs in having 
slender stems, small leaves and short drooping uninterrupted spikes. 
It is much less like G. strobilinum (type), with which Mr. Bentham 
associated it ; that species has larger leaves tapering towards the base, 
calyx softly tomentose with long hairs, corolla somewhat shorter and 
bracts much smaller, cuneate at the base and subequal along the spike. 



1890.] D. Pram— Some additional spocies of Labiate. 315 

2 6. Gomphostemma Curtisii Train; stems scabrid, leaves long- 
petioled ovate, or elliptic-ovate, denticulate, pubescent above tomentose 
beneath, whorls in large thyreoid, cymes along the old wood below the 
leaves, bracts equalling the calyx, entire lanceolate with filiform points, 
calyx lobes narrowly lanceolate, with filiform points, longer than the 
tube. — G. Curtisii Train in Ann. Hoy. Bot. Gard., Calcutta, iii, ined. 

Malay Peninsula; Perak, Wray n. 1233; Scoitechini n. 924. 
Penang, Curtis n. 1310. 

Stems flexuose 90 — 120 cm. long not rooting below, leaves distant, 
petioles 3 — 12 cm., laminas 8 — 12 cm. long, 5 — 7 cm. wide, cymes 5 — 6 
cm. long, bracts 10 — 15 mm. long, calyx 14 mm. long, corolla 28 mm. 
long, nutlets usually all matured, oblong, rounded above triquetrous 
below, glabrous, punctulate. 

Nearest to G. pedunculatnm from which it is distinguished by its 
narrower entire bracts and longer narrower calyx teeth as well as by its 
smaller leaves with longer petioles. As in G. pedunculatum the bracts 
and calyces are red-brown ; the corolla, however, is in this species white. 

6 b. Gomphostemma Scortechinii Prain ; stems, leaves beneath 
and whorls sparsely brown-tomentose, leaves short-petioled elliptic acute 
or oblanceolate acuminate entire or subserrate, or leaves glabrous 
beneath tomentose above, whorls many-flowered pedunculate, flowers 
pedicelled bracts small subulate, calyx ribbed teeth long triangular, 
corolla pubescent large. — G. Scortechinii Prain in Ann. Boy. Bot. Gard., 
Calcutta, iii, ined. 

Malay Peninsula; Perak, Gunong Ijok, ScortecMni n. 1225. 

Stems 60 — 100 cm., petioles - 5 — 1 cm. long, laminae 20 — 30 cm. 
long, 12 — 16 cm. wide, narrowed or not towards the base, bracts 8 mm. 
long, peduncles very short, pedicels 8 — 10 mm., calyx 22 mm. (teeth 
12 mm.), corolla 60 mm., upper lip emarginate, style bearded near top, 
nutlets 8 mm., ovate oblong, sparsely hairy at top. 

Near G. oblongum and G. lucidum ; differs from both in having 
peduncled whorls and pedicelled flowers, and is larger than either in all 
its parts. 

7 b. Gomphostemma Hemsleyanum Prain ; stems and leaves be- 
neath hoary -tomentose, leaves petioled rugose elliptic-ovate acute narrow- 
ed to the base, serrate, hirsute above, whorls sessile many-flowered, bracts 
lanceolate or linear shorter than the calyx, calyx teeth longer than tube, 
corolla not exceeding calyx, tube hirsute within. — G. Hemsleyanum 
Prain ex Coll. fy Hemsl., Jour. Linn. Soc. xxviii, 116; Ann. Boy. Bot. 
Gard., Calcutta, iii, ined. 

Upper Burma; Meiktila, Collett nn. 17, 887. 

Stems erect, over 60 cm. high, petioles 1 — 3 cm, long, lamina? 10 — 18 



316 D. Praia — Some additional species of Labiatse. [No. 4, 

cm. long, 4 — 7 cm. wide, calyx 14 mm. long, corolla 13 - 5 mm. long, 
incurved, nutlets subglobose smooth, usually all matured. 

A very distinct species. 

10 b. Gomphostemma microcalyx Train; stems woody and 
leaves beneath pubescent or tomentose, leaves long-petioled subrugose 
oblong or ovate, acute crenulate pubescent above, whorls small few- 
flowered sessile in the lower leaf-axils and on the stem below, bracts 
small ovate acute, calyx-tube narrow teeth very short triangular, corolla 
slender limb small glabrous. — Gomphostemma microcalyx Train in Ann. 
Toy. Tot. O.ard., Calcutta, iii, ined. 

Malay Peninsula ; Perak, Larut, Scortechini n. 942, Kunstler 
n. 2155, Wray n. 835 ; Ulu Bubong, Kunstler n. 10,455. 

Stems 60 — 150cm. high hoary, petioles 4 — 5 cm. Iong,lamin0e 12 — 15 
cm. long 7 — 9 cm. wide, base abruptly narrowed, whorls about 6-fld., 
bracts 6 — 7 mm. long, calyx 7 mm. long teeth 2 mm., corolla 26 mm., 
orange, tube very slender, throat hardly inflated, both lips small. 

Resembles G. Thomsoni but with a very different calyx and with 
much smaller fewer-flowered whorls and smaller leaves. 

53. TEUCRIUM Linn. 

§ Teucris. Teduncles opposite axillary 1 — 3 fld. racemose or pani- 
culate. Calyx campanulate equally 5-toothed. 

1*. Teucrium scindicum Train; hoary, stems many rigid shortly 
paniculately branched above, leaves ovate oi'bicular subpinnatisect seg- 
ments shortly narrowly linear margins recurved, pedicels \ exceeding 
calyx and bi'acts, calyx subglabrous shortly campanulate teeth triangu- 
lar shorter than tube, corolla longer than calyx lower lobe elliptic- 
cucullate obtuse, filaments exserted glabrous, nutlets minutely pruinose. 

Scinde: — Stocks; (specn. in Herb. Dalzell). 

An erect many-stemmed perennial with thickened rootstock, 30 — 40 
cm. high, leaves 14 — 16 mm. long 9 — 10 mm, wide, segments 6 mm. by 
0"5 — 1"5 mm., pedicels 8 mm., calyx 8 mm., (tube 5 mm. teeth 3 mm.), 
corolla 15 mm. long, central lip-segment 6 mm. long 5 mm. across, fila- 
ments 7 mm. long, nutlets 2'5 mm. elliptic, slightly rugulose. 

Near to P. Taylori to which Stocks in Herb. Dalzell had referred it 
but differs in having the filaments all glabrous whereas the anterior 
pair in P. Taylori are hirsute below ; from P. orientalis, which it also 
comes near, it differs in having the terminal lobe of corolla rounded 
instead of acute ; from P. parviflorum it differs in having the filaments 
exserted. It is diagnosed at once from all three by the teeth of the 
calyx being shorter than the tube. 

§ § Scorodonia. (P. B. I. iv, 700). 



1890.] D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatge. 317 

6 b. Teucrium Wattii Prain ; stem stout diffusely branched rufous- 
villous, leaves long-petioled oblong-ovate acute, base cuneate entire 
margin elsewhere sharply irregularly toothed, racemes panicled bracts 
linear-lanceolate hardly exceeding pedicels, calyx campanulate declinate, 
upper tooth rounded, 2 lower lanceolate, corolla tube subequalling 
calyx, terminal lobe ovate the four upper rounded obtuse. 

Manipur : — Kassome summit, 6000, Watt, n. 5,127. 

A straggling herb, stems 80 — J 20 cm. long almost terete below, 
densely rufous- villous with long spreading hairs, leaves 13 — 15 cm. 
long, 5 — 7 cm. across, membranous, nerves softly hirsute, petioles densely 
villous 5 — 7 cm. long, racemes rufous-villous, bracts 6 — 7 mm. long, 
pedicels 6 mm. long, calyx 7 mm. (tube 4 mm.) upper tooth ovate acum- 
inate twice as broad as rounded obtuse lateral and as long as lower 
pair conuivent lanceolate acute, teeth within and calyx throat setose, 
corolla tube 6 mm. long, lip 7 mm., filaments sparingly hairy. 

Nearest to T. quadrifarium from which it differs by the petioles 
being 3 times as long, the leaves cuneate not cordate at base, and 
membranous not rugose, and by the bracts which are inconspicuous 
instead of large ovate. The calyx in both is very similar but the 
corolla-tube is in T. Wattii longer and the upper pair of lobes are 
rounded like the lateral, not, as in T. quadrifarium, acute. 

§ § § Scordidm. (F. B. I. iv, 702). 

9. Teucrium serratum Bentk. ; perennial sparingly hairy or gla- 
brate, stems leafy, leaves small lanceolate serrate base cuneate apex acute, 
bracts lanceolate longer than flowers, branches long slender paniculate, 
whorls 2 — 4-fld. rather remote, pedicels i exceeding oalyx, calyx teeth 
triangular subequal shorter than campanulate gibbous tube, corolla \ 
exceeding calyx, filaments subexserted sparsely hirsute, nutlets small 
glabrous. — Teucrium serratum Benth., DO. Prodr. xii, 586 ; Boiss., Flor. 
Orient, iv, 813. 

N.-W. Himalaya ; Gilgit, Giles. Distrib. Afghanistan. 

Stems 25 — 40 cm. high, rootstock slender, leaves 30 — 45 mm. by 
8 — 14 mm . decreasing upwards, pedicels 9 — 11 mm. long, calyx 6 mm. 
long (tube 4 mm. teeth 2 mm.), corolla 8 mm. long, nutlets 15 mm., 
spherical, distinctly rugulose. 

Near P, Scordium Linn, which it follows and from which it differs 
by having leaves decreasing upwards instead of uniform, and acute 
at the apex instead of obtuse, also by having distinctly longer pedicels 
and a slightly smaller corolla. 

§ § § § Polium. Whorls condensed in ovate or globose terminal 
heads. Calyx tubular campanulate teeth subequal. 

10. Teucrium Stocksianum Boiss. ; dwarf shrubby densely hoary- 



318 D. Prain — Some additional species of Labiatoe. [No. 4, 1890.] 

pubescent, branching from the base with rigid tufted stemlets again 
decussately branching, leaves small elliptic subentire, heads few-fid. 
dense small, flowers small sessile, calyx campanulate hoary, teeth short 
ovate obtuse, corolla yellow f exceeding calyx, anthers exserted. — 
Teucrium Stocksianum Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, iv, 58 and Flor. Orient, iv, 
821.— T. leucocladum Herb. Incl. Or. H. f. Sf T., nee Boiss. 

Western Panjab : — Peshawar district, Stewart; Dera Ghazi 
Khan district, Alcock ; Dera Ismail Khan district, Williams ; Qnetta, 
Lace. Distrib. Beluchistan, S. Afghanistan. 

Rootstock stout woody, stems 10 — 12 cm., branches 3 — 5 cm., leaves 
13 mm. by 6 mm. apical third obtuse crenate, crenations shallow basal 
two-thirds cuneate entire, bracts 6 mm. by 3 mm. entire or slightly 
crenate at apex, calyx 6.5 mm. (tube 6 mm.), corolla 8 mm. Dr. Alcock 
has described this species in the field, his notes say inter alia " leaves 
" greyish green, odour highly aromatic, taste very bitter, flowers yellow ; 
" not met with below 5000 feet on the Suleiman hills." It is most 
nearly allied to T. leucocladum from Arabia and T. cuneifolium from 
Crete. 

[In concluding the Writer has to acknowledge his great indebtedness to Mi-. 
W. B. Hemsley, f. r. s. who has kindly compared specimens of the majority of 
the species here described with specimens at Kew. As is always the case there are 
a few points whereon opinions differ and in view of the fact that Mr. Hemsley's 
experience and skill are much the greater, the writer feels it only just to mention 
the chief of these, since they affect the systematic value of the plants concerned. 

Mr. Hemsley thinks that Plectranthus Brandisii (p. 296) might really be united 
to P. Stracheyi and that Scutellaria andamanica (p. 307) may be only a form of 
8. oblonga ; he believes too, that the two forms of Zataria (p. 300) are not specif- 
ically distinct but that the two forms included under Nepeta glomerulosa (p. 304) are. 
In the two last cases Mr. Hemsley is almost certain to be right ; in the two first 
it is possible that the writer has laid too great stress on the fact that both plants 
exist at elevations, and flower at seasons of the year different from those charac- 
terising the species which they respectively resemble. These characteristics may be 
only clue to their rather remote geographical areas ; in any case Scutellaria andaman- 
ica and Plectranthus Brandisii may be looked an as representative of S. oblonga 
and P. Stracheyi respectively. Still the corolla of S. andamanica is somewhat 
different from that of S. oblonga, and the calyx of P. Brandisii from that of P. 
Stracheyi. The prominent ruby-red glands characteristic of the outer surface of 
the calyx and under surface of the leaves of P. Stracheyi are absent from P. 
Brandisii which has leaves exactly like those of P. Walkeri and a calyx like that 
of P. Stocksii. 

On the other hand the writer believes Bysophylla communis (p. 299) to be only 
a form (hardly distinguishable as a variety) of D. auricularia.~] 

/-) 

AS" 




CONTENTS 

OF THE NATURAL HISTORY PART (PT. II.) OF THI 

JOURNAL OF TBE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BEKGAL FOR 1889. 



No. 1, (issued May 21st, 1889). A new Species and Genus of 
Coccidse. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. ("With Plate I.) — On the Species 
of Thelyphonus inhabiting Continental India, Burma, and the Malay 
Peninsula. — By Eugene W. Oates, E. Z. S. Communicated by The 
Superintendent op the Indian Museum. (With Plate II.) — Notes on 
Indian Rhynchota ; Heteroptera, No. 5. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. — 
On certain Earthworms from the Western Himalayas and Dehrd Bun. — 
By Alfred Gibes Bouene, D. Sc. (Loud.), C. M. Z. S., F. L. S., Fellow 
of University College, London, and Madras University. Communicated by 
The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate IJI.) — Notes 
on Assam Butterflies. — By William Dohertt, Cincinnati, U. S. A. 
Communicated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. (With 
Plate X.) 

No. 2, (issued September 3rd, 1889). The Tornadoes and Hailstorms 
of Apfil and May 1888 in the Boab and Eohilkhand. — By S. A. Hill, 
B. Sc, Meteorological Reporter to the Government of the N.-W. Provinces 
and Oudh. (With 6 Charts— Plates IV.— IX.) The Geometric Inter- 
pretation of Monge's Differential Equation of all Conies. — By Asutosh 
Mukhopadhtat, M. A., E. R. A. S., E. R. S. E. Description of a Stags 
Head allied to Cervus dybowskii, Tac., procured from the Darjeeling 
Bazaar. — By W. L. Sclater, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Mu- 
seum. (With Plate XI.) — On the Volatility of some of the compounds of 
Mercury and of the metal itself. — By Alex. Pedler. — Some applications 
of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean Values, (First Paper). — By 
Asutosh Mukhopadhtat, M. A., E. R. A. S., F. R. S. E. (With a 
Wood-cut). — Some applications of Elliptic Functions to Problems of Mean 
Values (Second Paper). — By Asutosh Mukhopadhyat, M. A., E. R. A. S., 
P. R. S. E. — A Descriptive List of the Uredinese, occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood of Simla (Western Himalayas). Part II. Puccinia. — By A. 
Barclat, M. B., Bengal Medical Service. (With Plates XIL— XIV.)— 
Definitions of three new Homoptera. — By M. L. Lethierrt. Communi- 
cated by E. T. Atkinson, Esq. — Notice of a Neolithic Celt from Jashpur 
in the Chota Nagpur District. — By J. Wood-Mason, Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, and Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College of Bengal, Calcutta. (With Plate XV.) 



No. 3, (issued November 7th, 1889). Noviciae Indicze I. Some 
additional species of Pedicularis. — By D. Prain. Communicated by Dr. 
Gr. King, F. R. S — Natural History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Marine 
Survey Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., 
D. S. O., commanding. — No. 10. List of the Pleuronectidae obtained in 
the Bay of Bengal in 1888 and 1 889, ivith descriptions of new and rare 
species. — By Alfred Alcock:, M. B., (Aber.), Surgeon-Naturalist to the 
Marine Survey. (With Plates XVI., XVIL, and XVIII.)— Natural 
History Notes from H. M.'s Indian Survey Steamer 'Investigator,' Com- 
mander Alfred Carpenter, R. N., D. S. O., commanding. — No. 12. 
Descriptions of some new and rare species of Fishes from the Bay of Bengal, 
obtained during the season of 1888-89. — By Alfred Alcock, M. B., 
(Aber.), Surgeon-Naturalist to the Marine Survey, (With Plate XXII.) — 
The Ethiopian and Oriental Bepresentatives of the Mantodean Sub-family 
Vatidas. — By J. Wood-Mason, Superintendent of the Indian Museum, and 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical College of Bengal, 
Calcutta. 

No. 4, (issued December 27th, 1889). On the Tortoises described as 
Chaibassia. — By R. Lydekker, B. A., F. Gr. S. — E'tude sur les Arachnides 
de V Himalaya recueillis par MM. Oldham et Wood-Mason et faisant partie 
des collections de V Indian Museum. Ire Partie. Par E. Simon. Communi- 
cated by The Superintendent of the Indian Museum. — Notes on Indian 
Rotifers.— By H. H. Anderson, B. A. (With Plates XIX.— XXI.) 
Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. — By George Xing, 
M. B., LL. D., F. R. S., F. L. S., Superintendent of the Boyal Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta. — On certain Lycaenidae from Lower Tenasserim. — By 
William Dohertt, Cincinnati, U. S. A. Communicated by The Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum. Communicated by The Superinten- 
dent of the Indian Museum. (With Plate XXIII). 



0-}- 12 




SEW SlISISS. 



VOL MX. 



c< xcvi. ^Z^ j» 



JOURNAL 

OP THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 

Vol. LIX, Part II— 1890. 

SUPPLEMENT, No. 1. 

EDITED BY 
J. WOOD-M.ASON, Esq^ 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 



I,. 





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within these limits its inquiries will be extended to whatever is performed by 
man or produced by nature."— Sib William Jones. 

%• Communications should be sent under cover to the Secretaries, Asiat. Soc., 
to whom all orders for the work are to be addressed in India ; or, in 
London, care of Messrs. Triibner and Co., 57 $ 59, Ludgate Hill. 



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fRINTED BY J. jS. JSllITH, piTY fRESS, 12, ^ENTINCK ^T., 

AND PUBLISHED BY THE 

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1890. 







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Issued April 7th, 1890. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL 



Part II.— NATURAL SCIENCE. 

SUPPLEMENT.-1890. 



1 — Catalogue of the Insecta of the Oriental Region. No. 2, Order 
Coleoptera, Family Carabidae. — By E. T. Atkinson, B. A. 

Dr. Horn writes that the Carabidm form one of the members of the 
Adephagous series of Coleoptera, which ' is readily recognized by the 
predaceous character of its mouth parts, its slender antennae (except in 
the Gyrinidas), pentamerous tarsi, and the structure of the first 
abdomiual segment, which is in all cases divided or hidden by the posterior 
coxae in such a manner that it is entirely lateral, rarely appearing as 
a small triangular piece between the posterior coxse.' 

The classification of the Carahidcs is still unsettled, and, notwithstand- 
ing the very great attention paid to this group, there is no generally 
recognized arrangement that can be followed for the species of the 
Oriental Region. The number of groups, their extent, relative position, 
and nomenclature, still leave much to be desired. Leconte, t writing in 
1862, remarked: — 'Numerous efforts have been made to Indicate a 
rational distribution of the genera, and the attempts commenced by 
Latreille and Bonelli, and successively improved by the suggestions of 
Dejean, Erichson, Schiodte, Lacordaire, and myself, have finally, in the 
expert hands of Schaum, * assumed a form in which probably permanent 
results have been obtained.' 

•f- ' Classification of the Coleoptera of North America,' in Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, 1862. 

* Naturg. Ins. Deutschl. I860, and ' Das system der Carabicinen,' in Berlin. Ent. 
Zeits., iv, 1860, p. 161. 



2 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Snpplfc. 

Following the suggestions of the later authors, Leconte divided the 
whole family into three sub-families, formed thus : — ■ 
Middle coxse distant ; 

EDimera of the mesonotum reaching the coxse ... 1. Carabid.,e. 
Epimera of the mesonotum not reaching the cosse ... 3. Harpalioe. 
Middle coxse contiguous ... ... ... 2. Oz^nio^e. 

In the Carabidce, he placed the tribes Omophronini, Hiletini, C'arabini, 
and Scaritini. To the second sub-family he attached the Ozcenini and 
Pseudomorphini, and all the rest to the third sub-family. Leconte, 
writing of the Coleoptera of North America, did not indicate the position 
of the extra-American genera. 

In 1880, t Kolbe, starting with the hypothesis that the land-beetles are 
later than the water-beetles, and that the points common to both are 
of primary value in classification, divided the family ' Carnivora ' into sis 
sections, which are further subdivided into groups. His arrangement, 
however, does not help us, and the placing of the family Cicindelidce as 
a simple subsection of one of his groups does not appear to be correct. 

In 1881, Dr. G. H. Horn, J reviewed the genera of the Carabidce of 
North America, and, in doing so, gave the following arrangement of the 
Adephagous families, which is followed in the present catalogue : — 

I. Metasternum with an ante-cosal piece, separated by a well- 
marked suture, reaching from one side to the other, and 
extending in a triangular process between the coxae. 
Antenuse 1 1 -join ted : posterior cosse mobile and simple; habits 

terrestrial. 
Antennse inserted on the front above the base of the mandibles : 

Ciciridelidce. 

Antennae arising at the side of the head, between the mandibles 

and the eyes : Carabidce. 

Antenna? 10-jointed : posterior coxse fixed, and with large plates 

almost entirely concealing the abdomen : habits aquatic : 

Haliplidcv. 
II. Metasternum with a very short ante-coxa! piece, the suture in- 
distinct, posteriorly not prolonged between the coxse : habits 
aquatic : legs ambulatorial : anterior coxse globular : 

Ampkizoidce. 
Legs natatorial : anterior coxse conical : Pelobiidce. 

t Natiirliehes System der Carnivores Coleoptera, in Deutsche Ent. Zeits., xxiv, 
1880, p. 258. 

% s On the genera of the Carabidse, with special reference to the fauna of Boreal 
America,' in Trans Amer. Ent. Soc, 1880, p. 91-196. 



•1890.J 



E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabida?. 



III. Metasternum prolonged behind in a triangular process, the ante- 
coxal piece entirely wanting : habits aquatic. 
Antenna? slender, filiform or setaceous, abdomen with six seg- 
ments : eyes two : Dyliscidas. 
Antennae irregular, very short : abdomen with seven segments 
of which the first two are closely united : eyes four : Gyrinidce. 
The Carabidce are divided into three sub-families : — 
Middle coxal cavities not entirely enclosed by the sterna, the epimeron 
of the mesosternura attaining the coxse : Carabines. 
Middle coxal cavities entirely enclosed by the sterna, the epimeron of 
the mesosternum not attaining the coxa?. 

Head without antennal grooves beneath and with distinct super-orbital 
setse : ambulatorial setse of abdomen usually well developed. Earpalince. 
Head with distinct, usually long, antennal grooves beneath, and with- 
out distinct super-orbital setse : ambulatorial setse of the abdomen 
feeble or wanting. Pseudomorphi?ice. 

The Harpalinse are further subdivided into two sections, the first iu 
which the head has two super-orbital setigerous punctures, the second in 
which there is but oue. The groups iucluded in the subfamilies are as 
follows : — 



13. Promceog>iathini.2o. Licinini. 



26. Platynini. 

27. Anchonoderini. 

28. Ctenodactylini. 

29. Odacanthini. 

30. Dryptini. 

31. Mormolycini. 

32. Agrini. 

33. Egini. 

34. Lebiini. 

35. Helluonini. 

36. Graphipterini, 

37. Anthiini. 



38. Cratocerini. 

39. Orthogonini. 
Harpalinse II 

40. Brachynini. 

41. Apottnniui, 

42. JBroscini. 

43. Zaeotini 

44. Peleciini. 

45. Chlmnini. 

46. Zabrini. 

47. Harpalini, 

48- Pseudomorphinss 



Carabinse. 

Omophrotdni. 14. Enceladini. 

Trachypachini. 15. Scaritini. 
Cychrini. Harpallnsa I. 

Carabini. 16. Panagaaiiii. 

Parnbcrini. 17. Siagonini. 

q. Hilctini. 18. Ozcsnini. 

7. Maphrini. 19. jVomtmi. 

8. Loricerini. 20. Psydrini. 

9. Nebriini. 21. Moriotiim. 

10. Migadopini. 22. Bembidii»i. 

11. Mttriini. 23. Pogonini. 

12. Mystropomini. 24. Pterostichi.ni. 

Several of these groups are further subdivided, but these details need 
not be noticed here. 

M. Borr6 writes of this arrangement : — ' Beaucoup des genres prennent 
ainsi des places bien differentes de celles ou nous sommes accoutumes do 
les voir • deja, dans l'arraugement des tribus, nous avons pu voir que des 
affinites consaciees par un usage pour ainsi dire general, sont tout a 
fait brisSes, etje dois dire avec justice, car tous ceux qui out approfondi 
uu peu la matiere le savent, il n'y avait dans notre classification que trop 
de traces de cette mesquine etude que Ton peut 1'appeler l'eutomologie 



4 E, T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidf©. [Supplfci 

de clocher, c'est-a-dire que les premiers auteurs s'etaient uais en route 
avec l'insou tenable prejuge que notre petite Europe allait nous offrir 
l'abrege" exact de la nature du globe, et la possibility de formuler par 
elle seule le systeme de cette nature.' The arrangement, however, has 
been adopted in Leconte and Horn's edition* of Leconte's work on the 
classification of American Coleoptera already noticed, and in most of the 
later European catalogues. There still remains the task of amalgamat- 
ing the groups of all countries in one list. 

Another attempt at the classification of the Carabidce has been made 
by M des Gozis.f This is based principally on the presence or absence 
of setigerous pores in the pronotum. He distributes the genera into six 
sections, but this arrangement appears to bring together genera incon- 
gruous in other respects, Oodini, Omophronini, Dryptlni and Zabrini in 
the first group ; Brachynini and Harpalini in the second group ; whilst the 
fifth group contains an agglomeration of apparently widely distinct 
genera. 

Mr. Sharp, in a paperj on the Carahidos, quotes Leconte's remarks 
already noticed, and adds : — 'The learned and energetic American expert 
had himself contributed greatly, probably as much or more than any 
other of the authors he mentions, to the rational system of classification 
he describes, and had no doubt doue so at the expense of great labour 
and time, but the lapse of time has not altogether justified his expression 
of reliance as to the permanency of the results then reached. Duval, 
Ohaudoir, C. J. Thomson and others have worked, since Leconte, at the 
classification of these insects, and each has contributed more or less 
to our knowledge, and has thus induced change. The genera of a large 
number of groups have been entirely remodelled by Chaudoir ; while of 
the larger groups it may be truly said that at present but little accord 
exists as to their limits and arrangement, except iu the case of certain 
comparatively small and isolated groups.' 

Mr. Sharp further remarks : — ' Indeed I am, myself, of opinion thafe 
classification of the groups superior in complexness to genera is at pre- 
sent (1883) so extremely far from approximation to the actual facts, and 
that these groups will thus probably in future assume a totally different 
form, that we should do well to refrain from giving them names at all, 

* ' Classification of the Coleoptera of North America,' by J.L. Leconte and Gr. H. 
Horn, in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1883 ; and separate, 1888. Bibli- 
ography of the American Carabidce, ib., p. 536. 

t ' Memoire sur les pores setigeres prothoraciques dans la tribu des Carnivores,' in 
MT Sehwe. Ent. Ges. vi, 1882, p. 285. 

X Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1883, p. CI, ' On the classification of the Adephaga, OF 
carnivorous series of the Coleoptera.' 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. J 

and contenting ourselves with the simple method of numbering the 
tribes or groups, instead of naming them.' As pointed out by Mr. Sharp, 
the number of tribes, or groups of genera, in each sub-family is greater: 
than those given by Dr. Horn, whose investigations refer mainly to the 
species of North America. Mr. Sharp also remarks that, in the case of 
many of the tribes adopted by Dr. Horn, that writer makes use of the 
same names for them as have been used by his predecessors, although 
giving to those names a widely different extension or meaning. Though 
this is the usual plan, it gives to classifications a false appearance of 
accord and permanence, and also, by giving to the names the sanction of 
long use, tends to make them appear in the eyes of many of more 
importance than they are in fact. With these remarks I thoroughly 
concur, and any one who has had to study the literature of the Carabidce, 
will, I am sure, endorse them. In preparing this paper, I have found 
that it would be possible almost to count as a group* each genus, and I 
consider the best course is to arrange the genera as near as possible in 
the groups that have been established with some authority, and then to 
give fairly full referencest, which those who have the knowledge and 
material can hereafter work out for themselves. I possess neither the 
time nor the material necessary for this purpose, and my object is merely 
to help others by giving a list of the recorded species from the Oriental 
Region .% 

Bates H. :— 

On the group Pericalini : — Ent. Mon. Mag., vi. 1869. p. 69. 

„ „ Laclinophorinl : — I.e. viii. 1871. p. 29. 
Biologia Centrali- Amer. , Col. i (i), 1881. 

Bonelli, F. A. :— 

'Observations entoinologiques,' in Memoires de 1' Academie Irnperiale des 
Sciences, Litterature et Beaux-arts, classe de Physique et de Mathematique, pour les 
annees, 1809-10. Turin, 1809, p. 21 : ibid., 1813 p. 442. [My copy does not 
contain the tab. syn. quoted by authors.] 

Brulle, A. :— 

Histoire naturelle des Insectes, par M M Audouin et Brulle. (Coleopteres). 
iv-vi. Paris, 1834. 

* Let any one compare the notes in the Zoological Becord for a series of years, 
and he will at once appreciate the extent of the existing confusion, which the 
Zoologischer JahresbericM got over by giving the genera in alphabetical order. 

t A list follows of the principal papers of Chaudoir, Putzeys, Bates, and others 
on classification. 

% A few extra-Oriental species, marked by an asterisk, are given from the collection 
made by the Yarkand Mission of which the types are in the Indian Museum. The 
species identified in the Indian Museum have the precise locality in aDgular brackets, 



iJ E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidae, [Supplt. 

Cliaudoir, M. le Baron de : — 

Bulletin de la Soclete Impe'riale des Natural Istes, Moscou. 
1.— Genres nouveaux et especes nouvelles des Carabiques, ib. : — x (3), 1837, p, 

1 ; (7) p. 3. 
2. — Tableau d'une nouvelle subdivision du genre Feronia. il>., xi (1), 1838, p. 1. 
3— Genres nouveaux ib.—xv, 1842, p. 832 ; xvi, 1843, p. 383. 671. 
4. — Trois Memoires sur la famille des Carabiques : ib., xvii, 1844, p. 415. 
5.— Note sur le groupe des Stomides : tb., xix (2), 1846, p. 511. 
6.— Memoire sur la famille des Carabiques, I., ib., xxi (1)., 1848, p. 1 :— Odacan. 
thin i (p. 26), Pericalus (111). II. ib., xxiii (1), 1850, p. 1 :— Drypta, p. 
33, Anthia (41), Callida(51), Catascopus (349), Coptodera (356), Pristony- 
chus (379), Dicranoncus (392). Callistus (394), Lasiocera (402), Omopbron 
(424). Ill, ib., xxv (1), 1852, p. 1 :-Triplogenius (p. 71). IV, ib., xxvii 
(1), 1854, p. 112, 279 :— Ozaenini (p. 279). V, ib., xxviii (1), 1855, p. 1 :— 
Scaritini (p. 5). VI, ib., xxix (3), 1856, p. 187 :— Chlaenini, xxx (3) f 
1857, p. 1. 
7. — Materiaux pour servir a l'6tude des Cicindeletes et des Carabiques, ib., xxxiii 
(4), 1860, p. 269 (Cizmdclidai) : xxxiv (1), 1861, p. 491 :— Cychrinii (p. 
493), Carabini (502), Nebriini (504), Opisthius (505), Hiletini (506), Den- 
drocellus (545), Drypta (546), Galerita (551), Anthia (561) : ib.{2), p, 335 : 
— Revision de 1' ancien genre Panagaeus : — Epieosmus (p. 335), Perono- 
merus (354), Euschizomerus (354). 

ib., xxxv (4), 1862, p. 275 :— Casnonia (p. 275), Dicraspeda (300) 
Helluodes (302), Physotocraphus (303), Pogonoglossus (304), Zuphium 
(310). 
8. — Essai monographique sur le genre Abacetm, xlii (1), 1869, p. 355. 
9. — Monographic des Graphipte rides, ib., xliii (1), 1870, p. 281. 
10.— Monographic des Lebudes, ib., xliii (2), 1870, p. Ill :— Dictya' (p. 123), 
Nematopeza (146), Lebia (162) : ib., xliv (1), 1871, p. 1 :— Stephanas 
(p. 55). 
11.— Observations sur quelques genres des Carabiques, ib., xlv (1), 1872, p. 382 : — 

Callistomimus (p. 382), Casnonia (397). 
12. —Materiaux pour servir a l'6tude des Feruniens ; — xlvi (2), 1873, p. 85 ; ib., 

xlviii (1), 1874, p. 1 :-Aepsera (p. 29). 
13. — Etude monographique des Masoreides, et des Tetragonoderides, ib.,\\ (3), 
1876, p. 1 :— Caphora (p. 8), Masortus (11), Cyclosomus (27), Tetragono- 
derus (33), Mnuphorus (69), Tilius (71). 
14. — Monographie des Siagonides, ib., 1 (1), 1876, p. 62 : — Siagona (p. 76), 

Coscinia (115). 
15. — Genres nouveaux et especes inedites des Carabiques : — ib., liii (3), 1878 
p. 1 : — Rhathymus (p. 7), Tropidocerus (9), Abacetus (25), Triplogenius 
(31). 
16. — Essai monograghique sur les Morionides, ib., lv (1), 1880, p. 317 :— Morio, 
Morionidius. 

Annales de la Society Fntotnologique de France. 
1. — Genres et especes des Carabiques nouveaux :— iv, 1837, p. 429. 
2.— Monographie du genre Coif odes, Macleay :— (3 s.) vii, 1859, p. 287. 
3. — Revision des genres Dieranoneus and Colpodes; (5 s.) viii, 1878, p. 275. 
4.— Monographie des Oodides :— (6 s.) ii, 1882, p. 317, 485. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidge. 7 

L'Abeilh. 
1 — Monographie du genre Pcecilus : — xvi, 1876, p. 1. 

Annates de la Sociite Entomologiqiw de Belgique. 
1.— Revision du groupe des Ozenides, xi, 1867-68, p. 43 : — Picrus (p. 45), Itamus 

(51), Eustra(71). 
2.— Revision des Trigonotomides, I. c, p. 151 : — Triplogenius (p. 154), Trigono- 

toma (158). 
3. — Memoire sur les ThyriopUrides, xii, p. 113 : — Brachichila (p. 123), Tantillus 
(126), Sinurus (129), Mormolyce (131), Serrimargo (134), Peripristus 
(135), Thyreopterus (141), Miscelus (152), Holcoderus (153), Catascopus 
(158), Pericallus (158). 
4. — Memoire sur les Coptoderides, ib., p. 163 : — Coptodera (p. 163), Lioptera 

(208), Moctherus (240), Dolichoctis (245), Brachyctis (252). 
5. — Essai monographique sur le groupe des Pogonides, ib., xiv, 1870-71, p. 21 : — 

Pogonus (p. 23), Patrobus (40). 
6.— Essai monographique sur les Orthogoniens, ib., xiv, 1870-71, p. 95 : — Ortho- 

gonius (p. 98), Hexachaetus (124), Actenoncns (126). 
7. — Essai monographique sur les Drimostomides et les Cratocerides, ib., xv, 1872, 

p. 5 :— Drimostoma (p. 9), Stomonaxus (13), Diceromerus (15). 
8.— Monographie des Callidides, ib., xv, 1872, p. 97 :— Callida (p. 103), Crossoglos- 

sa (177), Bothynoptera (181), Endynomena (186). 
9. — Monographie des Braehynides, ib., xix, 1876, p. 11 :— Pheropsophus (p. 16), 
Brachynus (49), Styphlomerus (87), Mastax (97). 
10. — Essai monographique sur les Fanag Sides, ib., xxi, 1878, p. 83 : — Brachyonychus 
(p. 86), Epicosmus (104), Eudema (133), Microcosmus (139), Dischissus 
(149), Euschizomerus (157), Peronomerus (162), Trichisia (164). 
11.— Monographie des Scaritides ib., xxii, 1879, p. 124-181 ; xxiii, 1880, p. 5- 
130 :-Oxylobus (p. 129), Coptolobus (159), Distichus (p. 44), Scarites 
(63.) 

Annali Huseo Civieo di Genova. 

1.— Monographie des Chlenieyis .•— viii, 1876, p. 5 :— CMaenius (p. 10J, Hololius 

(290), Rhopalistes (291). 
2. — Fironides from Australia :— vi, 1874, p. 568 .• Harpaliens from Australia, 

xii, 1878, p. 475. ' 

Clalrville, J. de : — 

Entomologie Helv6tique, ou Catalogus des insectes (Coleopteres) de la Suisse. 
Zurich, 1798 ; vol. ii, 1806. 
Curtis, J. :— 
British Entomology being Illustrations and Descriptions of the genera of insects 
found in Great Britain and Ireland. London, 1823—40. 

Dejean, P. F.:— 

Species general des Coleopteres. Paris, 1825 — 31. 

Iconographie et Histoire naturelle des Coleopteres d'Europe. Paris, 1829-40. 
Erichson, W.F. :— 

Die Kiifer der Mark Brandenburg. Berlin, 1837, 1839. 
Fabricius, J. C. : — See Cat. Capsidce, p. 28. 



8 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidae. [Supplt. 

Fischer, G. : — 
Entomographia imperii Russici, iii, Moscow, 1825-28. 

Herbst, J. F. W. :— 
Kritische9 Verzeiehniss meiner Iasecten-Sammlung (Col.), i» Archives de Y histoire 
des insectes par J. Flisly, 1784 ; in French by Winterthiir, 1794. 

Kirby, W, : — 
Fauna boreali-Americana, Zool., iv. Norwich, 1837. 

Lacordaire, J, T, :— Genera des Coleopteres. I, Paris, 1854. 
Faune entomologique des environs de Paris. Paris, 1835. 

Latrellle, P. A. :— 

Histoire naturelle generale et particuliere des Crustaces et des Insectes. Paris, 

1802-1805. 
Genera Crustaceorum et Inseetorum, secundum ordinem naturalem in familias 
disposita, &c. Paris, i, iii, 1806—7. 
MetschoulsSsy, V. : — 
A list, of the genera and species described by this author (1834 —1867) will be found 
in the Supplement to vol. iv of the Horae Societatis entomologicae Rossicae. 
St. Petersburg, 1868. 
Enumeration des nouvelles especes des Coleopteres rappirtes de ses voyages iv, 

Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 171, 297 ; ib., xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 227. 
Essai d'une Catalogue des Insectes de l'ile Ceylon. Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (1), 
1861, p. 95. 
Olivier, A. G. :— 
Entomologie ou Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Paris, 1789 — 1808, 

Panzer G. W. F. :— 

Faunae inseetorum Germanise initia. Nurnberg. 1793 — 1809. 
Putzeys, J : — 

1.— Monographic des divines et des genres voisins. Mem.de la Soc. Roy. Liege, 
ii, 1846. 

2. — Postscriptum ad Clivinidarum Monographiam, I. c, xviii, 1862. 

3. — Revision geuerale des Clivinides, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866-67, p. 1-225, 

4. — Supplement a la Revision generate des Clivinides, I.e., xi, 1867-68, p. 1-22. 

5. — Deuxieme supplement a la meme, I. c. s xvi, 1873, p. 10. 

6. — Monographic des Calathides, I. c., xvi, p. 19. 

7. — Broscosoma, Carabidum genus novum. Brussels, 1846. 

g. — Les Broscides, Stettin Ent., Zeit., 1868, p. 304 -.—Broscosoma, p. 253. 

9. —Etude sur les Amara de la Collection de Chaudoir. Liege, 1866. 
1 0. — M onographie des Amara. L'Abeille, 1871, p. 100. 
H._Trechorum oculatorum monographia. Stettin Ent. Zeit., 1870. 
Stephens, J. F : — 

Illustrations of British Entomology, or a Synopsis of indigenous insects. Mandi- 
bnlata. Col. I— VI: London, 1828—32. 

A Manual of British Coleoptera. London, 1839. 

A Systematical catalogue of British Insects. London, 1829, 
Wiedemann, C. R. W. •— 

Zoologisches Magazin, Vol. i. (3), 1819 ; ii (1), 1823. 

Germar's Magazin der Entomologie, iv. 1821, p. 107. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse, 9 

OMOPHRONINI :_ 

Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 1854, p, 41 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 105 : Lecoute and 
Horn, Class, Col. , 1883, p. 6. 

Genus OMOPHRON. 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. Ins., iii, 1802, p. 89 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 42 : Muu. 
Cat., p. 42 : Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., 18fiS. r» 54 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Ainer. 
Col., i, p. 19. 

Epactius, Schneider (1791), teiU B jrgr., Berlin. Ent. Zeits., 1884, p. 229. 

Homophron, Zool. Rec, 1875, p. 279. 

ScolytuB, pt. Fabr., Ent. Syst., i, 1792, p. 180. 

greoiiiitjhamae, Pascoe, Jour. Ent., i, 1860, p. 38. 
Hab. India. 

maculo:;";, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 424. 
Hab. N. India. 

rectus (Scolytus), Wiedemann, Zool, Mag., ii (1), 1823, p. C9. 
Hab. India, Bengal. 

vlttatus (Scolytvs), Wiedemann, I. c, p. 69. 
Hab. India, Bengal. 

CYCHRINI :- 

Horn, Gen. Carab., 1881, p. 107 : Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., 1883, p. 7. 

[ M. Gehin (Cat. Carab, 1885) places the Cyehrini with the CaraMni 
which he describes as comprising three genera, designated sub-tribes by 
him, Cychrus, Carabus and Calosoma, each with numerous sub-divisions. 
M. Gehin writes : — " Tous les groupes que je viens d'examiner ont pou 
moi le meme valeur systematique, ce sont des sous-genres des Carabus, 
Calosoma et Cychrus. Si dans le synopsis j'ai fait pr^ceder leur nom des 
mots ' genre' ou ' sous-genre "; c'est pour montrer le peu d'harmonie qui 
existe entre les entomologistes". For the reasons given by Dr. Horn 
(I, c. supra), the Cyehrini are retained as a separate group, and I give 
the other names as subgenera or synonyms, except Coptolabrus and 
Damaster which appear to be well established genera] . 

Genus CYCHRUS. 

Fabricius, Skrift. Nat. Selsk., iii (2), 1794, p. 68-71 : Clairv., Ent. Hel., ii, p. 116 
t. 19 : Latr., Hist. Crust., iii, p. 90 : Lacord,, Gen. Col., i, p. 62 : Chaudoir, Bull. 
Mosc, xxxiv (1), 1861, p. 493 : Mun. Cat., p. 82 : Gehin, Cat., 1885, p. xxxvi, 73. 

Brennus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 311 : Gehin, Cat., p. 
xxxv ii, 75. 

Irichrous, Newman, Ent. Mag., v., 1838, p. 385 : Gehin, Cat., p. 71, 

Pemphus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 312 : Gehin, Cat., 
p. xxxvi, 73. 

Scaphonotus, Latreille, Ic. Regue Anim., i, 1822, p. 87: Mun, Cat., p, 84 : 
Gehin, Cat., p, xxxvi, 71. 

B 



10 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidae. [Supplt. 

SpTiaerodevus, Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p, 14 : Mun, Cat , p, 84 : Gehin, Cat. 
p. xxxvi, 72, 
Davldis, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr,, (6s.) vi, 1886, p. 307. 

Hab. Yunnan. 
yunaanus, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887, p. 90. • 

Hab. Yunnan, 

CARABINI :- 

Horn, Gen, Carab,, p. 108 : Leconte and Horn, Class, Col., p. 9. 

Genus CARABUS. 

Linn., Syst. Nat., i (2), 1707, p. 668 : Lacord,, Gen. Col., i, p, '"' , udoir, Cnll. 

Mosc, xxxiv (1), 1861, p. 502 : Mun. Cat., p. 57 : Gehta, Cat. Carab:, 1885, p. xi, 
xxv : Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeits., 1878, passim ; xxx, 1886, p. 225 ; Morawitz, 
Mem, Acad, St. Petersb., xxxiv, 9, 1886, p. 1. 

Acoptolahrus, Morawitz, Mem. Acad. St, Petersb., xxxiv (9), 1886, p. 17. 

Alogocarabus, Morawitz, l..c, p. 60. 

Aplothorax, Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., iii, 1842, p. 207 : Lacord 

Gen. Col., i, p. 68 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxviii, 54. 
Apotomopterus, Hope, Col. Man., ii, 1838, p. 48 : Motsch., Bull. Mosc, 

xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 28\=lto?phooarabiM, Gehin, Cat., p. 16. 
ArcMcarabus, Seidlitz, Fauna Baltica (2 ed.), 1887, p. 6 : Kraatz, Deutsche 

Ent. Zeits., xxxi, 1887, p. 362. 
Autocarabus, Seidlitz, I, c, p. 7 : Kraatz, I. e. supra, p. 362. 
Axinooarabus, Morawitz, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb., xxxiv (9), 1886, p. 55. 
Calocarabus, Sem6now, Hor. Ent. Ross., xxi, 1887, p. 166. 
Cathaicus, Bates, Ent. Mon. Mag., 1872, p. 32 : Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. 

Zeits., 1878, p. 151 : Gehin, Cat., p. xv, 13. 
Cechenes, Fischer, Ent. Imp. Buss,, i, 1822, p. 110 : Gehin, Cat. p. xxiv, 39. 
Cechenochilus, Motsch., Ins. Buss., 1846, p. 74, note. : Gehin, Cat., p. xxiv. 
Ceroglossus, Solier, Mem. Acad. Turin., 1848, p. 10 ; id., Truqui and Baudet, 

Stud. Ent., p. 49 : Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 283 : Gehin, 

Cat., p. xxviii, 54. 
Clicetocarabus, G. Thorns., Op. Ent,, 1875, p. 654 : Gehin, Cat., p, xxv, 40. 
Chcelomelas, G. Thorns., I.e., p. 635 : Gehin, Cat., p. xii, 5. 
Chrysooarabus, G. Thorns., I.e., p. 692 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxv, 41. 
Cratocephalus, Kirsch, Stettin, Ent., Zeit., 1859, p. 199 : Gehin, Cat., p. 

xvi, 13. 
Ctenocarabus, G. Thorns, Op. Ent., 1875, 683 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxvi, 44. 
Eucarabus, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. xxi, 29. 

Eupachys, Chaudoir, Stettin, Ent. Zeit., 1857, p. 80 : Gehin, Cat., p. xvi, 13. 
Eurycarabus, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. xxi, 33 : Kolbe, Ent. Nachr., xii, 1886 

p. 273. 
Eutelocarabus, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. xix, 22. 
Goniagnathus, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent, Zeits., 1883, p. 361 : Gehin, Cat,, 

p. xvii, 14. 
Goniocarabus, Gehin, Cat., p. xvii, note, = preceding. 
Hadrflcarahus, G. Thorns, Op. Ent, 187C, p. 646 : Gehin, Cat., p. xvi, 13 : 

Ganglb., Deutsche Ent. Zeits., 1886, p. 228. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 11 

Hemic arabus, Gehiri, 1876 ; Cat., p. xix, 24. 

Hygrocarabus, G. Thorns., Op. Ent., 1875, p. 682 ; Gehin, Cat,, p. xix, 25, 
Ininpachys, Solier, Mem. Acad. Turin., 1848, p. 10 ; id,, Truqui & Baudet's 
Stud. Ent., i, p. 58 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxiv, 40. 

Ischnocarabus, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zei f s., 1877, p, 78 : Gehin, Cat., p. 

xiii, 8. 
Zamprocarabus, G. Thorns Opusc. Ent., 1875, p. 673, Gehin, Cat., p. 9. 
Lainprostus, Motsch., E M bc xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 297 : Gehin, Cat., p, 

xiv, 8 

pt - ., Cat., y. xxiii, 36, 

Limnoaarabn' \ urehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. xx, 25. 

■ „er, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4,) 1865, p. 296 : Gehin, Cat., p. xiv, 9, 
.aacrogenus, Motsch., I.e., xix (2), 1846, p. 346 : Gehin, Cat., p. xii, 4. 
Macrothorax, pt, G. Thorns., Opusc. Ent., 1875, p. 691: Gehin, Cat., p. xxii, 35. 
Megodontus, Solier, Mem. Acad. Turin, 1848, p. 10, Gehin, Cat., p. xiv, 9, 
Melanearabus, G. Thorns., I.e. svpra, p. 674 : Gehin, Cat., p„ 6. 
Mesocarabus, G. Thorns., I.e., p. 678 : Gehin, Cat., p. xvii, 14. 
Mimocarabus, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. xxviii, 53. 
Morphoearabus, Gehin, I.e., p. xviii, 16. 
Ntopleetes, Keitter, Wien Ent. Zeit., 188?, p. 27 ; ib., vi, p. 104 : Gehin, 

Cat., 36. 

IOreocarabus, Gehin, 1876 : Cat., p. xxvi, 44. 
Oreinoearabus, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeit., 1877 : ib., xxxi, p. 362 : Ent. 

Nach, xiii. 
Pachycranion, Solier, Mem. Acad. Turin, 1848, p. 10. 
Pacliycranius (Solier), Gehin, Cat. p. xv, 12. 
Pachystus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 295 : Gehin, Cat., 

p. xii, 5. 
Pagocarabus, Morawitz, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb., xxxiv (9), 1886, p. 45. 
Pantophyrtus, Thieme, Berl. Ent. Zeits,, J 881, p. 98 : Gehin, Cat., p. xvii, t. 

9. p. 14. 
Paraplesius, Morawitz. Mem Acad. St. Petersb., xxxiv (9), 1886, p. 51. 
Platycrus, Kolenati, Mel. Ent., i, 1845, p. 24 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxiv, 39. 
Plectes, Fischer, Ent. Imp. Kuss., i, 1817, p. 19 ; ii, 1824, p. 53 : Gehin, Cat. 

p. xxiii 36 ; Eeitter, Wien. Ent. Zeit., 1887, p. 104. 
Procerus, Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p. 22 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 52 : Gehin, 

Cat., p. xi, 1. 
Procrustes, Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin, 1809, p. 39 ; Lacord., Gen. Col., i, 

p. 53 : Gehin, Cat,, p. xi, 2. 
Procrusticus, White, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1845, p. Ill ; Gehin, Cat., p. xii, 

5: Ganglb., Deutsche Ent. Zeits., 1887, p. 146. 
Pseudotribax, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeits., 1884, p. 217 : Gehin, Cat, 

p. xiv, 9. 
Rhabdotocarabus, Seidlitz, Fauna Baltica (ed. 2), 1887, p. 6. 
Sphodristus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 295 : Gehin, Cat., p. xi, 

4 : Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeits., xxxi, p. 146. 
Sphodristocarabus, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat,, p, xx, 27 : Ganglb,, Deutsche Ent, 

Zeits., xxxi,, 1887, p, 129. 



12 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabldse. [Supplfc, 

Trachycarabus, Gehin, 1876, Cat. p. xxvii, 44. 

Tribax, Fischer, Bull. Mosc, v, p. 483 : G. Thorns., Op. Ent., 1875, p, 670 : 

Gehin, Cat., p. 8 : Ganglbauer, Deutsche Ent. Zeits., xxx, 1886, p. 305 ; 

Reitter, Wien Ent. Zeits, 1887, p. 186. 

Albrechtii (Morphocarabus), Morawitz, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb., v, 1862, p. 237 : 
Bates, Trans. Ent. S, Lond,, 1873, p. 233 : Gehin, Cat,, p. 17. 
fiduciarius, G. Thorns,, Op. Ent., 1 875, p. 728 (nee J. Thorns.), 
var. corvinus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 283. 
,, Leioisii, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Load., 1883, p. 229. 
,, Maiyasanus, Bates, I. c,, 1873, p. 232 j id. 188b, p. 230. 
,, multistriatus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvi ; i (4), 1865, p 283. 
„ 1 strialus, Chaudoir. q. v. 
Hab. Japan, Canton. 

easchmirensis (Megodontus), Kollar, in Hiigel's Kaschin., iv (2), 1844, p. -LZ"., 23, 
f. 4 : Gehin, Cat., p. 10. 

Tar. lithariophorus, Tatum, Ann, Mag. N. H., xx, 1847, p. 14. 
Hab. Himalaya, Kashmir [2nd. Mug., Murree], 

coriaceipennis (Trachycarabus), Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zoo]., (2 s.) xv, 1863, p. 114 : 
Gehin, Cat., p. 53. 
Hab. China. 
Davldis ( Morphocarabus ), Deyrolle and Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent, Fr., (5 s.) viii, 1878, 
p. 87, t. 3, f. 4 : Gehin, Cat,, p. 16. 
Hab. Middle China. 

Delevayii, Fairmaire, Le Nat., viii, 1886, p. 223 : Ann. Fr., I.e., (6 s.) vi, 1886, p. 308. 

Hab., Yunnan. 
Tex, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vi, 1888, p. 106. 

Hab., Burma, Bhamo, Eachin-Kauri. 

fiduciarius (3Jorphocarabus), J. Thomson, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3 s. ) iv, 1856, p. 338, 
t, 9, f. 3.: Gehin, Cat., p. 16. 

Hab., China \Ind. Mus, China]. 

Hlenfoungil (Xhtcarabus), J. Thomson, Arch. Ent., i, 1857, p. 166 : Gehin, Cat., 
p. 29. 

Hab. China [Ind. Mus. China]. 

indicus Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) ix, 1889, p. 

Hab. Sikkim [Ind. Mus. Davjiling]. 
insullcola (Morphocarabus), Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2 s.) xxi, 1869, p. 26 : 
Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 232 ; ib., 1876, p. 2 : Gehin, Cat., p. 17. 

Eaempferii, G. Thomson, Opusc. Ent., 1875, p. 729. 

Hab. Japan, Canton (Putzeys). 

prodigus (Morphocarabus), Erichson, Nova Acta Leop. Car. Nat. Cur., xvi, Suppl., 
1834, p. 221, t. 37, f. 1 : ( Apotomnpterus) Hope, Col. Man,, ii, p. 47 : Gebin, 
Cat., p. 16. 

Hab. China [Ind. Mus. China]. 

Stoliczkanus (Morphocar.abusJ, Bates, Pfoc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 713 : Gebin, 
Cat,, p. 17, 77. 

Hab. India, Murrcc [Ind. Mvs,, type]. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 13 

striatus (Morphoearabus), Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zoo]., (2 s.) xxi, 1869, p. 25. 

l = Albrechtii, Morawitz, q, v. 

Hab. China. 
Tlenteii (Morphoearabus), J. Thomson, Arch. Ent., i, 1857, p. 165 ; Gehin, Cat,» 
p. 16. 

Hab. China. 

vlridifossulatUB, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg ., xxxi, 1887, p. 91. 
Hab. Tibet, Moupin. 

Wagae (Sphodristocarabus), Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) ii, 1882, p, 65 : 
Gehin, Cat., p. 28. 
Hab. N. India. 
Walllcliil (Oreocarabus), Hope. Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21 : Gehin, Cat., p. 46. 
Boysii, Tatum, Ann. Mag. N. H., viii, 851, p. 51. 
Hab. Nepal. 

yunnanus, Fairmaire, Le Nat., viii, 1886, p. 223 : Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) vi, 1886 3 
p. 309. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

Genus COPTOLABRUS. 

Solier, Truqui and Baudet's Stud. Ent., i, 1848, p. 58 : Mun. Cat., p. 77 ; Gehin, 
Cat., p. xxii, 35. 

Macrotliorax, pt., G. Thorns., Opusc. Ent., 1875, p. 691. 

Elysll, J. Thomson, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3 s.) iv, 1856, p. 337, t. 9, f. 2: 
Gehin, Cat., p. 35. 
Hab. E. China. 

gemmifer, Fairmaire, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) vii, 1887, p. xxvii ; Ann. Soc. Ent, 
Belg.,xxxi, 1887, p. 91. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

Lafossel, Feisthamel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1845, p. 103, t. 2, f. 2 : Gehin, Cat., p, 35. 
var. coelestis, Steuart, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3 s.) iii, 1855, p. 75, t. 7, 1 : Kraatz, 
Deutsche Ent. Zeits., xxx. 1886, plate, f. 8. $ . 

Hab. N. China, Shanghai, Canton (Putzeys) [Ind. Mus., China]. 

pustulifer, (Carabus), Lucas, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., (4 s ) ix, 1869, p. x ; ib., (5 s,), ii, 
1872, p. 293, t, 14, f. 12, $ : Gehin, Cat., p, 35, t. 10. 
Hab. N. Tibet, Moupin. 

tallensls, Fairmaire, Le Nat., viii, 1886, p. 223 : Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.), vi, 1886, p. 
308. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

Genus DAMASTER. 

Kollar, Ann, Wien Mus., i, 1836, p. 333 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 61 : Mun. Cat., 

p. 77: Lewis, Ent. Mon. Mag., xvii, 1880, p. 159: Gehin, Cat. Carab., p. 36: 

Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 108. 

ulaptoldes, Kollar, Ann. Mus. Wien, i, 1836, p. 334, t. 31, f. 1 : Lacord,, Gen. Col. 

Atlas, t. 2, f . 2 : Lewis, Ent. Mon. Mag., xvii, 1880, p. 159 : Gehin, Cat. Carab,, 

p. 36, t. 10 : Morawitz, Mem, Acad, St. Fetersb., 1886, p. 18, 



14 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidre. [Supplt. 

cyanostola, Lewis, Trans. Ent. S. Lond,, 1882, p. 524. 
Fortunei, G. Thomson, Ouusc. Ent., 1875, p 657. 
viridipennis, Lewis, Ent. Mon. Mag., xvii, 1880, p. 159. - 
/ Fortunei, Adams, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) vifi, 1861, p. 59 : Bates 
var. } Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 230 : Lewis, ib., 1882, p. 524. 

loxuroides, Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (4 s.) ii, 1862, p. 68, t. 2, f. 1. 
„ Leioisii, Rye, Ent. Men. Mag., 1872, p. 131. 
„ pandurus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 230 ; id., I.e., 1883, p. 

231 : Kolbe, Ent. Nach., xiii, 1887, p. 340. 
Hab. Japan, Formosa [Ind. Mus.,1 loc.]. 

Genus CALOSOMA. 

Weber, Obs. Ent., i, 1801, p. 20 : Latr., Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., ii), 1802, p. 91 : Lacord., 
Gen. Col., i, p. 58 : Mun. Cat., p. 78 : Gehin, Cat. Carab., 1885, p. xxix, 56. 
Aulacopterum, Gehin, Cat., p. xxxiv, 67. 
JBlaptosoma, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. xxxiii, 65. 

Calamata, Motsch., Bull., Mosc, xxxviii <4), 1865, p. 307 ; Gehin, Cat., p, 59. 
Callipara, Motsch., 1. c, p. 308 : Gehin, Cat., p. 57. 
Callisphaena, Motsch., Et. Ent., 1859, p. 127 : Gehin, Cat., p. 68. 
Callisthenes, Fischer, Lettre a Pander, 1821, p. 10 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxxv, 

68. 
Callhtrata, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra., p. 306 : Gehin, Cat., p. 62. 
Callistriga, Motsch., I.e., p. 307 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxx, 58. 
Callitropa, Motsch., 1. c. supra, p. 300 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxxii, 63. 
Calodrepa, Motsch., 1. e., p. 310 : Gehin, Cat., p. 56. 
Calopachys, Haury, Le Nat., 1880, p. 164 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxxiv, 67. 
Camedula, Motsch., 1. c. supra, p. 304 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxx, 59, 
Caminara, Motsch,, I. c., p. 303 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxx, 59. 
Campalita, Motsch., 1. e., p. 304 : Gehin, Cat,, p. xxxii, 62. 
Carabosoma, Gehin, 1875 ; Cat., p xxxii, 63. 

Cathophus, G. Thorns., Opusc. Ent., 1875, p. 628 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxxv, 70. 
Castrida, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 300 : Gehin, Cat., p. 58. 
Charmosta, Motsch., 1. c, p. 301 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxxi, 61. 
Chrysostigma, Kirby, Faun. Bor. Amer., iv, 1837, p. 18 : Gehin, Cat., p. 

xxxiv, 67. 
Cosmoplata, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 305 : Gehin, Cat., p. 61. 
Ctenosta, Motsch., /. c., p. 306 : Gehin, Cat., p. xxxii, 59. 
Cyclirocephalus, Gehin, 1876 ; Cat., p. 70. 
Eutelodontum, Gehin, Bull. Soc Ent. Fr., 1882, p. exxxii ; Cat., p. xxxiii, 

66. 

ehinense {Charmosta), Kirby, Trans. Linn. S. Lond,, xii, 1818, p. 379 : Gehin, Cat., 
p. 61. 

var. aeneum, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxii (4), 1859, p, 481. 

Hab. China, Canton, Japan, India, Ceylon [Ind. Mus., Sahibganj, Calcutta] 

iiimalayanum, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen,, vii, 1875, p, 851 : Gehin, Cat,, p. 57. 
Hab, N. W. Himalaya, Ladak. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabklse. 15 

indieum (Ctenosta), Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21 : Gehin, Cat., p. 61. 

Hab. Nepal, 
investigator, Illiger., Kafer Preuss., i, 1798, p. 112 : Schaum, Naturg. Ins., i (i), p., 
114 : ( Charmosta) Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 301 ■ Gehin, 

Cat., p. 61. 
sericenm, Sturm, Ins. Deutschl., iii, 1815, p. 130, t. 66, f. a : Bejean, Spec, 
ii, p. 206 ; Ic, ii, t. 71, f. 2. 
var. caspium, Fischer, Ent. Imp. Russ., ; ii, 1826, p. 236, t. 8, f, 5, 6. 
„ dauricum, Motsch., Ins. Sib., 1844, p. 119, t. 4. £. 9 ; Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 

p. 303. 
„ leptophynm,, Fisohcr, Ent, In»- Rues-., iii, 1826, p. 239, t. 8, f. 4. 
,, iugnbre, Motsch., Ina. jiu,, ioi-i, p. 121. 
„ ruguloswn; iotsch., Ir.s. Russ., 1816, note 2. 
„ russicim, Fischer, Ent. Imp. Russ., iii, 1826, p. 238, t 8, f. 2. 

iewn, Motsch., Ins. Sib, 1844, p. 121 ; Bull. Mosc, xx (3), 1847. p. 226. 
1 sericenm, Gebler, Ledeb. Reise, iii, 1830, p. 58 (nee Fabr). 
Hab. Prussia, S. Russia, Siberia \Ind Mus., Kashmir, Srinagar]. 

lugems (Charmosta), Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (4s.) ix, 1869, p. 372 : Gehin, 
Cat., p. 61. 
var. Davidis, Gehin, Cat. Carab., 1885, p. 61. 
Hab. N. China, Fuchau. 

nigrum (Charmosta), Parry, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., iv, 1845, p. 85 : Gehin, Cat,, 
p. 62. 
var. scabripenne, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (Is.) ix, 1869, p. 371. 
Hab. Assam, N. India. 

orientale (Ctenosta), Hope, Trans. Zool. S. Lond., i, 1833, p. 92 : ? Chaudoir, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Fr., (4s.) ix, 1869, p. 368 : Gehin, Cat., p. 61. 
Hab. India, Poona \_Ind Mtis., Sind Valley, Kogyar]. 

parallelum (Campalita), Motsch., Ins. Sib., 1844, p. 123, t. 4, f. 4 : Gehin, Cat., 
p. 63. 
Hab. Kirgisia, India [Ind Mus., Kashmir, Srinagar]. 

aquamigerum (Gtenost a) , Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent, Fr., (4s.) ix, 18C9, p. 369 . 
Gehin, Cat., p. 60. 

Hab. Bengal, Coimbatore (Madras). 

thibetanum Fairmaire, Ann, Soc. Ent. Belg.* xxxi, 1887, p. 92. 

Hab. Moupin, N. Tibet. 
HILETINI :_ 

Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 47 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i). 1861, p. 506 : 

Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 110. 

Genus HILETUS. 

Schiodte, Kroyer's Tidskr., (2 e.) ii, 1847, p. 346 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 48 : Mun, 
Cat., p. 46. 

Camaragnathus, Bocande, Mag. Zool., 1845, p. 4, t. 163-4 ; Rev. Mag. 
Zool., (2 s.) i. 1849, p. 460. 



16 E. T. Atkiuson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplfc, 

sumatronals, Oberthiir, Notes Leyden Mus. , v, 1883, p. 215. 
Hab, E, Sumatra, Serdang, 

ELAPHRINI :— 

Lacord., Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 43 : Chaud. , Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (1), 1861, p. 524 : 
Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 110 : Leconte & Horn, Class. Col,, p. 10. 

Genus ELAPHRUS. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 1775, p. 227 ; Syst., Sleuth., i, 1801, p. 245 : Latr. Hist. Nat. 
Ins., iii , 1802, p. 82 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 14 : Mun. Cat., p. 44. 

Davidis, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887. p, tjd. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

NEBRIINI: — 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 504 : Horn, Gen. Carab,, p. 112 : Leconte 
& Horn, Class. Col, p. 12. 

Genus OPISTHIUS. 

Kirby, Faun. Bor. Amer., iv, 1837, p. 60 : Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, p. 45 : Chaudoir, 

Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 505 ; Mun. Cat., p. 47. 
indicus, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc, Ent., Fr, (4 s) iii, 1863, p. 449. 
Hab, N. India. 

Genus NOTIOPHILUS. 

Dumeril, Zool. Analyt., 1806, p. 194 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 43 : Mun. Cat,, p. 43 : 
Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 19. 

acuticollis, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, 1866, p. 164. 
Hab. N. China, 1 Shanghai. 

orientalis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 428. 
Hab. Iudia, Simla, 

Genus LEISTUS. 

Frolich, Naturf., xxviii, 1794, p. 9 ; Clairv., Ent. Helv., ii, p. 146, t. 23 : Lacord, 
Gen. Col., i, p. 52 : Mun. Cat., p. 54. 

Pogonophorns, Latreille, Hist. Nat. Ins., iii, 1802, p. 88 ; Gen. Crust., i, 
p. 223. 

angulicollis, Fairmaire, Le Nat., 1886, p. 223 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6s) vi, 
1886, p. 307. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

Genus NEBRIA. 

Latreille, Hist. Crust. & Ins., iii, 1802, p. 89 : Clairv l' s Ent. Helv., ii, 1806, p. 140> 
t. 22 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 50 : Mun. Cat., p, 47. 
Alpaetis, Bonelli, M<Sm. Acad. Turin, 1809, p. 68. 
Helobia (Leach), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent,, iii, 1827, t. 103. 

Ghaslii, Fairmaire, Le Nat., viii, 1886, p, 223 : Ann, Soc. Ent, Fr., (6 s.) vi, 1886> 
p/306. 

Hab, China, Kiangsi, 



1S90.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. IT 

chlnensls, Bates. Ent. Mon, Mag., ix, 1872, p. 52 ; Trans. Eat. S. Loud., 1873, p. 
236 : Fairm. Ann. Fr., I. c. supra, p. 306. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley in China, Japan. 

Desgodinsii, Oberthiir, Nov. Col., i, 1883, p. 47. 

Hab. Darjiling. 
llvldipes, Fairmaire, Le Nat., viii, 1886, p. 223 ; Ann. Fr. 1. c. supra, p. 306. 

Hab. China, Kiangsi. 
pulcherrima, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 236 : Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent., 
Belg.., xxxi, 1887, p. 90. 

Hab. Yangtse Valley, Japan, Kiangsi. 

xantnacra, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxiii (2), 1850, p. 423. 
Hab. India, Simla. 

ENCELADINI;- 

Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 118. 

Genus LUPEROA. 

Lap. de Casteln.., Hist, Nat. Ins. Col., i, 1840, p, 63: Lacord,, Gen. Col., i, p. 
163: Mun. Cat., p. 162. 

Holoscelis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 438; id., 50 (i), 1876, 
p. 71. 
laevigata, (Carabus), Fabr., Spec. Ins., i, 1781, p. 304 ; Ent, Syst,, i, p, 143 ; Syst. 
Eleuth., i, p. 124: Oliv., Ent., iii 36, p. 7, t. 2, f. 18 : Herbst., Natursyst. 
Ins,. Kafer. x, p. 256, t. 175, f. 6 ; Lacordaire, Gen. Col., Atlas, t. 6, f. 1 : 
(Enceladus) Dejean, Spec, v, p. 474 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, 50 (i), 1876, 
p. 74 : Dohrn, Stettin. Ent. Zeit., 1881, p. 309. 

herculanea, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., i, 1834, p. 151. 
Hab. India, Bengal [2nd. Mus., Ceylon. ] 

SCARITINI .— 

Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxii, 1879, p. 124 ; xxiii, 1880, 
p. 5 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 119 : Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 16. 

Br, Horn divides the tribe, so far as he deals with it, into two sections 
which he names Scarites (Paswmchm and Scarites), and Clivince 
QDyscMrius, Clivina, Ardistomis). Others make four sections, of which 
the genera occurring in the Oriental Region are :— 
Pasimachina -.—Mouhotia. 

Scaritina -.— Oxylobus, Haplogaster, Scaritoderus, Coptololus, Distichus, Scarites. 
Scapterina :- Seapterus, Thlibops, Systenognatlius, Oxygnatlius, Dacca. 

Clivinina -.—DyscUrius, Clivina, Coryza, Anous, Ardistomis, (Putzeys, Eev Gen 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866, p. 1), *' 

Genus MOUHOTIA. 

Lap. de Casteln., Eev. Mag. Zool., xiv, 1862, p. 305 : Mun. Cat., p. 180. 

convexa, Lewis, Ent. Mon. Mag., xix, 1883, p. 193 : Waterhouse, Aid, t. 129. f. 1 
Hab, Laos, 



18 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse, [Supplfc. 

glorioaa, Lap. de Casteln., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1862, p. 306: Lucas, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 
(5 s) vii, p. clxxiii. 

Midas, Schauta Proc. Ent. S. Lond., 1862, p. 94. 
Hab. Laos. 

Genus OXYLOBUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxviii (i), 1855, p. 5- id., Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg, 
xxii, 1879, p. 129 : Mun. Cat,, p. 181. 

alveolatus, Chaudoir, Mon. I. c, p. 134. 
Hab. India. 

asperulus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxx (3), 1857, p. 58 : Mon., p. 133. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

costatus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 134. 

Hab. Malabar, Colombo (Bates). 

deslgnans (Scarites), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s) ii, 1858, p. 203 : Bates, I. c, 
(5 s) xvii, p. 210. 
? = sculptilis, Westwood, q. v. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

foveiger, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 133. 
Hab. India. 

lateralis (Scarites), Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 400 ; Chaud., Bull, Mosc, xxviii (i), 
1855, p. 8; id., Mon.,y. 131. 

Hab. India, Coromandel. 
punctatosulcatus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxviii (i), 1855, p. 6j Mon., p. 131, 

Hab. Nepal. 

quadricollis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, I. o., p. 7; Mon., p. 130. 
Hab. India, Nilgiris, Colombo (Bates). 

sculptilis, Westwood, arc Ent, i, 1843, p. 88, t. 23, f, 1 : Chaudoir, Mon., p, 133. 
Hab. India, Coromandel [Ind. Mus., Utakamand.]. 

Genus HAPLOGASTEB. 

Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxii, 1879, p. 149. 

humeralis, Putzeys, Chaudoir, Mon., I. c, p. 151. 

Hab. Madras. 

ovatus, Chaudoir, Mon,,, I. c, p. 150. 
Hab, N. India. 

Genus SCARITODERTJS. 

Fairmaire, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) iii, 1883, p. lv, note. 

Anomoderus, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxii, 1879, p, 156 (nom. praeoc). 
Anomophacnus, Fauvel, Rev. d'Ent., i, 1882, p. 229 {nom, praeoc). 
Loyolae, Fairmaire, I.e. supra, p. lv. 
Hab, India, Ramnad. 



1890.] E. T, Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 19 

Genus COPTOLOBUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. More., xxx (3), 1857, p. 59 ; id., Monograph, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg., xxii, 1879, p. 159 : Mun. Cat., p. 182. 

Auodon, Chaudoir, Mon., I.e., p. 160. 

Hab. Ceylon, 
glatoriculus. Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxx (3), 1857, p. 60 ; Mon., I.e., p. 162 : Mun. 
Cat., p. 182. 
? obliterans (Searites), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 203. 
2 subsiqnans (Searites), Walker, I.e., p. 203. 
Hab. Ceylon, Nuwara Bliya, Horton Plains (Bates), Canton (Putzeys). 

Omodon, Chaudoir, Mon., 1. e. p. 161. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo (Bates). 

taprobanao, Chaudoir, Mon., I.e., p. 161. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo, (Bates). 

Genus DISTIOHUS. 

Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1857, p. 96 : Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. BSlg., 
xxiii, 1880, p. 44 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Anier., Col., i (i), p. 30. 
Searites, pt., Bonelli, Dejean auct. 
Taeniolohus, pt., Chaudoir, olim. 
dicaelus, Chaudoir, Mon., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg.. xxiii, 1880, p. 52. 
Hab. Singapur. 

lucidulus, Chaudoir, Mon., l.c,. 57. 

Hab. Dekhan, Rangoon, Siam 

modestus, Chaudoir, Mon. I.e., p. 57. 

Hab. India, 
picicornis (Searites), Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 493 : Chaudoir, Mon. , I. c, p. 56. 

troglodytes, Erichson, Wiegm. Arch., 1843, p. 214. 
? var. minor, Nietner, Journ. As. Soc. Beng., xxv, 1856, p. 389 : Ann. Mag N. H ., 

(2s.)xix, 1857, p. 244. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo, Dekhan, W. Africa, Zanzibar. 

planus (Searites), Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin., 1813, p. 470 : Dejean, Spec, i, p. 395 ; 
id., Ic Col. Eur., i, t. 21, f. 3 : Klug, Symb. Phys., Dec. iii, t. 23, f. 5 : Chaudoir 
Mon., l.c. supra, p. 53. 

? bisqwadripunctatus Klug, Peters Keise Mossamb., v. 1862, p. 158. 

punctatostriatus, Redtenb , Russegger Reise., p 979. 

sexpunctatus, M6n6tries, Cat. Rais , i, 1832, p. 103. 
var nitidus, Dejean, Spec. v. 1S31, p. 484. 

Hab. Mediterranean and Caspian regions, N. India. 

puncticollis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855. p. 47 ; Mon., I. c. supra, p, 55 

Hab. N. India, 
striaticeps, Chaudoir. Mon., I c., p. 52. 

Hab. India. 



20 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt. 

Genus SCARITES. 
Fabricius, Ent. Syst.. i, 1792, p. 94 j Syst. Eleuth., i, p. 123 (Attelabus, DeGeer, 
nee Linn.) : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 194 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 93 : 
Mun. Cat. p. 184: Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1854, p. 5; id., Monograph, 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxiii, 1880, p. 63 : Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1857, p. 93. 
Broscomorfhus, Motsch., Et. Ent., 1857, p. 96 : Chaud., Mon., p. 66. 
Glyptomor pirns, Motsch., 1. c., p. 95. 
Harpalites, Motsch., I. e., p. 95 i Chaud., Mon., p. 67. 
Parallelomorpliv.s, Motsch., I.e., p. 96 : Kaf. Kussl., 1850, t. v : Chaud., Mon. 

p. 65. 
Paramccomorphus, Mctsch., Et. Ent., 1857, p. 96 : Chaud., Mon p. 65. 
Scallophorites, Motsch., 1. c, p. 95 : Chaud., Mon., p. 67. 
Stigmapterus, Motsch., l.c„ p. 95. 
Taeniolobiis, pt, Chaudoir, olim : Mun. Cat., p. 183. 

acutidens, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 98 ; id., Mon., p. 83. 
Hab. E. coast China, Chusan. 

barbarus, Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 388 : Chaud., Mon., p. 96. 
Hab. India, Dekhan. 

bengalensis, Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p. 468 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, 

p. 79 ; id, Mon. p. 89. 

Hab. N. India, Bengal. 
Boysii, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 57 ; Mon., p. 107. 

Hab. N. India, 
capito, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 92, 108 ; Mon., p. 95. 

?= Selene, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 94 [descr. incomp.]. 

Hab. Burma, Rangoon, N. India. 

ceylonicus. Chaudoir, Mon., p. 85. 

Hab. Ceylon, Galle, Colombo (Bates). 

sycloderus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 112. 

Hab, India, 
dentlculatus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 98. 

Hab. Cochinchina 
dysenromus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 78 ; id, Mon., p. 82. 

Hab. N. India, 
estriatus, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1887, p. 93. 

Hab. China, Fukien. 
Cieryon, Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21 : I MacLeay, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
N. S. Wales, i, 1863, p. 68 (Australia.) 

Hab. Nepal, 
inconspicuus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 82 ; Mon, p. 97. 

Hab. N. India [Ind Mus., Jhelam Valley.]. 

Indus, Olivier, Ent., iii, 36, 1795, p. 9, t. 1, f 2 a-b : Dejean, Spec, i, p. 395 : Mac- 
Leay, Annul. Javan., p. 35 : Chaud , Mon., p. 102. 

Hab. India, Ceylon, Colombo [Ind. Mtoa., Bengal, Tinpshar, Sahibgunj?]. 
llopterus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 87. 

Hab. N. India. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidre. 21 

longiusculus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 86. 

Hab. Philippines, 
mancus, Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin, 18l3,p. 473 : Dejean, Spec, i, p. 394 ; Chaudoir, 
Mon., p. 102. 

Hab. India, Java, Philippines. 
opacus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 88 ; id., Mon., p. 103. 
1=parvus, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 37. 

Hab. N. India, Bengal, 
orthomous, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 55 ; id., Mon., p. 88. 

Hab. Himalaya, 
pacificus, Bates, Trans. Bnt. S. Lond., 1873, p. 238 : Chaud., Mon., p. 101. 

Hab. Formosa, Japan, 
parallelus, Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 382 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 86. 

Hab. Java. 

praedator, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 97. 
Hab. Burma, Rangoon. 

punctum, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 38 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 127. 
Hab. Bengal. 

semicircularis, MacLeay, Annul Javan ,1825, p 24 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 127. 
? = punctum Wiedemann, q.v. 
Hab. Java 

semirugosus, Chaudoir, Bull Mosc , xxvii (i), 1855, p. 90 ; Mon., p. 82. 
rugipennis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, I.e., p. 82. 

Hab. Bengal, Bangkok, Philippines, 
similis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 83. 
Hab. ? E. Asia. 

subaitens, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1855, p. 87 ; Mon., p. 103. 

Hab. N. India. 
subproductus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 90. 

Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

sulcatus, Oliv., Bnt. iii, 36, 1795 , p. 7. t. 1, f. 11 ; Dejean, Spec, i. p. 375 : 
Chaud., Mon., p. 80. 

chinensis, Erichson, ITova Acta Leop. Carol. Nat., xvi, Supp. i, 1832, p. 220. 
Hab. India, Macao, Formosa [Ind. Mus., Sikkim, Assam ?]. 

Genus SOAPTERUS, 

Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p. 471 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 197 : Mun. Cat., p. 188. 
Putzey3, Revision Clivinides, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866, p. 7. 

figuloides, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gea., xviii, 1882, p. 301, fig. 

Hab. Burma. 
Guerinii, Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p. 472 ; Icon. Col. Eur., i, t. 22, f. 3 : Guenn, I c . 
Regne Anim., t. 5, f . 3 a : Gray, Griffith Anim. Kingd., Ins. ii, 1832, t. 8, f. 3. 

Hab. India. 



22 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidre [Supplt, 

rlparius, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., xviii, 1882, p. 299, fig. 

Hab. Burma, Minhla. 
sulcatns, Putzeys, Mem. Roy. Soc. Liege, Postscr., 1803, p. 17 : ? Chaudoir, Rev, 
Mag. Zool. (2s), xv, 1863, p. 117. 

Hab. N. E. India [Ind. Mus., Sibsagar, Assam]. 

Genus THLIBOPS. 

Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg , x, 1866, p. 9 : Mun. Cat , p. 188. • 

crenata, Chaudoir, Rev. Zool. (2 s), xv, 1862, p. 118. 
Hab. Cochin China. 

Dohrnii, Chaudoir, I c, p. 118. 
Hab. Java. 

puncticollis, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., xviii, 1882, p. 302. 
Hab. Burma. 

Genus OXYGNATHUS. 

Dejean, Spec., ii, 1826, p. 473; Icon. Col. Eur., i., t. 22. f . 5 : Lacord., Gen. 
Col., i, p. 198 : Mun. Cat., p. 190. 

elongatus (Scarites), Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 38 : Dejean, Spec, ii, 
p. 475. 

Hab, India. 

Genus DACCA 

Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr., 1862, p. 68 : Mun. Cat., p. 191. 

forcipata, Putzeys, I.e., p. 68, t. 1, f. 41. 
Hab. India. 

Genus SPAROSTES. 

Putzeys, Mvision, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866, p. 27 : Mun. Cat., p. 192. 

brevicollis, Putzeys, I.e., p. 27- 

Hab. N. China, 1 Canton. 

strlatulus, Putzeys, I. c, p. 29. 
Hab. India, Siam. 

Genus DYSCHIRIUS, 

Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin., 1813, p. 483 : Lacord., Gen. Col, i, p. 202 : Mun. Cat., 
p. 193 : Putzeys, Monograph Mem. Liege., ii, sep. 1846, p. 4 ; id., Revision generate, 
Ann Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866, p. 32 ; Suppt., ib., xi, 1868, p. 7 ; xvi, 1873, p. 10. 
Acephorus, Leconte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., New York, v, 1851, p. 194. 
Phreoryctes, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, t. 3, f. 6. 
/ Reicheia, Saulcy, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (4 s) ii, 1862, p. 285.- Putzeys, I. c, 



p. 39 : Mun. Cat., p. 193. 
Spelaeodytcs, Muller, Wien. Ent. Monats., vii, 1863, p. 28. 



blnodosus, Putzeys, C. R. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. clxxiii. 
Hab. Calcutta. 



1820.] E-T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. 23 

dalmlellus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 241. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley, Japan, Nagasaki. 

debilis, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, t. 3, f. 6: Putzeys, Rev., Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1867, p. 97 ; id., C. R. Eat. Belg , 1878. p. clxxiv. 

interpmetatus, Putzeys, Rev. I.e., p. 97. 

pusillus (Phreoryetes), Schmidt Goebel : Putzeys, Rev., p. 97. (nee. Dejean), 

Hab. Burma, N. India. 
Doriae, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 14. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 
fusus, Putzeys, C. B. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. clxxii. 

Hab. Calcutta. 
hispidulus, Putzeys, Rev., I.e., p. 98. 

Hab. Siam. 
Impunctatus, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, 1868, p. 10. 

t = debilis, Schmidt Goebel, q. v. 

Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

Indians, Putzeys, Rev., I. e., p. 91. 
Hab. N India. 

nitens, Putzeys, C. R. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. clxxiii. 

Hab. Calcutta. 
ordtnatus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 240. 

Hab. Japan, Ceylon, Kandy. 
orientalis, Putzeys, Rev., p. 92 : Bates, Trans. Ent, S. Lond., 1873, p. 241, 

Hab, Hongkong, Japan, 
ovicollis, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1873, p. 14. 

Hab. Shanghai. 
porosus, Putzeys, C. R, Soc. Ent. Belg., xx, 1877, p. xl. 

Hab. Burma, 
ruglfer, Putzeys, I.e., C. R., 1878, p. clxxiii. 

Hab. Calcutta. 

Schmidtil, Putzeys, I.e. 1877, p. xli. 
Hab. Calcutta. 

stenoderus, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 13. 
Hab. Shanghai. 

verticaUs, Putzeys, I.e. C. R., 1878, p. clxxii. 
Hab. Calcutta. 

Genus CLIVINA. 

Latreille, Consid. gener., 1810, p. 156 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p.' 204 : Monograph 
Putzeys, Mdm. Liege, ii„ 1846 ; Revisio?i ginirale, id., Ann. 8oc. Ent. Belg. x. 
1866, p. 107 : Mun. Cat., p. 198 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 121 : Bates, Biol. Centr. 
Amer., Col., i (i), p. 32. 

Eupalamus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p, 101, 



24 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt. 

advena, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 123. 
Hab. India. 

agona, Putzeys, Rivision, 1866, p. 131. 
Hab. Siam. 

anceps, Putzeys, Me"m. Liege., Postscr., 1862, p. 50 ; id., Rivision, p. 124. 

Hab. India, Dacca, 
annularis, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 122. 

Hab. India. 

assamensis, Putzeys, Mon., Mem. Liege, ii, 1846, p. 584, sep.'p. 66 ; id., Postscr.,. 
p 35 ; Rivision, p. 108. 
Hab. Assam. 

attenuata, Herbst, Natursyst. Ins., Kafer, x, 1806, p. 264, t. 176, f. 7: Putzeys,. 
Revision, p. 110. 

melanaria, Putzeys, Mon., 1846, p. 586, sep., p. 68. 

picipes, Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin, 1813, p. 481 : Dejean, Spec , i, p. 416 1 

Putzeys, Mem. Liege, 1846, p 623 ; id., Postscr,, 1S63, p. 51. 
Hab. India, Bengal, Assam. 

bengalensis, Putzeys, Mon. 1846, p. 603, sep., p. 85 ; id., Rivisim, p. 137. 

Hab. Bengal, 
brevior, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 126. 

Hab. Burma, Kangoon. 
brunnescens, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 101. 

Hab. Ceylon. 
capitata, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 122. 

Hab. India, 
castanea, Westwood, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1837, p. 128 : Putzeys, Revision, p. 131, 
note. 

Hab. Philippines, Manilla. 

cordicollis, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 102. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

divaricata, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 122. 
Hab. India. [Ind. Mus. ?] 

dolens, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 15. 
Hab. Shanghai. 

elongatula, Nietner, Journ. As. Soc. Beng.,xxv, 1856, p. 390: Ann. Mag. N. H, (2 s.) 
xix, 1857, p. 245 : Putzeys, Rivision, p. 123. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

extensioollis, Putzeys, Mon. 1846, p. 601 ; id., Rivision, p. llo. 
Hab. Java. 

foveicollis, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr. 1863, p. 61 ; id., Revision, p. 133. 
Hab. China. 

fulvaster, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 101. 
Hab. Ceylon. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the CarabidV 25 

grammica, Putzeys, C. K. Soc. Ent. Belg., xx, 1877, p. xi. 
Hab. Calcutta. 

Helferii, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 126. 
Hab. India. 

humeralis, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr. 1863, p. 48 ; id., Revision, p. 125. 
flab. Sumatra. 

humilis, Morawitz, Beitr. Kafer-fauna Ins. Jesso, i, 1863, p. 22 : Bates, Trans. Ent. 
S. Lond , 1873, p. 238. 

vulgivaga, Bohemann, Freg. Eug. Kesa, Col., 1858, p. 9. 
Hab. China, Hongkong, Yangtse Valley, Japan. 

hydroplca, Putzeys, Revision, 1866,"p. 121. 
Hab. N. India [Ind. Mus.'—f]. 

indica, Putzeys, Mon., 1846, p. 535, sep., p. 69 ; id., Postscript, p. 35 : Bates, Ann. 
Mag. N. H, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 72. 

rugosifrons, Nietner, Journ. As. Soc. Ben., xxv, 1856, p. 390 : Ann. Mag. 
N. H, (2s.) xix, 1857, p. 245. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo, N. India, Dekhan. 

javanica, Putzeys, Mon., 1846, p. 529, sep., p. 74 ; id, Revision, p. 124. 
Hab. Java, 

lata, Putzeys, Revision, 1862, p. 131 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1876, p. 3. 
Hab. India. 

lofoata, Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin., 1813, p. 481 : Dejean, Spec, i. p. 414 : Putzeys, 
Mon., p. 599, sep., p. 81 ; id., Revision, p. 120. 
Hab. Bengal. 

marginicollis, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 133. 
Hab. India. 

memnonla, Dejean, Spec, v. 1831, p. 503 : Putzeys, Mon., Sep., p. 70 ; id., Rkision, 
p. 108. 

Hab. Java. 

moerens, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 15. 

Hab. Shanghai. 
mordax, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr., 1862, p. 67 : Revision, p. 133. 

Hab. India. 

niponensis, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 239. 

Hab. Yangtse Valley, Japan. 
Parryl, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr., 1862, p. 60 ; id., RMsion, p. 130 : Bates, 
Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 233 ; id., 1876, p. 3 ; id., Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., 
(2s.) vii, 1889, p. 100. 

clivinoides, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, t. 3., f. 4. 
Hab. India, Nilgiris, Bombay, Rangoon, Bhamo, Teintso, Ceylon, Colombo, 
Yangtse Valley, Japan. 

pluridentata, Putzeys, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., xx, 1877, p. xlii. 
Hab. Calcutta. 

D 



26 '32. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt 

recta, Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 203. 

Hab. Ceylon, 
rufipes, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 102 ; Putzeys, Revision, p. 131. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo, 
sabulosa, MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 24 : Putzeys, Revision, p. 119 note, 124, 

Hab. Java. 

semicarinata, Putzeys, C. K. Soc. Bnt. Belg., xx, 1877, p. xliv. 
Hab. Calcutta. 

siamica, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 124. 
Hab. Siam. 

striata, Putzeys, Mon., 1846, p. 592, sep., p. 74 ; Revision, p. 110. 
Hab. India, Coromandel. 

Stricta, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr,, 1862, p. 49 ; Revision, p. 125. 
Hab. Java. 

sulcigera, Putzeys, "Revision, 1866, p. 110. 
Hab. Siam. 

tranquebarica, Bonelli, Mem. Acad. Turin, 1813, p. 484, 
Hab. India. 

transversa, Putzeys, Revision, 1866, p. 125. 
Hab. Siam. 

unicolor, Herbst, Natursyst. Ins., Kafer, x, 1806, p. 265, t. 176, f. 9, p. 
Hab. India. 

Westwoodii, Putzeys, Re'vision, 1866, 109. 

castanea, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, 1863, p. 35 (nee Westwood). 
Hab. India, Ceylon, New Guinea. 



Genus C0RY2A. 

Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866, p. 194 : Mun. Cat., p 203. 

earimeeps (Chaudoir), Putzeys, I, c, x, 1866, p. 396. 
Hab. N. India. 

maculata (Cliviha), Nietner, Jouro. As. Soc. Beng., xxv, 1856, p. 391 : Ann. Mag, 
N. H, (2 s.) xix, 1857, p. 246 : Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, p. 196. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

Neitaerii, Putzeys, I.e., p. 196. 

maoulata, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, Postscr, 1862, p. 51 (nee Nietner). 
Hab. India. 



Genus ANGUS. 

Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., x, 1866, p. 197 : Mun. Cat., p. 204, 

bicornutus, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, 1863, p. 45 ; he, supra, p. 198. 
Hab, Siam, 



I&30.1 E, T. Atkinsou — Catalogue of the Carabiclse. 27 

Genus ARDISTOMIS. 

Putzeys, Mem. Liege, ii, 1846, p. 636, sep., p. 118; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 
x, p. 200 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i. p. 206 : Man. Cat., p. 204. 

paradoxa, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, 1868, p. 21. 
Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

Genus PSILUS. 
Putzeys, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., xx, 1877, p. xlvi. 

acutipalpis, Putzeys, I.e., p. xlvi. 

Hab. Calcutta. 
Sect. HARP ALINCE BISETOSCE— Horn, Gen. Carab., 1881, p. 122 ; Leconte & Horn, 
Class. Col., p. 19. 

PANAGAEINI :— Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 83 \ Horn, Gen. 
Carab., p. 126 ; Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 22. 

Genus BRAGHYONYGHUS. 

Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 86. 
Epicosmus, pt, Chaudoir, olim. 

Andersonvl, Bates Journ. Linn. S. Lond., xxi, 1887, p. 135. 

Hab. Mergui Archipelago (Elphinstone Island): [Ind. Mus. type]. 

lumeratus (Epicosmus), Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zcol., (2s,) xxi, 1869, p. 69 ; Mon. s p. 89. 
Hab. Cochin China. 

laevlpennis, Chaudoir, Mori , p. 87. 
Hab. Siam, Cochin China. 

punctipennis, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., xviii, 1882, p. 305. 
Hab. Laos. 

sublaevis (Epicosmus), Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 67 ; Mon., p. 89>. 
Hab. Cambodia, Cochin China. 

Genus EPICOSMUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xvii, 1844, p. 512, note ; id,, I.e., xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 335.; 
Ann. Soc. But. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 104. 

Craspedophorus, pt, Hope, Col. Man . i. p. 9 : Lacord,, Gen. Col., i, p. 210 : 

Murray, Schaum. 

Eudema, pt., Lap. de Casteln. Hist. Fat, Ins. Col., i, 1840, p. 137 : Mun, 

Cat., p. 208. 
Isotarsus, pt, Laferte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (2s.) ix, 1851, p. 217 ; Chaudoir, 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 134, 
Panagaeus, pt, Dejean et auct. 

Dasifasciatus, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 115; Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 127. 

? = Saundersii, Chaudoir, gr.v. 
Hab. Laos, Cambodia. 



28 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidae. [Supplfc. 

Castelnauii, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Eijfc. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 112. 

bifasciatus, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 155 (nee Fabr.) : Chaudoir, 
Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 336. 

Hab. India, Nilgiris, Corornandel, Colombo (Bates). 
Feae, Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 101. 

Hab. Burma, Bhamo, Teintso, Prome. 

hexagonus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 338 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 114. 

Hab. India [2nd. Mus.—1~\. 

hilaris, Laf arte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (2s.) ix, 1851, p. 221, $ : Chaudoir, Bull. 
Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 345 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, p. 110. 

? geniculatus (Panagaeus), Wied., Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 56: Chaud., 

Ann. Belg., I.e. supra, p. 112. 
rwfipalpis, Laferte, I.e. supra, p. 221, ?. 
Hab. India, N, Bengal. 

laticollls, Chaudoir, Kev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 114 : Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xxi, p. 125. 

Hab. Cambodia, Laos. 

mandarinus (Isotarsus), Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) 1853, p. 436 : Chaud., 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, p. 113 : R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xviii, 1882, 
p. 304. 

Hab. Hongkong, Burma. 

Mouhotii, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 69 ; Ann. Belg., I.e. supra, 
xxi, p. 124. 

Hab. Cambodia, Laos. 

notulatus, Fabr., Syst. Eleuth., i, 1801, p. 201 : Schonherr, Syn. Ins., .i, p. 209 ; 
Chaudoir, Ann. Belg., I.e. supra, p. 115. 

elegans, Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p. 290 : Laferte, I.e. supra, p. 221 ; 

Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) i, 1853, p. 432. 
Hab. Bengal, Dekhan \_Ind. Mus.]. 

pubiger, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 337 : Ann. Belg., I.e., supra, 
p. 122. 

Hab. India. 
Saundersii, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 114 ; Ann. Belg., I.e. supra, 
p. 125. 

1 basifasciatus, Chaudoir, q. v. 
Hab. Cambodia. 

Genus EUDEMA. 

Lap. de Casteln., pt, Hist. Nat, Col., i. 1840, p. 137 : Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 133. 

Pimelia & Carahis, Fabiicius : Isotarsus, pt, Laferte : Panagaeus, Dejean, 
Sf auct, 
angulatum, Fabr., Spec. Ins., i, 1781, p. 302 ; Mant. Ins., i, p. 197 ; Ent. Syst., i, 
p. 148 {nee Syst. Eleuth., i, p. 203) : Gmelin, ed., Syst. Nat., iv, p. 1963 



1890.] E. T Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse: 29 

Olivier, Ent., iii, 35, p. 38, t, 7, f, 76 ; id., Enc. Meth., Carab., No. 41 : 
Schonherr, Syn. Ins., i, p. 166: Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, 
p. 336 : Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3 s.) i, 1853, p. 431. 
fasciatum (Pimelia), Fabr., Spec. Ins., i, p. 318 ; Mant. Ins., i, p. 209 ; 
Ent. Syst., i, p. 104 : Schonherr, Syn. Ins., i, p. 166 : 1 Chaudoir, Bull. 
Mosc.xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 336 ; id., Mon. 1. e. supra, p. 133. 
tomentomm (Panagaeus), Vigors, Zool. Journ., i, 1825, p. 557, t. 20, f. 1 : 
Dejean, Spec, ii, p. 284 : Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) i, 1853, p. 431. 
Hab. India, Nilgiris, Coromandel, Pondicherry [2nd. Mus, Utakamand, 
Orissa, China], 
sundaicum, Obcrthur, Notes Leyden Mus,, v, 1883, p. 221. 

Hab. E. Sumatra, Serdang. 
transversum (Epicosmus), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 332. 
Hab. India. 

Genus LOR03TEMMA. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864 p. 329 : Mun. Cat., p. 212. 
Lorostema, Motsch., I. c. supra. 

alutacea, Motsch., I. c. supra, p. 330. 
Hab. India, Tranquebar. 

Genus MICROCOSMUS. 

Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 139. 
Craspedophorus, pt, Murray, Schaum. 
Jsotarsus, pt, Lafert6. 
Panagaeus, pt, Dejean & auct. 

flavopllosus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 348 : Ann. Belg., I. c. supra, 
p. 142 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond,, 1873, p. 243. 
Hab. Bengal, Formosa, Japan. 

Genns DISOHISSUS. 

Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond,, 1873, p. 243 : Chaud., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, 
p. 149 ; Rev. Zool., (3s.) vi, p. 86. 

Panagaeus, MacLeay, Lap. de Castelneau : Craspedophorus, pt, Murray, 
Schaum : Isotarsus, pt., Laferte, Schaum. 
borneensis, Frivaldsky, Term, fiiz., vi, 1883, p. 134. 
Hab. Borneo. 

csreus {Panagaeus), MacLeay, fAnnul. Javan., 1825, p. 12 : Chaud., Rev. Mag. 
Zool., (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 116 ; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 150. 
? versutus, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 155. 
Hab. Java. 

guttiferus, Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s ) i, 1853, p. 437: Chaud,, Ann. Soc, 
Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 151. 
Hab. Java, 



30 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt. 

longicornis ( Craspedophorus ), Schaum, Berlin, Ent. Zeits., 1863, p. 84 : Chaud , 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., p. 153. 

Hab. Nilgiris, Hongkong, N. China. 
quadrlnotatus ( Peronomerus), Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p, 333 : 
Chaud., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, p. 152 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, 
p. 244. 

Hab, 1 India, Japan. 

Genus EUSOHIZOMERUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc. xxiii (2), 1850, p. 413 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 212 : Ann, 

Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1869, p. 157 : Mun. Cat., p. 211. 
aeneipennls, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2s.), xxi, 1869, p, 118 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xxi, p 159. 
1=dentieolli$, Kollar, q. v. 
Hab. Malacca. 

aeneus, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag., 1. c, p. 118 : id., Ann. Belg. I. c. supra, p. 160. 

Hab. Dekhan. 
denticollis, Kollar, Ann. "Wien Mus., i, 1836, p. 334, t. 31, f. 2, a. b. 

Hab. ? India, 
metailicus, Harold, Stettin. Ent. Zeit. xl, 1879, p. 331. 

Hab. India. 

Genus PERONOMERUS. 

Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) i, 1853, p. 440 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 
xxi, 1878, p. 162 : Mun. Cat., p. 211. 

fumatus, Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) i, 1853, p. 440 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg., xxi, p. 162 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 245 ; ib., 1883, 
p. 234. 

aeratus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 354. 

nigrinus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 245 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 164. 
Hab. India, Dacca, Hong-Kong, Japan [lnd. Mus., Hong Kong], 

Genus TRICHISIA. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 331 : Chaudoir, I. c, xliv (2), 1872, p. 
283 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p. 164 : Mun. Cat., p. 211. 

Evicosmus, pt., Chaudoir, olim : Eudeina, pt, Lap. de Casteln. 
Isotarsus, pt, Laferte, Schaum. 

cyanea (Isotarsus), Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) i, 1853, p. 439 : Chaudoir, 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxi, p. 165. 

cyanescens, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 332. 
Hab. India, Hong-Kong. 

morio [Isotarsus), Laferte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (2sJ is, 1851, p. 221, note i : 
Chaudoir, Ann. Soc Ent. Belg., xxi, 1878, p, 165. 
Hab. Bengal, Dekhan, 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 31 

SIAGONINI, Lacordaire, Gen. Col. i, 1854, p. 162 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc. 1 (i), 1876, 
p. 62 : Horn, Gen. Carab, p. 127. 

Genus SIAGONA. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust. & Ins., i, 1806, p. 160: Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 162: 
Mun. Cat,, p. 161 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 439 ; Monograph ib., 
1 (i), 1876, p. 76. 

atrata Dejean, Spec., i, 1825, p. 360 : Chaudoir, Mon,, p. 85. 
Hab. India, Dekhan, Burma, 

Baconii, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 89. 
Hab. N. India, Burma. 

cinctella, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 95. 
Hab. Burma, Rangoon. 
depressa ( Galerita), Fabr,, Ent. Sysfc. Suppt., 1798, p, 56 : id., Syst. Eleuth., i, 
p. 215: Chaudoir, Mon. p. 90: Bedel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) vii, 1887, p. 195. 
europaea, Dejean, Spec, ii, 1826, p. 468 ; Ic Col. Eur., i. t, 20, f . 2 : 
Chaudoir, Mon., p. 91: ? Gray, Griffith An. Kingd, Ins., i, 1832, t. 8, f. I. 
Oberleitneri, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 477 : Ic, i. t. 20, f. 3 : Peyron, 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3 s.), 1858, p. 389. 
Hab. Mediterranean & Caspian regions, Senegal, Nubia, Persia, India 
[Ind. Mus., China, Bengal, Sahibganj], 
flesus (Galerita), Fabr, Syst. Eleuth., i, 1801 p. 216: Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p, 363 : 
Chaudoir, Mon., p. 94. 

dorsalis, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 477. 
Hab. India, Senegal. 

germana, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 96. 

Hab. Coromandei (? Pondicherry, Nilgiris). 

induta, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 98. 
Hab. India, Dekhan. 

obscuripes, Chaudoir, Mon , p. 86. 
Hab. Burma, Kangoon, 

plagiata, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 93. 
Hab. India, Dekhan. 

plana, Bonelli, Mem, Acad. Turin, 1813, p. 458: Bedel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6, s ) 
vii, 1887, p. 195. 

depressa, Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 361 (nee Fabr.): Chaud., Mon., p, 90, 
Hab. India, Dekhan, Coromandei. 

pubescens, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc , xxiii (2), 1850, p. 439 ; Mon,, p. 95. 

var. dilutipes, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, I. c, p. 440. 

Hab. N, India [Ind. Mus., Sahibganj, Rangoon], 
punctatlssima, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 106. 

Hab. N. India, Simla. 
punctulata, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 99. 
Hab, India, Dekhan, 



32 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt, 

sublaevis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 86. 

Hab. Malacca, Bangkok, Cambodia. 

OZAENINI : — Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, p. 155 : Revision, Chaudoir, Ann, Soc. Ent. 
Belg., si, 1867-68, p. 45 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 128 : Leconte & Horn, Class. 
Col., p. 23. 

Genus PSEUDOZAENA. 

Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent, i, 1834, p. 55 : Mun. Cat., p. 158. 

Hoplognathut, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxi, 1848, p. 101, 

Ozaetta, Klug, Dejean, ? pt. Lap. de Casteln, nee Olivier. 

Picms, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc,, xxvii (i), 1854, p. 290 ; Revision, p. 45. 

obscura (Picms), Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, 1867-8, p. 46. 
Hab. Borneo. 

opaca (PicrusJ, Chaudoir, I. c,, p. 46. 
Hab. India. 

orientalis (Ozaena). Klug, Jahrb. Ins., 1834, p. 81, t. 1, f . 8 : Chaudoir, Bull. 
Mosc, xxi (i), 1848, p. 101 ; id., xxvii (2), 1854, p. 291 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xi, p. 45. 

megacephala, (Pseudozaena), Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., i, 1834, p, 54, 

t. 2, f. 4. 
Hab. Java, Borneo, Malacca. 

Genus ITAMUS. 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 65: Lacord., Gen. Col,, i, p, 160: 
Mun. Cat, p. 159 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, 1867, p. 51. 

castaneus, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 67 : Chaudoir, I. c. supra 
p. 51. 

Hab. Burma. 

Genus EUSTRA. 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 65 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 161 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 161 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1854 p. 309 : id., 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, 1867, p. 71. 
plagiata, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col Birm., 1846, p. 66, t. 3, f 1 : Chaudoir, Bull, 
Mosc, xxvii (2), 1854, p. 309 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, p. 71: Bates, 
Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 237. 
Hab. Burma, Martaban, Japan. 

NOMIINI :-Horn, Gen. Carab., 1881, p. 129: Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 24. 
Coscinini, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, 1 (i), 1876, p. 115. 

Genus COSCINIA. 

Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 478 : Lacord., Gen. Col,, i, p. 167 : Mun. Cat., p. 162 : 
Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, 1 (i), 1876, p. 115. 

Cymbionotwm, Baudi, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., 1861, p. 211. 



1890.] E. T. Atklusou —Catalogue of the Carabidee. 33 

Graniger, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1861, p. 197. 
Trychina, Klug, Symb. Phys., 1832. 
faacigera, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 92; ib., 1 (i), 1876, p. 121. 

Hab. N. India. 
Holferii, Chaudoir, Bull. MosC, xxxii (2), 1S50, p. 441 ; ib., 1 (i), 1876, p. 122. 

Hab. Burma, Martaban, Siam. 
MORIONINI:— Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, p. 180 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 
317 : Horn, Gen. Carab.. p. 132 : Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 26 : Bates, 
Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 88. 

Genus MORIO. 

Latreille, Consid. Gen., 1810, tab. meth.: Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 183 : Mun. Cat., p. 
172 : Putzeys. Stettin. Ent. Zeit., xl. 1879, p. 283 ; Chaudoir, Monograph, Bull. 
Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 327. 

Barpalus, pt, Latreille : Scarites, pt, Pal. Beauv. 
angustus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 346. 
Hab. Philippines. 

brevlor, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., iv, 1873, p. 217 ; vii, p. 727 : Chaud., I. c. 
supra, p. 340. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 

cordlcollls, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 343. 
Hab. Borneo, Kandy, Balangoda (Bates). 

cueujoldes, Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H, (3s) ii, 1858, p. 203 : ? Chaud., 1. c. supra, p. 
342 : Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 211. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

Dorlae, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., iv, 1873, p. 217 ; vii, p, 727 : Chaud., Bull. 
Mosc, lv (i), p. 345. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 

intermedins, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 344. 
Hab. Philippines, Batchian, Ternate, ? Java, 

luzonlcus, Chaudoir, I. c, xxv (i), 1852, p. 81; id, lv (i), 1880, p» 344; Putzeys, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, p 726. 

Hab. Siam, Philippines, Amboina, Ternate. 

orientalls, Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 432 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., iv, p. 216 : 
Bates, I. c, (2s.) vii, 1889, p 106 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc , lv (i), 1880, p. 338. 
Hab. Java, Burma, Bhamo, Meetan, \_Ind. Mus., Tavoy, Tenasserim]. 

subconvexus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 340. 

Hab. ? Java, 
submarginatus Chaudoir, I. c, p. 342. 
Hab. 1 Borneo, Sunda Islands. 
trogosltoides, Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 203, nee Chaudoir, Bull. 
Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 81 : Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 143, 211, 
Hab. Ceylon, ? Andaman Islands. 

E 



34 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of tlie Carabidse. [Supplt. 

Walteerii, Putzeys, Ann. Mus, Civ. Gen., iv, 1873, p. 216 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc., lv (i), 
1880, p. 341. 

Hab. Ceylon, Kandy (Bates). 

Genus MORIOIDIUS. 

Chaudoir, Bui). Mosc, lv (i), 1880, p. 380. 

Doriae, Chaudoir, I. c, p. 383. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 
BEMBIDIONINI:— Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 379 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 133 : 
Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 27. 

Genus TAOHYPUS. 

Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i,1854, p. 381 : Mun. Cat., p. 400. 
indicus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxiii (3), 1850, p. 189. 
Hab. N. India. 

semilucidus, Motschulsky, Et. Ent. 1861, p. 24 ; Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 
180 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 300. 

nubifer, Morawitz, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb., v, 1862, p. 327. 
Hab. Hongkong, Japan, Amuria. 

Genus BEMBIDION. 

• Latreille, Hist. Nat, Ins., viii, 1804, p. 221 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 382 : Jacq. 
Duval, Monograph (Eur. Spec), Ann. Soc Ent. Fr., (2 s.) ix, 1851, p. 441 ; x, 
1852, p. 101 : Schaum, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., iv. 1860, p. 198 : Mun. Cat., p.- 405. 
Actedium, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc , sxxvii (3), 1864, p. 182. 
Amerizus, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1868, p. 216. 
Apteromimus, Wollaston, Col. St. Helena, 1877, p. 7. 
Bembicidiuin, Mun. Cat. p. 405. 

Campa, Motschulsky, Ins. Sib , 1842, p. 263 ; Bull. Mosc, I. o. supra, p. 185. 
CJdorodium, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra p. 182. 
Cillenns, SamoUelle, Ent. Comp., 1819, p. 148 : Curtis, Brit. Ent., i, 1828, 

p. 200. 
JEmphanes, Motschulsky, Kafer Russl., 1850 : Bull. Mosc, I, c. supra, p. 185. 
Endosomatkim, Wollaston, Col. St. Helena, 1877, p. 8. 
Euaroinus, Kirby, Faun. Bor Amer. 1837, p. 55. 
-EurytracJiehis, Motschulsky, Kafer Russl.., 1850 ; Bull. Mosc, I, c. supra, 

p. 183. 
Hydrium, Leconte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, iv, 1848, p. 353- : 

Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 186. 
Leja, Dejean, Spec , v. 1831, p. 150. 

Loplta, Dejean, I. c, p. 183 : Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 190. 
Lymnaeum, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., ii, 1829, p. 3 : Motsch, Bull. Mosc, 

I. c. supra, p. 133. 
Metallina, Motschulsky, Kafer Russl., 1850 ; Bull. Mosc, I, c, supra, p. 187, 
Nrja, Motschulsky, Bull, Mosc, I. c, p. 188. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 35 

Nepha, Motschulsky, I. c, p. 190. 

Notaphus (Megerle), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. ii, 1829, p. 4 ; Motsch., Bull. 

Mosc, I. &., p. 184. 
Oehthedromus, Leconte, I, c. supra p. 153. 

Ocys, Stephens, I. c. supra, p. 10 ; Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 188. 
Ooydromus, Clairville, Ent. Helv., ii, 1806, p. 20, 
Odontium, Leconte, I, c. supra, p. 352. 
Omnia, Motschulsky, Ins. Sib., 1812, p. 250. 
Peryphus, Dejean, Spec. v. 1831, p. 101 : Motsch., Bull. Mosc, 1. c, supra,, 

p. 189. 
Phila, Motschulsky, Ins. Sib., 1842, p. 260 ; Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, 

p. 188. 
PMlochthus, Stephens, I. c. supra, p. 7 : Motsch., Bull. Mosc, I. c, p. 186. 
Plataphns, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, I . c. supra, p. 184. 
Princiiium, Motschulsky, I. c. supra, p 181. 
PseudopMlochthus, Wollaston, Col. St. Helena, 1877, p. 7. 
Sinechostiotus Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, I. c. supra, p. 186, 
Talanes, Motschulsky, I. c. supra, p. 187. 
Testedium, Motschulsky, I. c. supra, p. 182. 
Trepanes, Motschulsky, I. c. supra, p. 186. 

eallipygum, Bohemann, Freg. Eug. Eesa, Col.. 1858, p. 17. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

hloreum, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 332. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley. Japan. 

collutum Bates, I.e., p. 332. 

Hab. Yangtse Valley, Puchau. 

europs, Bates, Ann. Mag. N.H , (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 156. 
Hab. Ceylon, Kandy. 

luridipenne, S'chaum, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., iv, 1860, p. 199. 
Hab Bengal. 

niloticum, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 73 ; Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p, 301 ; 
ib., 1883, p. 269. 

Batesii (Notaphus), Putzeys, C. R. Soc Ent. Belg., xviii, 1875, p. lii. 
opulentum, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 420. 
Hab. Egypt, Japan, Chiua, Ceylon. 

'pamirense, Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 718. 

Hab. Pamir, between Sirikol and Pangu \_Ind. A/us., type]. 

*punctipenne, Bates, I.e., p. 718 

Hab. ? Pamir or near Yarkand [Ind. Mus., type]. 

t»niatum, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 62. 
Hab. Bengal. 

xanthacrum, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (3), 1850, p. 175, note, 
Hab N. India. 



36 E. T. Atkinson — Catamite of the Carabldse. [Supply 

Genus TACHYNOTUS. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv, (i), 1861, p. 100 : Mun. Cat., p. 395. 

<sastaneus, Motschulsky, I.e. supra, p. 100, t. 9. f. 1. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

Genua TAOHYS. 

(Ziegler) Motschulsky, Kafer Russl., 1850 : Mun. Gat., p. 401 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 737 ; Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 138. 

[Although Motschulsky's revision of the genus (summarised in Et. Ent., 1862, p" 
27) has not been generally accepted, his observations deserve apparently more atten- 
tion than has hitherto been given to them. I reproduce here the arrangement 
proposed by him in his own words : — 

/ — Antennes allongees-, composees d'artieles plus longs que larges, 
(a) corps plus ou moins convexe, ovalaire, luisant : — 

1. elytres retrecies vers la base, glabres au milieu, avec un petit sillon 

basal et un entier vers la suture et la marge laterale : — Tachylopha. 

2. elytres profondement sillonees vers la suture: — Tachyura — Klugii, 

orientalis, Nietner. 
(I) corps plus ou moins deprime, oblong ou parallele, avec un reflet metallique, 

changeant sur les elytres, qui sont striees, surtout vers la suture. 

Tachys. 
(c) corps deprime, allong§, parallele ; elytres multistriees ; tete petite, courte ; 

troisieme article de palpes max. elargi. Lymnastis—pullulus, indicus 

Motsch. 

IT. — Antennes pas ou a peine plus Ungues que la moitie du corps, robustes, 
grossisa?it vers Vextr6miti et composees d' 'articles plus ou moins larges. 

(a), corps deprime presque parallele ; cotes du corselet rebord<5s sur toute 
leur largeur, sans angles releves en arriere ; elytres multistriees ; elles 
vivent sous l'ecorce des arbres. lachymenis— umbrosa, Motsch. 

(b). corps un peu convexe, ovalaire ; cotes du corselet rebordes seulement en 
arriere, avec les angles a peine saillants ; elytres glabres, sans stries, 
ou a peine marquees de chaque cote de la suture des sillons plus ou 
moins effaces ; palpes grands, de la longuer de la tete ; graduelle- 
ment attenues en avant. Polyderis—tenellus, Motsch. 

To these I have added 

Maphropus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xii, 1839, p. 4 ; id., ib., xxii, 1859, p. 40, f. 4 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 400— gracilis, latissimus, Motsch.] 

acaroldes. Motsch., Et. Ent., 1859, p. 39 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, p. 240. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

albicornla, Schaum, Berlin Ent. Zeits., iv. 1860, p, 199. 

Hab. Hongkong. 
amplians, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 155, 

Hab. Ceylon, Kar.dy. 

anceps, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 742. 
Hab, India. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the CarabiJae. 37 

arcuatus, Putzeys, I. c, p. 744. 

Hab. Ceylon. 
atomarius, Wollaston, Col. Hesperid., 1868, p. 28 : Bates, Ann. Mag. N, H., (5 3.) 
xvii, p. 152. 

microscopica, Bates, Trans. Ent. 8. Lond., 1873, p. 299. 
1 tenella (Polyderis), Motsch., Et. Ent., 1862, p. 35. 
Hab. Cape Vera Islands, Ceylon (Bogawantalawa). 
bioculatus, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 743 : Bates, /. c, (2 s.) vii 
1889, p. 105. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Burma, Bhamo, Teintso, Tenasserim. 

ceylanicus (Bembidium), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 423. 

Hab. Ceylon. 
cinctipennls, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 99. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 
coracinus, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 739. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 
dorsalis, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc., xxiv (4), 1851, p. 508. 

Hab. India. 

emarginatus (Bembidium), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 425 : 
Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 739 : Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5 s.) 
xvii, 1886, p. 155. 

scydmaenoides, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p, 299 (nee Nietner), 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo (Bates), Fuchau, Lower Yangtse Valley. 

euldes, Bates, Ann. Mag. N, H., (6 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 153. 
Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya. 

flnitimus (Bembidium), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 204. 

Hab. Ceylon, 
flaviculus, Motschulsky, Et. Eut., 1859, p. 39. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

fumigatus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 509. 
Hab. India. 

fusculus, Schaum, Berlin Ent. Zeits., iv, 1860, p. 200 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus, Civ. Gen., 
vii, p. 741. 

Hab. Hongkong. 

gracilis ( Elaphropus), Motsch., Et. Ent., 1862, p. 36. 
Hab. India. 

gradatus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 331. 
Hab. Fuchau, China. 

impresipennis, Motschulsky, Et. Ent.. 1859, p. 39 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., 
vii, p. 745. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

lmpressus, Motschulsky } Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 508, 
Hab, India. 



38 E, T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplfc. 

Indicus (Lymnaeum), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, Xxiv (4), 1851, p. 507 ; id, (Lymnastis), 
Et. Ent., 1862, p. 27. 

Hab. India, 
infans, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (6s.) xvii, 1886, p. 154. 

Hab. Ceylon, Kandy. 

Klugii (Bembidium), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 423. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

latissimus ( Elapliropus) , Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 508 : id., Et. 
Ent., 1859, t. 1, f. 5. 
Hab. India. 

Nietnerli (Taehyta), Scbaum, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., vii, 1863, p. 88. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

notaphoides, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 156. 
Hab. Ceylon, Kitugalle. 

orientalis (Bembidiwn), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 425. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

ornatus (Bembidium), Nietner, I. c, p. 426 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 
p. 741. 

Hab. Ceylon, Kandy (Bates'). 

ovatus (Loplia), Motscbulsky, Bull. Mosc., xxiv (4), 1851, p. 509. 

albicornis, Scbaum, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., iv, 1860. p. 199, 

Hab. Hongkong, 
paralellus Motscbulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 507. 

Hab. India, 
peryphinus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 153. 

Hab. Ceylon, Kitugalle. 

poecilopterus, Bates, Trans. Ent, S. Lond., 1873, p. 331. 
Hab. Fuchau, China. 

politus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 509 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen,, 
vii p. 743. 

ebeninus (BembidiumJ, Nietner, Ann, Mag. N. H,, (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 424. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

pullulus (Lymnastis), Motscbulsky, Et. Ent.. 1862, p. 31. 
Hab. India. 

scydmaenoides (BembidiumJ, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 427. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo (Bates) ; Yangtse Valley (Lewis). 

sericeus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 507. 
Hab. India. 

spilotus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 152. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

subvittatus, Bates, 1. c., p. 151. 
Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Oarabidse. 39 

sulcatusf TachysJ, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 509 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Gen., yii, 1875, p. 740. 
Hab. India. 
Bulculatus, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 743. 

Hab. Hongkong. 
suturaliB (Tachys), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 508 : Putzeys, I. c, supra. 
p. 746. 

Hab. India. 

teneUus, Motsch., Et. Ent,, 1862, p. 35. 

Hab. India, 
triangularis (Bembidium), Nietner, Journ. As. Soc Beng., 1857, p. 72 : Ann. Mag- 
N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 422 : Schaum, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., 1863, p. 72 : Bates, 
Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 298. 

atriceps, W. MacLeay, Trans. Ent. S. N. S. Wales, 1871, p. 116. 
Hab. Egypt, Yemen (Arabia), Japan, Yangtse Valley, Ceylon, Colombo, 
Dikoya (Bates), Celebes, Melbourne, Queensland. 

tropicus (Bembidium), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (2s ) ii, 1858, p. 421. 
Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya (Bates). 

truncatus (Bembidium), Nietner, I. c, p. 421. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

umbrosus, Motsch , Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 507 ; id., ib. , xxr, 1862, p. 32. 
(Tachymenis), Et. Ent., ix, 1862, p. 32. 

? extremus (Acvpalpus), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 204. 
Hab. India, Ceylon, Dik /a (Bates), Kiukiang in Yangtse Valley. 

vixstriatus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 331. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley. 

POGONINI :— Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 364 : Chaudoir, Essai, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
., xiv, 1871, p. 21 : Horn Gen. Carab., p. 135. 



Genus POGONUS. 
Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 6 : Lacord., Gen. Col , i, p. 368 : Mun. Cat., p. 384 : 
Chaudoir, Essai Mori., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xiv, 1871, p. 23. 

nindustanus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc. xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 192 : Chaudoir, Ess., p. 38 
(gen. dub), 

Hab. India, Tranquebar. 
transfuga, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc Ent. Belg., xiv. 1871, p. 30. 

orientalis, Gebler, Bull. Mosc, xx (i), 1847, p. 319. 

persicus, Chaudoir, I. c, xv, 1842, p. 821. 

Hab. Siberia, S. Russia, Persia, 1 Kashmir. 

Genus PATROBUS. 

Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 26 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 367: Mun. Cat., p. 386 ; 
Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xiv, 1871, p. 40 : Schaum, Naturg. Deutsch. Ins- 
i, p. 375. 

Carabus, Paykull, Duftschmid, Panzer, Illiger. Harpalus, Gyllenhal, ZetterS= 
tedt. Platysma, Sturm, 



40 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidee. [Supplt. 

flavlpes, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 191 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xiv, 1871, p. 40 : Hates, Trans Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 294 : (Deltomerus) 
Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii (3). 1878, p. 79. 
Hab. Japan, Yangtse Valley, Hongkong. 

yunnanus, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6s.) vi, 1886. p.317. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

Genus TREOHUS. 

Clairville, Ent. Helv., ii, 1806, p. 22 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 370 : Mun. Cat., p. 389 : 
Mon., Putzeys, Stettin Ent. Zeit., 1847, p. 302 : Pandelle, Mat. Col. France, 
1867, p. 131. 

Blemus, pt. Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., 1828, p. 50 : Motsch., Bull. Mosc. 

xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 190. 
Epaphius, Stephens, I. c, supra p. 50. 
Thalassophihis, Wollaston Ins. Mader., 1854, p. 20. 

convexus, MacLeay, Annul. Javan, 1825, p. 20, 

Hab. Java, 
fasclatus, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 506. 

Hab. India. 

PTEROSTICHINI:-Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 136 : Leconte & Horn, Class, Col., p. 30. 
Feronides, Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, p. 317. 
Stomides, Lacordaire, I. c, p. 247. 
Trigonotomides, Lacordaire, I. c, p. 309. 

Div. TRI60N0T0MINA :— Lacordaire, I. c. : Chaudoir, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent, 
Belg., xi, 1868, p. 151. 

Genus TRIPLOGENIUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 71 : id., Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 
xi, 1868, p. 152. 

Omaseus, Morawitz, Motschulsky, MacLeay. 
Trigonotoma, pt, Dejean, Laporte. 

? aeratus (Omaseus'), Hope, Gray's, Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21. 

Hab. Nepal. 
andamanensis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc. liii (3), 1878, p. 22. 

Hab. Andaman Islands. 
Buquetil, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 77 : Chaudoir, Mon , p. 162 ; Bull. Mosc, 
liii (3), 1878, p. 31. 

Hab. Java. 
chaleothorax, Chaudoir, Ann. Soe. Ent. Belg. xi, 1868, p. 153 ; Bates, Ann, Mus. 
Civ. Gen., (2s) vii, 1889, p. 105. 

Hab. Cambodia, Cochin China ; Burinah, Bhamo. 

himaleyicus (Omaseus), Redtenb., Hugel's Kaschm., iv (2), 1844, p. 501. 

Hab. N. W. Himalaya ; Mussooree. 
?indlcus (Omaseus), Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21. 

Hab. Nepal. 



1 890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 41 

ingens (Omaseus), Morawitz, Beitr. Z. K'af, Faun, Jesso, i, 1863, p. 54 : Chaudoir, Ann. 
Soc Bnt. Belg., xi, p. 154. 

(ma-gnus (Omasens), Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1860, p. 5. 

Hab. China, Japan, 
insignia, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., xviii, 1882, p. 310. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak, labuan. 

Mouhotii, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 152 : Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, 
p. 105. 

Hab. Cambodia ; Burma, Bhamo. 

obscurus, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 76. 

Hab Java, 
planioollis, Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 185 : Chaud., Mori,, p. 154. 

Hab Bengal, 
praestans, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 154. 

Hab. Hongkong. 
Putzeysii, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii (3), 1878, p. 31. 

Hab. Java, 
rectangulus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 153. 

Hab. Dekhan. 

semiviolaceus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 152. 
Hab. N. India. 

serraticollts, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 153. 
Hab. Dekhan. 

viridicbllis (Omaseus). MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 17 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 
154 : Guerin, Ic. Begne Anim,, t. 6, f. 2a : Gray, Griffith Anim. Kingd., Ins., i., 
1832., t. 25, f. 2. 

bioolor, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 75, t. 2, f. 2 : Chaud., Mon., 

p. 152 ; id., Bull. Mosc, liii (3), 1878, p. 33. 
Hab. Java. 
Waterhousei, Chaudoir, Eev. Mag. Zool., 1862, p. 489 ; id., Mon., p. 55. 
Hab. N. India, Java. 

Genua LESTICUS. 
Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 190 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 312 : Mun. Cat., p. 294 ; 
Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xi, 1868, p. 155. 

amabilis, Chaudoir, I. o. supra, p. 155. 
Hab, Java. 

janthinus, Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 190 : Ic. Col. Eur., ii, t. 124, 1 3 : Lap. 
de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 120: Chaudoir, I. c, p. 155. 
Hab. Java. 

tricostatus, Chaudoir, I.e. supra, p. 157. 
Hab. India. 



42 E. T. Atkinson — Cut'dogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt. 

Genus TRIGONOGNATHA. 

Motsclmlsky, Et. Ent., vi, 1857, p. 25. 

princeps, Bates, Trans, Ent. S. Loncl, 1883, p. 243. 
Hab. China, Kwantung. 

Genus TRXGQHOTOMA. 

Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 182: Lacord., Gen. Col, i, p. 311 : Mun. Cat., p. 293: 
Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 71 i id., Monograph, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg., xi, 1868, p. 158. 

chalceola Bates, Trans. Eat. S. Lond., 1873, p. 328. 
Hab. Hongkong, 

i Comottoii, U. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., xviii, 1882, p. 308. 
Hab. Burma. 

concinna, Lap.de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 77 : Chaudoir, Mori., p. 159 : Bates, 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 105. 
Hab. Java. 

crenata, Chaudoir, Mon,., p. 159. 

Hab. India. 
curtula, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 160. 

Hab. Laos. 
Dohrnii, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxv (i), 1852, p. 69 ; Mon., p. 159. 

Hab. Hongkong. 
fulgidicollis. Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 77 : Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen.' 

xviii, 1882, p. 309. 

Hab. Java, 1 Laos, 

indica, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins., iv, 1840, p. 333 : Chaud., Mon., p. 158 : Bates, Ann. 
Mag. N. H., (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 145. 

viridicollia, Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 183 (jiec MacLeay) : Lap. de 

Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 220. 
Hab. Java, Ceylon, Colombo. 

Lewisli, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 284. 

var. bhamoensis, Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 105. 
Hab. Manchuria, Japan, China, Burma, Bhamo. 

luzonica, Chaudoir, Mon,, p. 161. 

Hab. Philippines, Luzon, Manilla. 

nitidicollis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 160. 
Hab, Cochinchina. 

Petelii, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 78 : Chaud.-, Mon., p. 159. 
Hab. Java. 

similis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 158. 
Hab. Dekhan. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. 43 

Genus TBIGONOMIMA. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc. xxxvii (4), 1864, p. 349 : Mun. Cat., p. 293. 
1 = Triplogenys, Chaudoir, q. v, 

politocollis, Motschulsky, I c, p. 349. 
Hab. India. 

Div. STOMINA:-Lacordaire, Gen. Col, i. p. 247: Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., six (4), 
1846, p. 511. 

Genus IDIOMORPHXJS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xix (4), 1846, p. 515 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 254: Mua. 
Cat., p. 248 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 175. 

Guerinii, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xix (4), 1846, p. 518 : Lacord., Gen. Col , Atlas, t. 
12, f. 1 a. 

Hab. India, Nilgiris. 

Genus DISPSAERICUS. 

Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., iii, 1842, p. 211 : Lacord., Gen. Col, i, p. 249 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 247 : Horn, Gen, Carab., p. 126. 

DyscMridium, Chaudoir, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., v, 1861, p. 130. 

Sjjanus, Westwood, Proceed. Ent. S. Lond., iii, Feb. 1864, p. 3. 
marginicoUis, Schauin, Berlin. Ent. Zeits., 1864, p. 122, t. 2, f. 3. 

Hab. India, Tranquebar. 
ovicollis, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 73. 

Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya. 

Genus PACHYTRACKELXJ3. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 85 : Mun. Cat., p. 248. 

Batoseelis, Lacord., Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 261 : Mun. Cat., p. 249. 
Systenognathus, Putzeys, Mem. Liege, xviii, 1862, p. 18 : Mun, Cat., 
p. 189. 

ceylonicus (Batoseelis), Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 103. 

Hab. Ceylon, 
cribriceps, Chaudoir, I. c, xxv (i), 1852, p. 86. 

Hab. N. India, 
dtscipennis (Agonoderus), Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 815. 

Hab. India, Simla. 

oblongusf Agonoderus), Dejean, I. c, p. 813. 
Hab. India. 

politus, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, t. 2, f. 8 a.-d. 
Hab. Burma. 

porosus, Putzeys, Meaa. Liege, xviii, 1862, p. 19, t. 1, f, 2-4. 
Hab. India. 

Div. PTEEOSTICHINI :-Horn, Gen' Carab., p, 137. 



44 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carahidce. [Supplfc. 

Geaus CATABRQMUS. 

MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 18 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p 321 : Mun. Cat., 

p. 2S8. 
teaebrioides (Caralms), Olivier, Eac. Meth., v, 1790, p. Z2±; id., Ent., iii, 35, 
p. 17, t. 6, f. 67 : Dejean, Spec, iii, p. 187 : Gray, Griffith, Anirn. Kiugd., I n s. 
i, t. 12. f. 3 : Macleay, Annul. Javan, p. 10, t. 1, f. 5, 

Rajah (Harpalus), Wiedemann, Anal. Ent., 1824, p. 7. 
Hab. Java \_Ind. Mus., Australia /]. 

Genus PTSHOSTI0HUS. 

Bonelli, Obs, Ent. 1809, tab. syri. : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 400 : Mun. Cat. 
p. 317. 

Adelosia, Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. (2 el), 1832. 

Aello, Gozis, M. T. Schw. Ent. Ges., vi, 1882, p. 297. 

Agonodemus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 9. 

Araahnoidius, Chaudoir. I. v., p. 9. 

Arrjutor (Megeiie), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., i, 1828. 

Argutoroidius, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg.,xix. 187(3, p. 114. 

Jiothriopterus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 9. 

Br achy stylus, pt. Chaudoir., I. c, p. 10. 

Bryoblus, Chaudoir, I. e., p. 10. 

Calopterus, Chaudoir, I. c, p. 11. 

Ceneus, Chaudoir, I. c, xxviii (3), 1865, p. 109. 

Cheporus, Latreille, Ilegue. Auim., (2ed.) iv, 1825, p. 396. 

Cvphosus (Ziegler), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., i, 1828 : Chaud., I. c, supra, p. I . 

Cosciniopterm, Chaudoir, I. c. supra, p. 11. 

Cryobius, Chaudoir, I c, p. 11. 

Dysidius, Chaudoir. I. c, p. 8. 

Glyptopterus, Chaudoir, I. a., p. 10. 

Gonuderus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc., xxxii, 1859, p. 149. 

Haploooelus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 8. 

H&ptoderus, Chaudoir, I. v., p. 10. 

Ilypherpcs (Esch ), Chaudoir, I. c, p. 8. 

Lianoe, Gozis, MT-. Schw. Ent. Ges., vi. 1882, p. 298. 

Lyperophems, Motschulsky, M<§m. Ac. St. Petersb. , v, 1816, p. 136. 

Lypervsomus, Motschulsky. 

Lyperus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 12. 

Lyropedius, Seidlitz, Fauna Baltica, (2 ed.). 1887, p. 36. 

Lyrothorax, Chaudoir, I. o. } supra, p. 9. 

Melanius, Bonelli M6m. Acad. Turin, tab. syn., 1809. 

Myosodm, Fischer, Ent. Imp. Buss,, ii, 1823, p. 122, 

Omaseus (Ziegler), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., i, 1828. 

Oreophilus, Chaudoir, I. o. supra, p. 9. 

Orthomits, Chaudoir, I. c, p. 8. 

Parapediiis, Seidlitz, Fauna Baltica, (2 ed.), 1887, p. 3.6. 

Pedius, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 242. 

Petrophihts, Chaudoir, I. o. supra, p. 9. 

Phonias, Gozis, Recherche, 1886, p. 8. 



1890.] E. T. Atkiuson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. 45 

Platypterus, Chaudoir. A c. supra, p. 11. 

Platysma, Bonelli, Obs! Ent., 1809, tal. syn. : Mun. Cat., p. 317. 
Pledarus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 254. 
Pseudocryobius, Motschulsky, Kafer Kussl., 1850, 9. 
Pseudoderus, Seidlitz, Fauna Baltica, (2 ed.), 1887, p. 36. 
Pseudnpedius, Seidlitz, I. c, p. 36. 
Pseudosteropus, Chaudoir, I. c. supra, p, 9. 
Psychobius, Chaudoir, I. <?., p. 12. 

ltliagadus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 261. 
Steropus (Megerle), Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent.,.i, 1828. Chaud., I. c, supra, 
p. 9. 

[The above synonymy requires examination and revision, ] 

aeneocupreus (Platysma), Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887, p. 95. 

Hab. Yunnan. 
binnanus (Loxandrus), Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 106. 

Hab. Burma, Bhamo. 
curtatus (Euryperus), Fairmaire, Ana. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s. ) vi, 1886, p. 312. 

Hab. Yunnan, 
diversus ( Omaseus), Fairmaire, I c, p. 311. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

gagates (Platisma), Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21. 
Hab. Nepal. 

latecosta (Platysma), Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887, p, 94. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

Yunnanus, ( Pterostiohus ), Fairmaire, I. c, p. 94. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

longinquus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 286. 

Hab. Yangtse Valley, Japan. 
Noguchii, Bates, I.e., p. 286. 

Hab. Yangtse Valley, Nagasaki. 

simillimus, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (4s.) vi, 1886, p. 312. 
Hab, Yunnan. ~ 

piscescens ( Simodontus ), Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xlvi (3), 1873, p. 114. 
Hab. 1 Philippines 1 Australia. 

Genua RHATHYMUS. 

Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 783: Mun. Cat., p. 334 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc liii 
(3), 1878, p. 7. 

Rathyvms, Dejean, I.e. supra : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 329. 
Selenidia, Motseh., Et. Ent., 1855, p. 45. 

Striyia, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ius., iv, 1840, p. 382 : Lacord,, Gen. Col., i, p. 
327 : Mun. Cat., p. 333. 
3,ter, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii (2), 1878, p. 8. 
Hab. India, Coromandel. 



46 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse, [Supplt. 

maxillaris (Strigia), Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins., iv, 1810, p. 382, t. 15, f. 6 : Ckaudoir, 
I.e. supra, p. 8. 
Hab. India, 
stigma, Fabr., Syst. Eleuth., i, 1801, p. 192 : (Selenidia) MotscVi., Et. Eat., 1855, p. 
45 : Chaudoir, Eev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxiii, 1872, p. 140 ; id., Bull. Mosc, 
liii (3), p. 9. 

1 suloatus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv, App. 1794, p. 443. 
Hab. India, Dekhan, Java. 

Genus LAG ASUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838 : p. 10. 

? 1 Argutor, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., 1828 ; teste, Gozis, Recherche, p. 8. 

? lmpunctatus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N.H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 145. 
H»b. Ceylon, Colombo. 

Genus ABACETUS- 

Dejean, Spec., iii, 1828, p. 195 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 315 : Mun. Cat., p. 295 : 
Chaudoir, Stettin. Ent. Zeit., 1859, p. 126 ; id., Monograph, Bull. Mosc, 
xlii (i), 1869, p. 353. 

Astygis, Kambur, Faun. Auda!., 1842, p, 95. 

Coelostomas, MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 23 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist, 

Nat. Ins., i, p. 123. 
Dicaelihdus, MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 18 : Schaum, Berlin. Ent. 

Zeits, vii, 1863, p. 86 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc, xlii (i), .1869, p. 356. 
Distrigodes, pt., Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (4), 1864, p. 353 : Mun. Cat., 

p. 296. 
Distrigus, Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 191 : Lacord., Gen. Col,, i, p. 316 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 296. 

aenigma, Chaudoir, Man, Bull. Mosc, xlii (i), 1869, p. 358 : Fairm. Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr., 1888, r. 336. 

Hab. Cochin China, Tonkin, Hongkong. 

amplicollis, Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 106. 

Hab. Burma, Katha, Teintso, Bhaino. 
anomalus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 367. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

antiquus (Argutor), Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 246 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 391. 
. picipes, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 228 (nee MacLeay). 

relinquens (Argutor), Walker, Ann. Mag. N.H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 204. 

mbmetallicus (Distrigus), Nietner, I.e., p. 177. 

Hab. India, Coromandel, Ceylon, Colombo, 
atratus (Distrigus), Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 194 : Chaud., Mon., p. 358. 

cosiatus (Distrigus), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H, (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 176. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

Wpunctatus (Distrigodes), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1864, p. 352 ; Chaudoir. 
Mon., p. 386. 

? palli-pes, Chaudoir, g. v. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabitlae. 4 7 

rufulus (Distrigode.-), Motsch., I.e., xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 327. 
Hab. India, Burma, 
bisignatus, Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 105. 
Hab. Burma, Bbamo, Sbwegu. 

carinifrons, Bates, Ann. Mag. N.H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 14-1. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo, 
chalceolus, Cbaudoir, Mon , p. 384. 

Hab. N. India. 

cordicollis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 357. 

Hab. India. Tranquebar ; Ceylon, Galle. 

cyathoderus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 373. 

Hab. N. India. 
degener (Argvtor), Walker, Ann. Mag. N.H., (3s.) ii, 1838, p. 204. 

Hab. Ceylon. 
Dejeanii (Distrigus), Nietner, I.e., p. 178 : Chaud., Man., p. 390. 

flavipes (Cnelostomus), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 228. 

Hab. India, Ceylon. 

dilutipes, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 383. 
Hab. Siam. 

dorsalis (Astygis), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 229 : Chaud., Mon., 
p. 397. 

I^rufopiceus, Nietner, q. v. 
Hab. India, Tranquebar, Madura. 

felspathicus (Diccelindvs), MaeLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 19, t. 1, f. 6 : gchaum, 
Berlin. Ent. Zeits., 1863, p. 86. 
Hab. Java. 

femoralls (Bistrigodes), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 354 : Chaud., 
Mon., p. 386. 

Hab. India, Tranquebar. 

guttula, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 374. 
Hab. Dekhan. 

haplosternus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii (3), 1878, p. 25. 
Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

hirmococlus, Ohaudoir, Mon., p. 372. 
Hab. Burma, Rangoon. 

impressicollls (Distrigus), Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 193 : Lap. de 'asteln., Hist. 
Nat Ins., 1, p. 118 : Chaud., Mon., p. 359. 
Hab. India, Dekhan. 

leucotelus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 283. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley, Nagasaki. 

lloderes, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 144. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 



48 E T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidsc. [Supplt. 

maculipes, Chaudoir, A/on., p. 384. 

Hab. Burma, Martaban. 
marginicollis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 359. 

Hab. Burma, Pegu, liangoon. 

Nietnerii, Chaudoir, Man., p. 392. 

aeneus (Distrigus), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 177 : (nee, 

Dejean). 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

pallipes, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 386. 

1 •abijmnctatv-s, Motschulsky, q.v. 
Hab. Burma, Martaban. 

picipes (Coelostornus), MacLeay, Annul, Javan, 1825, p. 24 : Hope, Col. Man., ii, 
t. 3 f. a.d. (nee Motsch.) : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 123. 
Hab. India. 

picticornis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii (3), 1878, p. 27. 
Hab. Middle China. 

polltus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 368. 
Hab. India, Dekhan. 

politulus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 369. 

Hab. Burma, Rangoon. 
promptus (Distrigus), Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 195 : Chaud., Mon., p. 370. 

Hab. India, Coromandel. 

quadricollis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 382. 
Hab. Burma, Martaban. 

quadriguttatus, Chaudoir, Mon., 387 : Bates. Ann. Mag. N. H,, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 143. 
Hab. Ceylon, Kandy. 

quadrimaculatus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 380. 
Hab. N. India. 

quadrinotatus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 388. 
Hab. Bengal. 

reflexus, Chaudoir, Mon , p. 358. 
Hab. N. India. 

rufopiceus (Distrigus'), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 177 : Chaud., 
Mon., p. 398. 

Hab Ceylon. 

rufotestaceus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 398. 
Hab. Dekhan. 

siamensis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii (3), 1878, p, 26. 
Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

Genus CHLAEMXNUS- 

Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (4), 1864, p. 351 : Mun. Cat. p. 229: Chaud., Monograph. 
Bull. Mosc, xlii (i), 1869, p. 401. 

Distrigodes, pt, Motschulsky, I.e. supra, p. 353. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidw. 49 

Wguttatus, Motscli., Bull. Mosc. xxxvii (4), 1864, p. 351 : Cliaud., Mon., p. 401. 

Hab. India, Bekhan, Tranquebar, Burma, Martaban. 
Wplagiatus, Chaudoir, A/on., p. 402. 

Hab, Burma, Rangoon. 

eruciatus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 403. 
Hab. Bengal. 

fiavaguttatus {Distngodes), Motscb., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (4), 1864, p. 354 : Cliaud, , 
Mon., p. 404. 
Hab. Burma, 

quadriplagiatus, Chaudoir, Mon, , p. 403. 
Hab. Dekhan. 

Genus HOLCONOTUS* 

Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (3s.) iv, 1876, p. 352. 

ferruginous (Abacetus), Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xli (2), 1869, p 399: Schmidt Goebel, 
Faun. Col. Birm., t. 2, f. 6. 
Hab. Burma, Siam, 

Genus AULACQCOELIUS- 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xlii (2), 1869, p. 405. 
liopleuius Chaudoir, I.e., p. 406. 

Hab. ? N. Australia, ? Philippines, Luzon. 

Genus POECILUS 

Bonelli, Obs. Ent., 1809, tab. syn : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 402; Man. Cat., p. 
300 : Chaudoir, L'Abeille, xiv, 1875, p. 1-54. 

Ancholeus, subg., Chaudoir, L'Abeille, xiv, 1876, p. 45. 

Blennidus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc , xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 251, 

Braohystylus, pt, Chaudoir, BulL Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 10. 

Carenostylus, Chaudoir, I.e., p. 8. 

Chlaenioidius, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxviii (3), 1865, p. 110. 

Cyclomus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 8. 

Denis, Motschulsky, Kafer Russl., 1850, p. 50 ; id., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii, 

(4), 1865, p. 255. 
Sngines, (Leach) Stephens, 111. Brit, Ent., 1828 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc, xi, p. 8. 
Trirammatus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc , xi, 1838, p. 8 : Motsch., I.e., xxxviii 
(4), 1865, p. 252. 
cupreus, Linn., Faun. Suec, 1746, No. 801 : Dejean, Spec,, in, p. 207 : for syn. vide 
Muu. Cat., p. 301. 

Hab. Europe, N. Africa, Asia Minor, Persia, Japan, Canton (Putzeys). 

Indlcus {Sogines'), Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc , xxxviii (4), 1865, p. 257. 
Hab. N. India. 

G 



50 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supply 

Genus TROPIDOCERUS. 

Cbaudoir, Bull. Mosc, liii(3), 1873, p. 9. 
indicus, Chaudoir, I.e., p. 13. 
Hab. N. India. 

Geuus MOLOPS 

Bonelli, Obs. Ent. i, 1809, tab. syn.; Mun. Cat., p. 332 : Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeits., 
18? 5, p. 369. 

piliferus, Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 718. 
Hab. India, Murree [Ind. Mus., type]. 

Genus AEPSERA- 
Cbaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xiviii (i), 1874, p. 28. 
ferruglnea, Cbaudoir, I.e., p. 30. 
Hab. Burma. 

Genus AMARA- 

Bonelli, Obs. Ent., 1809, tab. syn. : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 332 : Mun. Cat., p. 347 i 
Putzeys, Monograph, L'Abeille, 1871, p. 100. 

Acrodon, Zimmermann, Gistl's Faunus, i, 1832, p. 40 : Mun. Cat., p. 344. 

Amarocelia, Motecbulsky, Et. Ent., 1862, p. 4. 

Amathitis, Zimmermann, I.e. supra, p. 39 ; Mun. Cat., p. 342. 

Bradytus, Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent., i, 1828, p. 131 : Mun. Cat., p. 338. 

Celia, Zimmermann, I.e. supra, p. 18 : Mun. Cat., p. 344. 

Cnrtonotus (Cyrtonotus), Stephens, I.e. supra, p. 138 : Mun. Cat., p. 339 : 

Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 76. 
Isoplevrus, pt, Kirby, Faun. Boreal. Amer., iv, 1837, p. 34. 
Leiocnemis (Liocnemis), Zimmerniann> I.e. supra, p. 38 : Mun. Cat., p. 

342. 
Leirus, Zimmermann, I.e. supra, p. 17 (= Cyrtonotus). 
Percosia, Zimmermann, I.e. supra, p. 18 : Mun. Cat., p. 337. 
Triaena, Leconte, Ann. Lye. N. York, iv, 1848, p. 265. 

amblgena, Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond , 1878, p. 716. 

Hab. N. W. Himalaya, Pangong Valley [Ind, Mus., type]. 
*badlola (Amathitis'), Bates, I.e., p. 717. 

Hab. north of Kuenluen [Ind. Mus., type]. 
'fcamidunya, Bates, I.e., p. 716. 

Hab. Pamir {Ind. Mus., type]. 

compactus (Bradytus), Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 49. 
Hab. India, Murree [_Ind Mus., type]. 

darjelingensis, Putzeys, Stettin.Ent. Zeit , xxxviii, 1877, p. 102. 
Hab. Darjiling. 

* frlvola (Liocnemis), Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 717. 
Hab. ? Yarkand, or E. slopes Pamir [2nd Mus., type]. 

himalaica (Liocnemis), Bates, I. c. supra, p. 716. 
Hab. India, Ladak [Ind, Mus., type]. 



1890.] E. T. ktklason— Catalogue of the Carabidae. 5$ 

inflica (Liocmmis), Putzeys, Mem. Liege, 1866, p. 216. 
Hab. N. India. 

*lsuejil\xneasis(AmathUis), Bates, I. e. supra, p. 717. 

Hab. Sanju [lad. Mus., type]. 
nltens (Cyrtonotus), Putzeys, Et. s. 1. Amara, 1866, p. 234. 

Hab. Manchuria, Japan, N. China, Szechuen. 

• pamirensls (Cyrtonotus), Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Load., 1878, p. 717, 

Hab. Pamir [2nd. Mus., type J. 

* tartarlae QLiocnemis), Bates, I. c. supra, p. 716. 

Hab. Between Yangihissar and Sirikol [lad. Mus., type]. 

? yunnaaa Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887, p. 95. 
Hab. China. 

Gemis DRIMOSTOMA. 

Dejean, Spec, v. 1831, p. 745: Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 313: Mun. Cat,-, p. 294.^ 

Chaudoir, Moaograpn, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xv, 1872, p. 9. 
rectangulum, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xv, 1872, p. 11 1 Bates, Ann. Mus, 
Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 106. 

Hab. Java, Burma, Shwegu, Teintso, Bhamo. 

Genus STOMONAXUS- 

Motschulsky, Etudes Entomologiques, 1859, p. 34. 

Dioeromerus, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xv, 1872, p. 15. 

Chaudoirii {Dioeromerus), Fleutiaux, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) vii, 1887, p. 60. 

Hab, Annam, Hue. 
orlentalls (Stomonaams), Motsch., Et. Ent., 1859, p. 35 : Chaudoir (Diceromerns), 
Ann. Soc Ent. Belg., xv, 1872, p. 15. 

Hab. India, Tranqnebar, Ceylon, Bikoya {Bates). 

strlatlcollls, Dejean, Spec, v s 1831 p. 747 : Chaud., Ann. Soe. Ent. Belg., xv, 1872'; 
p. 13. 

ceylanicum (Brimostoma), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 178. 
? marginals {Brimostoma'), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (8 s.) iii, 1859, p. 51 r 

Bates, ib., (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 212. 
rufipes (DHmostoma), Bohem., Freg. Eug. Resa, Col., 1858, p. 3. 
? soulptipennis {Stomonaxus), Motsch., Et. Ent,, 1859, p. 35, t. 1, f. 6, 
Hab. India, Ceylon, Hong-Kong, Japan, Senegal. 
11CINXNI:— Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 231 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 139 : Leconte & 
Horn., Class, Col., 1883, p. 32. 

Genus RHEMBUS- 
Latreillc, Ic. Col. Eur., i, 1822, p. 85 : Mun. Cat., p. 238 : Laferte, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr., (2 s.) ix, 1851, p. 278. 

? Biploeheila, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins., Col., i, 1834, p. 407 : Horn . Bull, 

Brookl. Ent. Soc. iii, 1880, p. 52. 
Rembus, Latr., I. c. supra : Lacord, Gen. Col., i, p. 233 : Laferte. 
Symphyns, Nietner, Ann, Mag. N. H, (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 180, 



52 E. T. Atkinson—- Catalogue of the Carabidse; [Supplfc. 

©longatus, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lend., 1873, p. 256. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley. Japan. 

impressus (Carabus), Fabr., Ent. Syst. SuppL, 1798, p. 57 ; Syst. Eleuth., up. 188.- 
Dejean, Spec., ii, p. 383. 
Hab. India. 

latlfrons, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 679. 
Hab. India. 

opaons, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc.,. xxv (i), 1852, p. 67. 
Hab. Japan China, 1 India, Java. 

poiitus (Carabus), Fabr., Eat. Syst, i, 1792, p. 146 j Syst. Eleuth., i, p. 189 : Dejean, 
Spec, ii, p. 381 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., Col. i, p. 133. 
Hab. India, \_Ind. Mus., Bengal, Sahibganj], 

uralcolor, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.), ii p. 1858, p. 180. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

zeelandicus, Redtenb, Reise Novara, Col., 1867, p. 10, fc. 1, f. 5 : Bates, Tram. 
Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 256. 

Hab. Formosa, Yangtse Valley, Japan, ? New Zealand. 

Genus BADISTER. 

Clairville, Ent. Helv., ii, 1806, p. 90 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins., Col., i, 1834, p. 403 t 
Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 234: Mun. Cat, p. 239 : Laferte, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (2 s.) 
ix, 1851, p. 285 : Leconte, Trans. Amer. Ent. S., Yiii., p. 165; id., Bull. Brookk 
Ent. S., v, 1882, p. 7. 

Amblychus, Gyllenhal, Ins. Suec., ii, 1810, p. 74. 

Baudia, Kagusa, Nat. Sicil., vii, 1884, p. 3. 

TrimorpAws, Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins., 1829, p. 405. 

TODidicollis, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 58-. 

Hab. Bengal, 
ihoracicus, Wiedemann, I. e„ p. 57. 

Hab. India. 

Genus ECCOPTOGENIUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxv (i), 1852, p. 72 : Laeord., Gen. Col., i, p. .320 : Mud. 
Cat., p. 297. 

moestus, Chaudoir/Z. c. mpra, p. 74: Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5. s.) xvii, p. 212. 
1 retinens, Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H, (3 s.)iii, 1859, p. 51. 
Hab. N. India, Ceylon. 

Genus DIROTUS. 

MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825. p. 16 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 312 : Mun. Cat,, 
p. 294 : Lap. de Casteln,, Hist Nat. Ins., i, p. 133. 

g&biridescens, MacLeay, Annul, Javan., 1825, p, 16 : Hope, Col, Man., ii, fe. 2, L 
1. a — e. 

Hab, Java, 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidsc 53 

PLATYNINI ;— Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 141 : Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 3 3 : 
( Anohomenini } Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., ii., p. 91. 

Horn forms three sub-divisions :—Platyni fCalathn&, PristoriycTius ), Masorei, and 
Perigoni. 

Genus SPHODRUS- 

Clairville, Ent. Helv., ii, 1806, p. 88: Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, 1834, p. 310 : 
Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 340 : Mun. Cat., p. 356: Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii 
(3), 1864, p. 314 tab. syn. 

? brunneus, Hope, Gray's Zool, Misc., 1831, p. 21. 

Hab. Nepal. 
cordicollis, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc., xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 315. 

Hab. Circassia, Georgia, India [Ind. Mus., 1 var, Murree]. 

Indus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 67. 

Hab. N. W. Himalaya [ 1 Ind. Mus. Murree}. 

Genus EULEPTUS. 
Klug, Berieht uber Madagasc. Ins., 1833, p. 9 : Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 353. 
ooderus. Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 365. 
Hab. Himalaya. 

Genus FEANUS- 
Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 107. 
spinipennis, Bates, I. c, p. 108. 

Hab. Burma, Bhamo, Teintso. 

Genus ONYCHOLABIS 

Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 329. 
sinensis, Bates, I. e. , p. 329. 
Hab. Yangtse Valley. 

Genus CALATHUS- 

Bonelli, Obs. Ent., tab. syn., 1809: Dejean, Spec, iii, p. 62: Brulle, Hist. Nat. 
Ins. Col., i, 1834, p. 303 : Lacord., Gen. Col.,i, p. 342 : Gautier, MT. Schw. Ent. 
Ges., ii, 1867, p. 236 : Putzeys, Monograph, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 19 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 360 : Leconte, Proc. Acad. Phil., vii, 1854, p. 36 ; ib., 1860, p. 317. 
Odontonyx, Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins., 1829, p. 28 ; id., Man. Brit. Col., p. 28_ 
Pristodaetyla, Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 82 : Lacord., Gen. Col,, i, p. 343. 
Pristosia, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 311 : Mun. Cat. 
p, 360. 

aeneocupreus, Fairmaire, Ann, Sc. Ent. Fi\, (6 s ) vi, 1886, p. 314. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

catnaicus (Pristodaetyla), Bates, Trans, Ent. S, Lond,, 1873, p. 330. 
Hab Fucb.au, 



54 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplfe. 

cyclodera (Prlstodactyla), Bates, 1. c, p. 273. 
Hab. Fuchau, Japan. 

orenatus, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 82. 
Hab. N. India. 

Delevayli, Fairmaire, I. c, xxxi, 1887, p, 96. 

Hab. Yunnan. ... . . 

falsicolor, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr , (6 s.) vi, 1886, p. 315. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

Konaril, Putzeys, Ann. Soc Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873,. p. 72. 

angmtatus, Redtenb., Hiigel's Kaschmir, iv (2), 1844, p. 500 [nom.praeoc.% 

Hab. India, 
lateritlus, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent Fr„ (6 s.) vi, 1886, p. 314. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

pectinlger, Putzeys, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 86. 
Hab. N. India. 

piceus (Pristosia), Motsehulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 312 : Putzeys, Ann. 
Soc Ent. Belg., xvi, 1873, p. 91. 
Hab. India. 

Genus PRXSTONYCHUS- 

Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p 43 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 379 ; Lacord., 
Gen. Col., i, p. 341 : Mun. Cat., p. 358 : Schaufuss, Monograph, SB. Nat. Ges, 
'Isis,' xlii, 1865, p. 139': Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i). 1850, p. 379. 

Cryptotrichus, Schaufuss, Monograph, 1865, p. 110 : Mun. Cat. p. 355. 

Cryptoxenus, Motsch. , Bull., Mosc, xxxvii, (3), 1864, p 314. 

Ctenipes, Latreille Eegne Anim, (2 ed.) iv, 1829 p. 400. 

{Lccmostenus, Bedel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (5s) vii, 1877, p. 250. 
Lcemosthenes, Bonelli. Mem. Ac. Turin, 1809, tab-syn. ; Mun. Cat., p. 355. 
P/afy»M>TOmM,)Faldermann, Faun. Ent. Transc, i, 1835, p. 45 : Mun. Cat., p. 354- 
piscescens, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887, p. 95, 
Hab. Yunnan. 

splnlfer. Schaufuss, S. B. Nat. Ges. ' Isis,' 1862, p. 66 ; ib., Mon , 1865, p. 176. 
Hab. Himalaya. 

Genus PLATYNUS 

Bonelli, Obs Ent., i, 1809, tab. syn. : Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 316 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 366 : Leconte, Proc Acad. Phil., vii, 1854, p. 39 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. 
Lond., 1873, p. 278 ; id., Biol. Centr. Amer. Col., i (i), p. 91 : Leconte, Bull. Brookl. 
Ent. S., ii, 1879, p. 43. 

Agonocyrthes, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 317. 

Agonothorax, Motsch., /. c, p. 317. 

Agonum, Bonelli, Mem, Ac. Turin., 1813 tab. syn. 

Annhodemus, Motsch.. Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 317. 

Anchomenus, pt., Bonelli, Mem. Ac. Turin., 1813, tab, syn. : Lacord, Gen- 
Col., i, p. 349. 



1890] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 55 

Anchus, Leconte, Proo. Ac. N. Sci. Phil., vii, 1854, p. 38. 

Batenus, Motsch,, Bull. Mosc. I. c. supra, p. 1 3 1 7 ined. ? 

Clibanarius, Gozis, M. T. Schw. Ent. Ges., vi, 1852, p. 295, 

Dolichodes, Motsch., I. c. supra, p. 317. 

Europhilus (Chaudoir) : Motsch. 1. c. p. 317 : ined. 1 

Limod ramus (Eschscb.), Motsch., I. c. p. 317, 318. 

Oxypselaphus , Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xvi, 1843 p. 415. 

Promecoptera, Dejean, Spec, v., 1831, p. 443 ; Lacord,, Gen. Col., i, p, 

131 : Mun. Cat., p. 143. 
Rhadine, Leconte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 1848, p. 218. 
Rhytiderus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xvii (3), 1844, p. 470. 
Tanystola, Motsch., Bull. Mosc , xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 317. 
[Anchomenus (Bonelli), Bates (Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p, 93, should 

apparently be separated], 

aeneotinctus (Anehomenus), Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 330. 
Hab. Fuchau. 

amaroides (Calathus), Putzeys, Stettin. Ent. Zeit., xxxviii, 1877, p. 103. 

Hab. Darjiling. 
ceylonlcus (Agonothorax), Motschulsky, Et., Ent., viii, 1859, p. 36. 

Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya (Bates'). 
chtnensis, Bohemann, Preg. Eug. Resa, Col., 1858, p. 15. 

Hab. China. 
Daimio (Anchomenus), Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Load., 1873, p. 279. 

Hab. China, Fuchau, Japan. 
illocatus Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 203 : Bates (Anehomenus), ib., (5s. 
xvii, 1886, p. 146, 

degener (Aryutor), Walker, I. c. supra, p. 204. 

Hab. Ceylon, Nuwara Eliya. 

irtdens (Anchomenus), Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 329. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

* ladakensis, Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 718. 

Hab. Pamir, Pankong Valley, Tangtze, [/nd. Mas., type], 
laetus, Erichson, Nov. Acta Leop. Car., 1834, Suppl., p. 222, t. 37, f. 2. 

Hab, Philippines. 
limbatiooUis, Gemtn. & Har., Mun. Cat, p. 373. 

limbatus, Bohem., Freg. Eug. Resa, Col., 1858, p. 15 (nee Say), 

Hab. China. 
lisoopterus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i), 1854, p. 136. 

Hab. N. India. 
magnus (Anchomenus), Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 278. 

Hab. Tangtse Valley, Shanghai, Japan. 

marginalia (Lebia), Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 60. (? Anchomenus) 5 
(Promecoptera) Lap. de Casteln,, Hist, Nat. Ins,, i. p. 54 ; 
Hab. Bengal. 



5G E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the CarabidoD. [Supplt. 

nuceus (Ancliomenus), Fairniaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, p. 96. 

Hab. Yunnan. 
erbicollis (Agonocyrthes), Motscli., Bull. Mosc, xxxvif(3), 1864, p. 323. 

Hab. Hongkong. 
placidulus (Agonum), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H, (3s ) ii, 1858, p. 203. 

Hab. Ceylon, 
polltissimus, Bates, Proc. Zool., S. Lond., 1878, p. 719. 

Hab. India, Murree (Panjab) [Lid. Mks., type]. 

protcnsus (Dyscolus), Morawitz, Beitr. Kaferf. Jesso, 1863, p. 42 : Bates, Trans. 
Ent. S, Lond., 1S73, p. 278. 
Hab. China, Japan. 

scintlllans, Bohem., Freg. Eug Resa, Col.. 1858, p. 16. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

semicupreus (Agonum), Fairmaire, Ann. Soc.jEnt. Belg. 1887, p. 97. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

Genus DICRAKONCUS. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2),1850, p. 392 ; Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 358 : Mun. 
Cat., p. 384 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (5s.) viii, 1878, p. 277. 
Loxocrepis, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, 1834, p. 325 {nee Eschsch) : 
Motsch., Bull. Mosc., xxxvii (4), 1864, p. 309. 

amabilis, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) ix, 1859, p. 350 note ; id., (5s.) viii, 
1878, p. 277. 
ruficeps (Loxocrepis), Brulle {nee MacLeay), Hist. Nat. Ins., Col., i, 1834, 

p. 325, 1. 12, f . 2. 
Hab.jN. India, Java. 

einctipennis, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc Ent. Fr., (5s.) viii, 1878, p. 278. 
Hab. Ceylon, Hongkong. 

fenioralls, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxiii (2), 1850, p. 393 : id,, Ann. Fr., I.e. supra, 
p. 277 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 27?. 
coelestinus {Loxocrepis), Motsch., Bull. Mosc. xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 310. 
Hab. Bengal, Simla, Burma, Japan {Lewis'). 

Genus MENERA- 

Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p. 32. 
quattridens, Motschulsky, I.e., p. 32. 
Hab. Java. 

Genus C0LP0DES 
MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 17 : Lacord. Gen. Col., i, p. 361 : Mun. Cat., p., 
381 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) ix, 1859, p. 287 ; itt., Monograph, 
I.e., (5s.) viii, 1878, p. 278 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 100. 

Abropus, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p, 306 {nee Guerin). 
Dyscolvs, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 437 : Chaudoir, Bull, Mosc, xxiii (2), 
1850, p. 381 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 356. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 57 

Loxocrepis, Esehsch., Zool. Atlas, ii, 1829, p. 6 : Lacord., Gen, Col,, i, 

p. 362. 
Metallosomus, Motschulsky, Ball. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p, 304. 
Omiastus, Motschulsky, l.c , p. 306. 
Ophryodactylus, Chaudoir, I.e., xxiii (2), 1850, p. 382. 
Paranomus, Chaudoir, I.e., p. 383. 
Pleurosoma, Guerin, Mag. Zool., vi, 1844, t. 136. 
Seaphiodactylus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xi, 1838, p. 20, 
Stenocnemus, Mannerheim, Bull. Mosc, x, 1837, p. 29, 

abropoides, Chaudoir, Mon., I.e. supra p. 361. 
Hab. Philippines. 

aeneipennis (Dyscolus), Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 441 ; Chaudoir, Mon., p. 333. 
Hab. Java. 

aenescens, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 368. 
Hab. N. India. 

amoonus, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) ix, 1859, p. 327 ; Mon,, p. 367. 
splendent, Morawitz, Bull. Acad. Petrop., v, 1863, p. 324. 
Hab. N.-W. India, Ceylon, Dikoya (Bates), Java, Philippines, Japan. 

apicaila Chaudoir, Mon., p. 367. 
Hab. Philippines. 

Baconili Chaudoir, Mon., p. 311. 

Hab. Bengal. 
bengalensis, Chaudoir, Mon. p. 312. 

Hab. Bengal. 

blpars (Zebia), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H,, (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 203: Bates, id,, (5s.) 
xvii, 1886, p. 148. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

tbispinus (Euplynes), Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p, 33, 
Hab. Java. 

brunneus, MacLeay, Annul. Javan. , 1825, p. 17, t. 1, f. 3: Gray, Griffith Auim, 
Kingd. Ins., i, t. 15, f. 3 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p, 57. 
Hab. Java. 

Buchanan!, Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21 : Lap. de Casteln. I.e., supra, 
p. 57. 

Hab. Nepal. 

eoelopterus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 368. 
Hab. Shanghai. 

cruraUs, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 376. 
Hab. India, Malabar. 

Dohrnii, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3s.), ii, 1858, p. 429 ; Chaudoir, Mon., p. 375. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo, Pusilawa. 

Hardwickli, Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21 : Lap. de Casteln,, Hist. Nat. Ins. 
i, 1850, p. 57. 
Hab. Nepal. 

H 



58 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplt,. 

liirmocoeius, Chaudoir, Men., 365. 7 , 

Hab. N. India. 

incertus, 'Chaudoir, Mon., p. 369. 

2 = Buchanani, Hope, supra cit„ 

Hab. India, 
iteratus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 149, 

Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya, Nuwara Eliya. 

japonictig, (Tanystola), Motsch., Et. Int., 1860, p. 9:.? Morawitz, Bull. Acad. S't„ 
Petersb., v, 1863, p. 324 : Bates, Trans. Eat. S. Lond., 1873, p. 277. 
Hab. Japan, China. 

lampriodes, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 188$, p. 147. 
Hab. Ceylon, Hadley, Dikoya. 

luzonlcus, Chaudoir, Mon., 366. 
Hab. Philippines. 

nigriceps (Loxocrepis), Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p„ 310. 

Hab. India, 
nilgherriensis, Chaudoir, Mon., p, 301. 

Hab. India, Nilgiris, Malabar. 

obscuritarsis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 375. 
Hab. Burma, Rangoon. 

olivius, Bates, Trans. Ent. S,Lond., 1873, p. 33-1. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

ovallceps, Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 719. 
Hab. India, Murree \_Ind. Mus., typej. 

parallelus, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (5s.) is, 1859, p. 326 ; Mon., p. 36S-. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

plagioderus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 374. 
Hab. India. 

repletua, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886-, p. 148, 
Hab. Ceylon, Bogawantalawa. 

retusus, Bates, I.e. supra, p. 148. 

Hab. Ceylon, Kandy. 
rotundatus, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 302. 

Hab. Nilgais, Malabar, 
ruficeps (Lamprias), MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 25 : (Lowocrepis), Eshchscn. 
Zool. Atlas, ii, p. 6, t. 8, f. 3 : Gray, Griffith's Anim. Kingd., Ins., i, 1832, 
t. 19, f. 1 : Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Pr., (3 s.) ix, 1859, p, 348 ; id., Mon. 
p. 376 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1883, p. 263 ; id., Ann. Mag. N. H. 
(5 s.) xxii, p. 147. 

Hab. India, Java, Sumatra, Philippines [Ind. Mus., Calcutta, Sikkim]. 
scufitarsis (JDyscolus), Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 385 ; Ann. Soc Eat, 
Fr., (3 s.) ix, 1859, p. 351 j Mon., p. 375. 
Hab. Singapur, Sumatra. 



1830.] E. T. Mkimon— Catalogue of the Carabidse. . M 

aapbyrlnus, Chaudoir, Mori., p. 366. 

Hab. Penang, Tonda. 
aaphyripennis, Chaudoir, Mon., p. 334. 

Hab. India, 
aemiaeneus, Fairmaive, Ann. Soc. Ent, Fr,, (6 s.) vi, 1886, p. 315. 

Hab. Yunnan, 
semlstriatus, Chaudoir Mon., p. 365. 

Hab. N„ India. 
gmaragdipennis, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3 s.) ix, 1859, p. 359 : Mon., p. 375. 

Hab. Sumatra, Mt. Singalang. 
strJcticolUS, Fairmaire, Ann, Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.). vi, 1886, p. 316, 

Hab- Yunnan, 
subserioatus, Fairmaire, 1. c, p. 316. 

Hab. Yunnan. 

^ycophanta, Fairmaire, 1. c, p. 316. 
Hab. Yunnan. 

Xenos, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H,, (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 146, f 
Hab. Ceylon, Bogawantalawa. 

Genus PIRANTILLXJS> 

Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1819, p. 108. 

Feae, Bates, I. c, p. 109. 

Hab. Burma, Tenasserim, Meetan: 

Genus CAPHOKA- 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 91 : Lacord. Gen. Col., i, p. 309 : Schauta, 

Berlin Ent. Zeits., vii, 1863, p. 76 : Mun. Cat., p. 146. 
Jiumilis, Schmidt Goebel, I. c. supra, p. 91, t. 3, f. 8 : Chaudoir, Bull, Mosc, li (3), 
1876, p. 8. 

Hab. Burma. 

Genus ANATJLACTJS. 

MacLeay, Annul, Javan., 1825, p. 22 : Lap, de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 123. 

Aephnidins, MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 23 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist, 

Nat. Ins., i, p. 123 : Lacord., Gen. -Col., i-, p. 308 : Chaudoir, Mon,, 

p. 15. 
Macracanthvs, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xix, 1846, p. 539 ; id., Mon., p. 23 : 

Lacord., Gen. Col., i> p. 265. 
Masoreus, 'Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 536 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 140 : 

Mun. Cat., p. 145 : Zimmermann, Mon..,Gistl's Faunus, i, 1832, p. 119: 

Schaum, Berlin Ent. Zeit?., vii, 1863, p. 76 :" MotschulsU," Bull Mos<\, : " 

sxxvii (3), 1864, p. 23* : Chaudoir, Man., I.e.. li (3), 1876, < p. 11> 23. : 25 : 

Bates. Biol. Centr. Amer. Col., i (i), p. 174. 



$° . E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabid^. [Supplt. 

atfeHoideg (Aephnidius), MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 23, t, 1, f. 7 : Schmidt 
Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 88 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p, 
123 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 307 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 17 \ 
Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 110. 

serieeus, Zimmermann , Mon., 1832, p. 120 : Motseh., Bull. Mosc. xxxvi 

(3), 1864, p. 234 : Chaud., Mon, p. 17. 
Hab. Java, Bengal, Dekhan, Burma, Bhamo, Cochina China, Japan, W, 
Australia. 

fasciatus (Aephnidius), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 89: Chaudoir, 
Mon., P- 25. 

var. basalts, Fleutiaux, Aua. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) vii, 1887, p. 59, 60, t 

4, f. 1. 
Hab. Burma ; Annam, Hue. 

fuscipennis (Aephnidius), Schmidt Goebel, I. c, p. 89 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 16 : 
Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 110. 
Hab. Burma, Bhamo, Shwegu, Tenasserim. 

opaculus ( Masoreus), Zimmermann, Mon. Carab., 1832, p. 120 : Chaudoir Mon. 
p. 19. 

Hab. India, Ceylon. 

orientalia [Masoreus), Dejean, Spec, iii, 1828, p. 539 : Chaudoir, Mon. p. 14. 
grandis, Zimmermann, Mon. Carab., 1832, p. 121. 
laticollis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xvi (4), 1843, p. 778. 
Hab. India, Egypt, Abyssinia. 

pleuronectes (Masoreus), Zimmermann, Mori., 1832, p. 120 : Chaudoir, Mon. p. 19. 
Hab. India, Malabar, Coimbatore, Ceylon. 

quadrimaculatus (Aephnidius), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 90 : 
Chaudoir, Mon., p. 25. 
Hab. Burma. 

sericans (Masoreus), Schmidt Goebel, I.e. supra, p. 87 ; Chaudoir, Mon., p. 28(^<?«. 
dub. near Mochtherus). 
Hab. Burma. 

scricelpennls (Anaulacus), MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 22, t. 1, f. 4 : Lap. 
de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 123 : Chaudoir, Mon., p 25. 
Hab. Java. 

slamensls (Masoreus), Chaudoir, Mon., p. 25. 
Hab. Bangkok. 

simplex (Aephnidius), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 89 : Chaudoir, 
Mon., p. 22 : Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 110. 
Hab. Bengal, Malabar ; Burma, Bhamo, Mandalay. 

Genus PEKIGONA- 

Lap. de Casteln,, Et. Ent., 1834, p. 15 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xliv (2), 1872, p, 
281 : Putzeys, Ann. Mus, Civ. Gen., iv, 1873, p. 218 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., 
Col.,i(i), p. 133. 

Masoreus, pt, Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, p. 134. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. 61 

Nestra, Motscb., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 506 ; Et. Bnt., 1859. p. 37 : 

Mun. Cat., p. 394. 
Siltopia, Castelneau, Trans. It. S. Victoria, viii (2), 1868, p. 127. 
Spathinus, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H. (3 s.), ii, 1858, p. 428 : Mun. Cat,, 

p. 394. 
Trechicus, Leconte, Trans. Amer, Phil. Soc. x, 1853, p. 386 : Lacord., Gen., 

Col., i, p. 393. 

Beccaril, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 732. 

var. suffusa, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 151. 
Hab. Borneo, Sarawak ; Ceylon. 

oonvexicollis, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii. 1875, p. 729. 
Hab. Johore, Malayan Peninsula. 

flmicola, Wollaston, Ins. Mader., 1854, p. 63 : Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) viii, 1862, p. 
288 ; Col Hesperid. p. 27: Bates Ann. Mag. N. H., (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 150. 
Jansonianus, Wollaston, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 19. 
Hab. Cape Verde Islands, Ceylon, Colombo. 

livens, Putzeys, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., iv, 1873, p. 225. 
Hab. ? Coromandel. 

luzonlca, Putzeys, I. c, vii, 1875, p. 728. 
Hab. Philippines, Manilla. 

minor, Putzeys, I. c, p. 734. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 

nlgriceps (Spathinus), Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p 429. 
2 =Jimicola, Wollaston, supra cit. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

nlgricollis (Nestra), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4), 1851, p. 506 : Putzeys, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Gen., iv, p. 222. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak, Ceylon. 

nigrifrons (Nestra), Motsch., Et. Ent, 1859, p. 38, t. 1, f. 1 : Putzeys, I. c. supra, 
p, 220. 

Hab. Ceylon, Galle {Putzeys'), Bogawantalawa (Bates). 

ruficollis (Nestra), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxiv (4) 1851, p. 506 : Putzeys, Ann. 
Mus. Civ. Gen., iv, p. 222 ; Bates, I. c., (2 s.) vii, 1889, p. 104. 

Hab. Ceylon Kandy (Bates), Borneo, Sarawak (Putzeys), Burma (Bates). 
sinuaticollis, Bates, Ann. Mag N. H, (5s ) xvii, 1886, p. 149. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

ANCHONODERIN1 :— Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 1854, p. 373 : Bates, Ent. Mon. Mag., 
viii, 1871, p. 29 : Horn, Cat. Carab., p. 144 : Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., 
1883, p. 35. 

Genus LASIOCERA- 

Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 283 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, p. 142 : Chaudoir, 
Bull. Mosc, xxxii (2), 1850, p, 402 : Lacord., Gen. Coi., i, p. 376 : Mun. 
Cat., p. 397. 



f~2 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse, [Sapplt. 

OTientalis, Chaudoir, Bull, Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 403. 
Hab. N. India, 

Genus OCHTHEPHILUS. 

Nietner, Jl. As. Soc Beng., xxvi, 1857, p. 136; id., Ann. Mag. N. H., Ql s.) xx, 
1857, p. 275 : Mun. Cat. p. 399. 

Perileplus, Schaum, Nat. Ins., i, 1860, p. 663. 

eeylanlcus, Nietner, Jl. As. Soc. Beng., I. c. supra., p. 137 : Ann. Mag. I. <;, supra p. 
276 : Putzeys, Stettin Ent. Zeit., xxxi, p. 362. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

Genus SELINA- 

Motsch., Et. Ent., 1857, p. 110 : Schaum, Berlin Ent Zeits., vii, 1863, p. 74. 
Steleodera, Schaum, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xlv (i), 1872, p. 396. 

Bitsemae, Oberthiir, Notes Leyden Mus., v. 1883, p. 223. 
Hab. E. Sumatra, Serdang. 

Westermannli, Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1857, p. 110, t. 1, f. 6: Schaum, Berlin. 
Ent. Zeits., 1860, p. 172, t. 3, f. 11, a. b. 

setosus (Pselaphanax), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) iii, 1859, p. 52: 

Waterhouse, Aid Ident. Ins., t. 120. 
Hab. India, Tranquebar ; Ceylon, Peradeniya (Bates) ; 1 Madagascar, 
Natal. 

HEXAGONINI (Ctenoaac.tylini), Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 145. 

Genus HEXAGONIA- 

Kirby, Trans. Linn. S. Lond., xiv, 1825, p. 563 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Col., i, p. 476 ; 
Lacord., Gen. CoL, 1, p. 69 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 49 : Mun. Cat., 
p. 86 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 158. 

Trigonodaotyla, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 288 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc, 
xxxiv(i), 1861, p. 532. 
apicalis, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 51, t. 2, f. 1. 

Hab. Calcutta (Kasipur). 
Bowringil. Schaum, Berlin Ent. Zeits., 1863, p. 73, 433, t. 3, f. 8. 

Hab. Penang. 
Tbrunnea, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1361, p. 531 : Schaum, Berlin Eut. Zeits, 
vii, 1863, p. 433. 
Hab. N. India, 
cephalotes (Odacantha), Dejean, Spec. ii. 1826, p. 43 9: {Trigonodactyln*) Guerin, 
Mag. Zool., 1833, cl. ix, p. 73 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 31. 
Hab. India. 
Kirbyii, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 51, t. 2. f. 2, 
Hab. Dariiling. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidre. 6^ 

longithorax (Lebia), Wiedemann, Zool, Mag. ii (i), 1823, p. 58 : Sehaum, Berlin; 
Ent. Zeits., vii, 1863, p. 433. 
Hab. India, 

terminata, Kirby, Trans. Linn. S. Lond., xiv, 1825, p. 564 (nee Dejean) : Brulle, 
Hist. Nat. Ins., Col , i, p. 227 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. An. Art., i, p. 46. 
Hab. India. 

ODACANTHINI (OdontacantJi/ini Col. Hefte. vi,ip. 114): Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, 
p. 71 : Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 147 : Leconte & Horn., Class, Col., 1883, p. 38. 

Genus CASNONIA- 
Latreille, Ic. Col. Eur., i, 1822, p. 77 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 72 : Chaudoir' 
Bull. Mosc, xxi (i), 1848, p. 44 ; id., ib., xxxv (4), 1862, p. 275 ; xlv (i), 1872, 
p. 397 : Mun. Cat., p. 86 : Leconte, Bull. Brookl. Ent. S., ii, 1880, p. 85 : Bates, 
Biol, Centr. Amer., Col., i, (i), p. 160. 

Apiodera, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxi (i), 1848, p. 35: Lacord., Gen. Col.r 

i. p. 72. 
Zachnothorax, Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1862, p. 48. 
Ophionea, pt, Klug, Ent. Bras. Spec, prim, p. 298 (nee EschschJ. 
Plagiorhytis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxi (i) 1848, p. 31 : Lacord, Gen. 
Col., i, p. 71. - r ,.. 

c - - - 

?aploalls ( Odaeantha), Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xlv (i), 1872, p. 408. 
Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

biguttata [Lachnothorax), Motsch., Et Ent., 1862, p. 50. 

oculata, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxv (4), 1862, p. 291. 
Hab. India, Tranquebar ; Siam. 

blmaculata. Kollar, Hiigel Kaschmir, iv (2), 1844, p. 498, t. 23, f. 2 ; Chaudoir, BvilL 
Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 25. 

Hab. Kashmir, Simla [Ind. Mus.]. 
celebensis, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii 1875, p. 854. 

Hab. Siam, Bangkok. ... . _ , 

Chaudoirii' (Opldonea), Bohemann, Freg. Eug. Resa Col., 1858, p. 2. 
Hab. Hongkong [Ind. Mus.}. 

flistigma, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxii, (i), 1850, p. 26 ; xlv (i), 1872, p. 407. r 

bimaculata, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 18 (nee Kollar). 
Hab. Burma. 

flavlcauda, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 303. 
Hab. China, Fuchan, Japan. 

fulvtpennis, (Odaeantha), Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xlv (i), 1872, p. 407 : Bates, Trans 
Ent. S. Lond., 1883, p. 278. 
Hab. Hongkong, 1 Celebes. 

fusclpennia Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 26 ; id., xxxv (4), 1862, p, 
289 : Fairrn., Ann. Soc Ent. Fr., (6 s.) viii, 1888, p. 334. 

flab. India, Simla, Tranquebar, Siam, Malacca, Tonkin, Maccassar, China. 
Chusan, 



64 E. T Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplfu 

haemorrnoidalis, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3). 1864, p. 219: Chaudoir I. c. 
xlv (i), 1872, p. 404; lii (2), 1877, p. 266. 

Hab. India, Ceylon, Colombo (Bates), Siam, Celebes, 1 Chusaa. 

latlfascia, Chaudoir, Bull., Mosc, xlv (i), 1872, p. 404. 
Hab. India. 

litura (Odacantha), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 22: Chaudoir, 
Bull. Mosc, xlv (i), 1872, p. 405 ; lii (2), 1877, p. 266. 
Hab. Burma, Java, Japan. 

metallica, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) viii, 1888, p. 334. 

Hab. Tonkin. 
opacipennis, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2 s.) vi, 1888, p. 107. 

Hab. Burma, Bhamo. 
pilifera, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3 s.) ii, 1858, p. 179. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

punctata, Nietner, I. c, supra, p. 178. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

sutoapicalls, Oberthiir, Notes Leyden Mus., v, 1883, p. 216. 
Hab. E Sumatra, Serdang. 

tetraspilota, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 19. 

Hab. Burma, 
vlrgulifera. Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xlv (i), 1872, p. 403 : Gestro. Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Gen., vii, p. 854. 

Hab. Siam, Bangkok. 

Genus OPHIONEA 
Eschsch., Zool. Atlas, ii, 1829, p. 5: Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxi (i), 1848, p. 43; 
Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 73 : Mun. Cat., p. 85. 

Casnoidea, Lap de Casteln., Et., Ent., i, 1834, p. 40 ; id., Hist. Nat. An. 
Ins., i, p. 28. 
Beauchenii, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) viii, 1888, p. 333. 

Hab. Tonkin. 
cyanocephala (Carabus), Fabr.. Ent. Syst. Suppl., 1798 p. 60 : (Casnonia) Dejean 
Spec, i, p. 173 ; Lacord. Gen. Col. Atlas, t. 3. f. 2 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun." 
Col. Birm., p. 20. 

Hab. India, Ceylon, Colombo (Bates), Celebes, Japan, Hongkong [Ind. 
Mus., Calcutta, S. India]. 

tnterstitialis, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 20. 

Hab. Burma, Java, Soerabaya, Buitenzorg, Celebes. 
nigrofasciata, Schmidt Goebel, I. c, p. 21. 

Hab. Burma, Ceylon, Colombo (Bates) . 

Genus DICRASPEDA 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxv (4), 1862, p. 300. 
brunnea, Chaudoir, I. c. , p. 300. 
Hab, Siam. 



1890.] E. T. Aktinson — Catalogue of the Carabldse. 65 

33RYPTINI :-Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 148 : Leconte & Horn, Class Col., 1883, p. 40 : 
Lacordaire (Galeritidcs), Gen. Col., i, p. 79. 

Genus DRYPTA. 
Fabricius, Syst. Eleutb., i, 1801, p. 230 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, p. 163 : 

Lacord. Gen. Col., i, p. 75 : Mun. Cat., p. 90. 
aeneipennis, Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 109. 
Hab. Burma, Bhamo. 

amabilis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxv (i), 1852, p. 35 ( ? = Dendrocellu,<s id). 
Hab. India, Tibet. 

orassluscula, Chaudoir, l.o„ xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 550. 
Hab. N. India. 

dimdiata, Putzeys, Notes Leyden Mus., ii, 1880, p. 191 ; Mid. Sumatra, iv, 6, t. 2 f 
f. 2. 

Hab, Sumatra. 

flavipes, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 60 : Dejean, Spec, ii, p. 442: Lap° 
de Casteln., Hist. Nat. An. Arf., Ins., i, p. 34. 

pallipes, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 33 ; ib., (i), 1860, p. 548. 
Hab. N. India, Simla. 

fermosana, Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1873, p. 333 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., lii (2), 
1877, p. 257. 

Hab. Formosa. 

Uneola, Dejean, Spec, 1, 1825, p. 184 : MacLeay, Annul. Javan , p. 27 : Lap. de 
Casteln., Hist. Nat. An. Art, Ins, i, p. 33 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lii (2) 
1877, p. 262. 
var. philippinensis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lii (2), 1877, p. 262. 
Hab. India, China, Hongkong, Philippines \_lnd. Mus., Madras]. 

lugens, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 23. 
Hab. Burma. 

mandibularis, Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 43. 
Hab. India, Borneo. 

Mouhotii, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2s.), xxiii, 1872, p. 102. 
Hab. Laos. 

obscura, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 23. 
Hab. Burma. 

tristis, Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 23. 
Hab. Burma. 

vlrgata, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 34» 
Hab. India. 

Genus DENDROCELLUS 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 24: Lacord., Gen, Col., i p. 80 ! 
Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 545 : Mun. Cat. p. 91, 
Desera (Leach), Hope, Col. Man. ii, p. 96, 105. 



'66 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse. [Supplfc. 

aeneipes \Drypta), Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 60, 
Hab. India. 

discolor, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 24. 

Hab. Burma, Martaban [Ind. Mus., Dhansiri Valley, Assam]. 

geniculates, Klug, Jahrb. Insec, i, 1834, p. 52 : Schmidt Goebel, I.e., supra, p. 25, 
Hab. India, Assam, Burma, Malacca, Java, Japan. 

longicollis (Drypta), Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 185. 
Hab. India. 

nepalensis (Desera), Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 21. 

flavipes, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm. 1846, p. 24 : nee Wied. 

nee Dejean. Calcutta. 
rugicollis, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 546 t 
Hab. Nepal, Calcutta, Burma. 

parallelus, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2s.) xxiii, 1872, p. 101. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

unidentatus (Drypta), MacLeay, Annul. Javan., i, 1825, p. 28. 
coelestiniis, Klug, Jahrb. Insect,, i, 1834, p. 54. 
Hab. Java. 



Genus GALERITA. 

Fabr., Syst. Eleuth., i, 1801, p. 214 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, p. 166 : Schmidt 
Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p, 62 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 82 : Mun. Cat., p. 92, 
Leconte, Bull. Brookl. Ent. S., 1879, ii, p. 61 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer. Col., i (i), 
p. 164. 

attelaooides (Carabus), Fabr., Spec. Ins., i, 1781, p. 305 ; Mant. Ins., i, p. 198 ; Ent. 
Syst.. i, p. 132 ; Syst. Eleuth., i, p. 214;: Oliv., Ent., iii, 35, p. 50, t. 6, f. 70 : 
Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiv (i), 1861, p. 560. 

? leptodera, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 559. 
Hab. India, (not S. America). 

indica, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (2), 1861, p. 557. 
Hab. N. India. 

nigripennis, Chaudoir, I.e. p, 557. 
Hab. Dekhan. 

orientalis, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 26 : Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 109. 
Hab. Burma, Bhamo. 

peregrina, Dohrn, Stettin. Ent. Zeit., xli, 1880, p. 291. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

ruficeps, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 556 : Bates, Ann. Mus, Civ. Gen,, 
(2s.) vii, 1889, p. 109. 

Hab, N, India ; Burma, Bhamo, 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 67 

Genus ZUPHIUM. 

Lafcreille, Gen. Crust, & Ins., i, 1806, p. 198 : Lap. de Casteln., Monograph, Silb. 
Eev. i,p. 251 : Lacord., Gen Col., i, p. 85 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, p. 174 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 98 : Chaudoir, Bull Mosc, xxxv (4), 1862, p. 310 : Leconte, Bull. 
Brookl. Ent. Boo,, 1879, p. 61 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer Col., i (i), p. 166. 
Zophium, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 27. 
bimaculatum, Schmidt Goebel, Faun, Col. Birm., 1846, p. 28 : Chaudoir, Rev. Mag; 
Zool., 1872, p. 105. 

vittigerum, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 28. 
Hab. Burma, Martaban [Ind. Mus,, China]. 

erythocephalum, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxv (2), 1862, p. 311. 
Hab. India, Malabar. 

inconspicuum, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 30. 
Hab. Burma. 

modestum, Schmidt, Goebel, I. c, p. 29. 
Hab. N. India, Burma. 

©lens (fiarabus), Fabr., Ent. Syst., i, 1792, p. 139 ; id. (ffalerita), Syst. EIeuth. t 

i, p. 215 : Olivier, Ent., Hi, 35, p. 94, t. 13, f. 156 : (Zuphium) Dejean, Spec., i, 

p. 192 ; id., Ic. Col. Eur. i, t. 10., f. 3 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, p. 175, t. 6, 

£. 1 : Lap. de Casteln., Mon., p. 253 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 28 ; 

! Duval, Gen. Carab, t. 21, f. 105 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxxv (4), 1862, p. 311. 

longiusculum, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xv (4), 1842, p. 804 : id, xxxv (4), 1862, 

p. 312. 
o'vfifrons, Chaudoir, I. c, (4), 1862, p. 311. 
Hab. S. Europe, N. Africa, Asia Minor, Maulmain, Siara. 

pioeum, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 29.. 
Hab. Burma. 

punescens, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 182. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

slamense, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2 s), xxiii, 1872, p. 104, 
Hab. Siam. 

Genus AGASTUS- 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 30 : Lacord., Gen. Col, i, p. 87 : Mun. 

Cat., p. 95. 
lineatus, Schmidt Goebel, I. c, p. 91. 

Hab. Burma, 
ustulatus, R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. t vii, 1875, p. 876. 

Hab. Singapur. 
MOBMOLYCINI, Horn, Gen. Carab., p. 149. 

Genus MORMOLYCE 

Hagenbach, Nov. Gen. Col., 1825 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins. Col., i, p. 310 : Lacord. f 
Gen. Col. i, p. 144 r Mun. Cat., p. 152 : Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, 
p. 886. 



68 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue oj tie Carabidre. [Supplt. 

Castelnaudil, Deyrolle, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (2s.) iv, 1862, p. 314, t. 11, f. 3. 
Hab. Malacca. 

Hagenbachii, Westwood, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3*.) ix, 1862, p. 96 : Deyrolle, I, c. 
supra, p. 313, t, 11, f. 2. 

blattoides, Thomson, Mon. Mormolyce, 1862, p. 8. 
Hab. Sumatra. 
pnyllodes, Hagenbacb, Nov. Gen. Col., 1825, fig. a-b. -. Gray, Griffith's Anim, 
Kingd., Ins. i, 1832, t. 25, f. 7 : Brulle, Hist. Nat. Ins., Col. i, p. 313, t. 11, f. 2: 
Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i. p. 119, t. 7, f. 3 : Deyrolle, I. c. supra, 
t II., f. 1 : Verhuel., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1847, p. 344, t. 7, f. 1-6 : Overdijk, 
Mem. Ent. S. Pays-Bas, i, 1857, p. 41. 
var. bomeensis, Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 886, fig. 
Hab. Java, Borneo, 1 New Guinea \_lnd Mus., Singapur]. 

LEBIINIt-Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, x, 1882, p. 126: Gen. Carab., p. 155 r 

Leconte & Horn, Class. Col., p. 42. 
Lebiides, pt, Lacordaire, Gen. Col., i, p. 102. 
Pericalides, Lacordaire, I. c, p. 137. 
Includes Tetragonoderini, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, li (3), 1876, p. 28, 

Genus CYCLOSOMUS- 

Latreille, Regne Anim., ii., 1829, p. 394 : Dejean, Spec, iv, p. 23 : Lacord. Gen, Col. 

f, p. 258 : Mun. Cat., p. 248 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, li (3), 1876, p. 29. 
dytiscoides (dyticoides), Nietner, Jl. As. Soc. Beng., xxvi, 1857, p. 132 : Ann. Mag, 
N. H., (2s.) xx, 1857, p. 272 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, li (3), 1876, p. 31. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 
flexuosua, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., 1775, p. 246 ; Spec. Ins., i, p. 311 ; Mant. Ins., i, 
p. 203 ; Ent. Syst., i, p. 180 ; (Scolytus) Syst. Eleuth., i, p. 247 : Lap. de 
Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 96 : Lacord. Gen. Col. : Atlas, t. 10, f. 4 a- b. r . 
Gray, Griffith, An. Kingd., Ins. i, 1832, t. 8, f. 12 : Brulle\ Hist. Nat, Ins. Col. r 
ii, p. 140 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, li (3), 1876, p. 32. 

suturalis ( Scolytus), Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., i (3), 1819, p. 169. 
Hab. Bengal, Hongkong. 
marginatum, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 200: Chaudoir, ib.,li 
(3), 1876, p. 32. 
Hab. India. 

Genus TETRAGONODERTJS- 

Dejean, Spec, iv, 1829, p. 485 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 92 : Lacord., 
Gen. Col., i, p. 132 : Mun. Cat., p. 144 : Chaudoir, Monograph, Bull, Mosc, li (3), 
1876, p. 33 : Syn. Amer. Sp., Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. S., iv, 1872, p. 136 : Bates, 
Biol. Centr. Amer., Col., i (i), p. 171. 

Carabus, Fabr. et vet. auet : Bembidium, Wied., Germar : Dromius, Reiche, 

Putzeys, Dejean. 
Peronoscelis, Chaudoir, Hon., p. 56. 

arcnatus, Dejean, Spec, iv, 1829, p. 495 : Chaudoir, Mon., p. 38. 
Hab. Iudia, Egypt, Senaar. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 69 

cursor, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 201. 
Hab. Ceylon, Eandy. 

dilatatus (Bembidium), Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 61 ; Chaudoir, Mon,, 
p. 41. 

Hab. India, Bengal. 

disoopunctatus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 456 ; id., Mon., p. 48. 
Hab. N. India, Simla. 

fimbriatus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5 s.) xvii, 1886, p. 202. 
Hab. Ceylon, Kandy. 

notapnioides, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 99 : Bates, I. c. supra, p. 201 : 
Chaud., Mon. p. 54. 

Hab, Ceylon, Colombo, Dikoya. 

punctatus (Bembidium), Wiedemann, Zool. Mag., ii (i), 1823, p. 61 : Dejean, Spec. 
iv, p. 505 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 92 : Chaud., Mon. p. 48. 
Hab. India, Bengal, Dekkan. 

ciuadrinotatus (Carabus), Fabr., Ent. Syst. Suppl., 1798, p. 55 ; id., Syst. Eleutb. 
i, p. 186 ; Dejean, Spec, iv, p. 491 : Lap. de Casteln., Hist. Nat. Ins., i, p. 89 : 
Chaud., Mon., p. 41. 

Hab. India, Ceylon [Ind. Mus.J. 
quadrisignatus, Quensel, Schonherr, Syn. Ins., i, 1806, p. 212 note : Dejean, Spec. 
iv, p. 491 : Charad., Mon., p. 41. 

Hab. India, Hongkong [Ind. Mus., Madras], 
rhombophorus, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 93 : Chaud., Mon., p. 48. 
Hab. Burma, Martaban. 

talfasciatua, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (2), 1850, p. 455 ; id., Mon., p. 48. 
Hab. N. India. 

Genus MNUPHORUS- 

Chaudoir, Berlin. Ent. ZeitS., 1873, p. 55 ; id., Bull. Mosc, li (3), 1876, p. 69. 
discophorus, Chaudoir, l.c ., p. 69. 
Hab. N. India, Simla. 

Genua TILIUS* 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, li (3), 1876, p. 71. 

Lionychus, Chaudoir, olim (nee Wissmann). 

holosericeus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 68 ; id,, li (3), 1876, p. 72. 
Hab. N. Bengal. 

Genus DICTYA. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xliii, (2), 1870, p. 116, 123. 

crioricollis, Morawitz, Bull. Ac Petr., v. 1863, p. 245 : Chaudoir, I. c. iwpra, p. 124. 
Hab. E. Siberia, N. China, Canton (PuUeys, ). 



70 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidee. [SupplV 

Genus NEMATOPEZA- 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xliii (2), 1870, p. 146. 
Baconil, Chaudoir, I. e. supra, p. 150. 
Hab. N. India. 

toasalis (Lebia), Chaudoir, I. o., xxv (i), 1852, p. 43 ,~ id., ib., xliii (2),. 1870, p. 14& 

Hab. N. India, 
decora, Chaudoir, I. c, xliii (2), 1870, p. 150. 

Hab. N. India. 



Genus LEBIA- 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. Ins., viii, 1804, p. 247 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 127 : Mun. 
•Cat., p. 136: Motsch , Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 226, tab. tyn. : 
Chaudoirj I.e., xliii (2), 1870, p. Ill, 162 : Bates, Biol. Centr. Amer., Gol.,i(i), 
p. 222. 

EcMmuthus, Leach, Endinb.Encycl., 1818. D 

Homalops, Motschulsky, Kafer Russl, 1845, p. 42. 

Lamprias, Bonelli, Obs. Ent., 1809, tab syn. 

Lebida, Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1862, p. 51 ; id., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3>, 

1864, p. 225. •> 

Lebistina, Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, I.e., p. 227 : Chaud.,, I.e., lii (2), 1877,. 

p. 218. 
IAonedya, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xliii (2), 1870, p. 126* 
Omalomorpha, Motschulsky, Ins. Sib., 1842, p. 42. 

Boysil, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 70 ; xliii (2), 1870, p. 223. 
Hab. N". India, Simla. 

ealycopnora, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birua., 1846, p. 44. 

Hab. Burma, 
chinensis, Bohem., Freg. Eug. Besa, Col., 1853, p. 6 : Chaud., Bull. Mosc, xliii (2),. 

1870, p. 163. 

Hab. Hongkong [Ind. Mus., China,]. 

eircumdata, Schmidt^ Goebel, Faun. Col., Birm., 1846, p. 44 : Chaud., Bull, Mosc, 
xliii (2), 1870, p. 224. 
Hab. Burma. 

olevata (Carabus), Fabr., Ent. Syst., i, 1792, p. 162; Syst. Eleuth., i, p. 204;. 
Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxvii (i) 1854, p. 133 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col., 
Birm., p. 43. 

massiliensis, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1849, p. 419: Brulle, Silt»» 

Eev., ii, p. 108 
uni/asciata, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 389. 
Hab. S. Europe, Burma. 

exsanguis. Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 209. 
Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya. 

fuscula, Chaudoir, Bull, Mosc, xliii (2), 1870, p. 221. 
Hab. India, Simla. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse, '7:1 

gressorla, Chaudoir, I.e., p. 222. 
Hab. N. India. 

infuscata, Motscbulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 227. 
Hab. India. 

sellata, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm.. 1846, p. 45. 
Hab. Burma. 

tau, Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 45. 
Hab. Burma. 

Genus STEPHANA.. 

Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, Xliv (i), 1871, p. 55. 

princeps (Lebia), Chaudoir, I.e., xxv (i), 1852, p. 41 ; id, xliv (i), 1871, p. 56. 
Hab. N. India. 

Genus PHYSODERA. 

Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, ii, 1829, p. 8 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 46 j 
Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 130 ; Mun. Cat,, p. 143. 

Davldls, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxi, 1887, p. 92. 
Hab. China, Fuhkien. 

Uejeanii, Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, ii, 1829, p. 8, t. 8, f. 6 : Gray, Griffith's Anim. 
Kingd. Ins., i, t. 19 f. 4 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 130, Atlas, t. 4, f. 3 : 
Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 46. 

Hab. Burma ; Philippines, Manilla [Ind. Mus., Andamans], 

Eschscholtzii, Parry, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., v, 1849, p. 179, t. 18, f. 2. 
Hab. Ceylon, Peradeniya (Bates.). 

Genus EUPLYNES- 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 52 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 131 : 
Mun. Cat., p. 380 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1883, p. 264 ; id., Biol. Centr. 
Amer Col., i (i), p. 158. 
Wspinus, Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p. 33. 

Hab. Java, 
cyanipennis, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 52 : Bates, Ann. Mag 
N. H., (5s.) xvii, p. 147. 

Schmidtii, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (3s.) vii, 1859 p. 360, 
Hab. India, Burma. 

JDohrnii, Nietner, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 429 : Bates, 1. c.,(5s.) xvii, 1886, 
p. 147. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Genus ALLOCOTA. 

Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p. 29 : Mun. Cat., p. 146 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, Hi 

(2), 1877, p. 203, 
viridipennis, Motsch., Et. Ent., 1859, p. 29, f. 3 : Chaudoir, I.e. supra, p, 205. 
Hab. Singapur, Malacca, Java. 



72 E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of ike Carabidse. [Supplt. 

Genus P ARENA. 

Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p. 31 : Mua. Cat, p. 14 6 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, lii 
(2), 1877, p. 207. 

tricolor, Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p. 32. 
Hab. Java, 

Genus LACHNODERMA- 

W. MacLeay, Trans. Ent. S. N. S. Wales, ii, 1873, p. 321 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, 
lii (2), 1877, p. 212 : R. Gestro, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., vii, 1875, p. 858. 

hlrsutus (Singilit), Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond , 1873, p. 333 ; ib., 1883, p. 285. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

Genus SCALIDION- 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 63 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 135 : Mun. 

Cat., p. 147. 
hllare, Schmidt Goebel, I.e. supra, p. 64. 

Hab. Burma. 

Genua C0PTODERA 

Dejean, Spec, i, 1825, p. 273: Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 140: Mun. Cat., p. 149 : 
Memoire, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 163. 

Agonocheila, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxi, 1848, p. 119. 

Bdonognatlia, Chaudoir, I. c., xvi (3), 1843, p. 383 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, 

p. 142. 
Rkinothetia, Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1864, p. 57 : Mun. Cat., p. 
141. 

blcincta, Hope, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., iv, 1845, p. 14 : Chaudoir, Mem., p. 187. 
Hab. Canton, Hongkong. 

tfiscoguttata, Chaudoir, Mem , 1868, p. 195. 
Hab. Borneo, Celebes. 

elegantula, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 54 : Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Gen., (2s.) vii, 1889, p. 111. 

Hab. Burma, Bhamo, Teintso, Tenasserim. 

flexuosa, Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 55 : Chaudoir, Mem., p. 196. 
Hab. Burma, Singapur, Borneo. 

interrupta. Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 53 : Chaudoir, MSm., p. 194. 
Hab. Burma, Siam, Borneo, Ceylon, Colombo (Bates). 

ocellata, Chaudoir, Mem., p. 188. 

Hab. N. India, 
transversa, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p, 54 : Chaudoir, MM., p, 
165. 

Hab. Burma 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 73 

tetrastigma, Chaudoir, Mem., p. 174, 
Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 

piligera, Chaudoir, Col. Novit., 1883, p. 20. 
Hab. Tibet, Moupin. 

Genus LXQPTERA 
Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Eat. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 208. 
Plato, Hates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1883, p. 281, note. 
Hab. N. Borneo. 

quadrlguttata, Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 208. 
Hab. Philippines. 

Genus MOCHTHERUS. 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 76 : Lacord., Gen. Col , i, p. 137 : Mun 
Cat., p. 147: Chaudoir, Memoire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 240. 
Bromius, pt. MacLeay. 

Thyreopterus, pt, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 445. 
Cyrtopterus, pt, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 106. 

immaculatus, Redtenb., Reise Novara, Zool., ii, Col., 1867, p. 7 : Chaudoir, Mem. 
p. 243. 

Hab. Malacca, Java. 

tetraspilotus (Dromius), MacLeay, Annul. Javan., 1825, p. 25 : Schaum, Berlin 
Ent. Zeits.,1860, p. 187 : Chaudoir, Mini., p. 241. 

angulatus (Mochtherus), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 76. 
quadrinotatus (Cyrtopterus'), Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 106 : 

Gerst., Wiegmann Archiv. Naturg., 1863, p. 75. 
retractus (Panagaeus), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 203. 
tetrasemus (Thyreopterus~), Dejeau, Spec, v, 1831, p. 448. 
Hab. India, Malabar, Burma, Java, Borneo, Ceylon, Colombo, Galle {Bates), 
\_Ind. Mm., Andaman Islands]. 

Genus DOLICHOCTIS. 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 62 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 136 : Mun.. 
Cat., p. 147 : Chaudoir, Memoire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg , xii, 1868, p. 245. 
Cyrtopterus, pt, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 106. 
Coptodera, pt. Dejean. 

angulicollis, Chaudoir, Mem., p. 250. 

Hab. Burma, Rangoon. 
fasclola, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 205. 

Hab. Ceylon, Balangoda. 

gllvlpes, Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p. 396 : Chaud., Mem., p. 248, 
Hab. Philippines, Manilla. 

K 



74 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidse, [Supple 

gonioderus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 204. 
Hab. Ceylon, Kitugalle. 

marginifer (Dromius), Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 202 ; id, Bates, 
I.e. supra, p. 210. 

parvicollis, Chaudoir, Mem., p. 249. 

Hab. Borneo, 
quadriplagiata, Motsck., Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 106, t. 9, f. 4 : Chaudoir 
Mem. p. 245. 

marginicollis (Colpodes), Walker, Ana. Mag. N. H., (3s.) ii, 1858, p. 51. 

Hab. Ceylon, Anarajapura. 

lotundatus, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 77 : Chaud., Mem. p. 241, 
246 : Bates, Ann. Bins. Civ. Gen., (2s.) vii, 1882, p. 111. 
Hab. Burma, Bhamo, Teintso, Shwegu. 

striata, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1816, p. 62 : Chaudoir, Men. p. 216. 
Hab. Burma, Isl. Aru, ? Celebes. 

tenuilimbata, Oberthiir, Notes Leyden Mus , v, 1883, p. 219, 
Hab. Sumatra, Serdang. 

tetracolon, Chaudoir, Mem., p. 248. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak [Lid. Mus., SikkimJ. 

vitticollis, Bates, Arm. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p: 204, 
Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya. 



Genus BR ACHICTIS- 

Chaudoir, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 252. 

rugulosa, Chaudoir, I.e., p. 252. 
Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 

Genus PELIOCYPAS. 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 33 : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 116 ; Mmi, 

Cat. p. 127. 
nainatus, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 35. 
Hab. Burma. 

luridus, Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 35. 
Hab. Burma. 

signifer, Schmidt Goebel, l.c , p. 35 : Bates, Ann. Mag, N. H. (5s.) xvii, p. 209. 
Hab. Burma. 

suturalis, Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 34. 
Hab. Burma. 

aniformis, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6 s.) viii, 1888.. p. Sdi, 
Hab. Tonkin. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabidse. 75 

Genus DROMIUS. 
Bonelli, Obs. Ent., i, 1809, tabl. syn : Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 119 : Man, Cat , p. 
128 : Schaum, Ins. Deutschl., i (i), p. 263. 

Crossonychus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 97. 

Lobi-us, Motsch., Bull. Mosc, xxxvii (3), 1864, p. 230. 

Microlestes, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 41. 

Philorhizus, Hope, Col. Man., 1838, p, 66. 
exilis (Microlestes), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 42. 

Hab. Burma, 
inconspicuus (Microlestes), Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 41. 

Hab. India. 
orthogonioides, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 205, 

Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya. 

steno, Bates, I.e., p. 206. 

Hab, Ceylon, Nuwara Eliya. 

Genus BLECHRUS. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xx (3), 1847, p. 219 ; xxi (2), 1848, p. 543 ; Et. Ent., 
1858, f, 2, 3 : Mun. Cat., p. 131. 

xanthopus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 206. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

Germs METABLETUS. 

Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 38 : Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc., xxi (i), 1848, 
p. 94 : Lacord., Gen. Col, i, p. 122 : Mun. Cat, p. 132. 

Bomius, pt., Leconte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York., v, 1852, p. 177 : 

Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 120. 
Charopterus, Motsch., Et. Ent., 1858, p. 155. 
Dromoeeryx, Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 40, 

angularis {Dromoeeryx), Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 41. 

Hab. Burma, 
iorsalis {Dromoeeryx), Schmidt Goebel, I.e., p. 40. 

Hab. Burma, 
quadripunctatus, Schmidt Goebsl, I.e., p 39 : Bates, Trans. Ent. S. Lond., 1883, 
p. 284. 

Hab. Bengal, Japan. 

*tartareus, Bates, Proc. Zool. S. Lond., 1878, p. 719. 

Hab. Between Yangi Hissar and Sirikol \_Incl. Mxis., type], 

Genus APRISTUS- 
Chaudoir, Enum. Oarab. Caucas., 1846, p. 62 : id., Bull. Mosc, xxiii (i), 1850, p. 65 : 
Lacord. Gen. Col., i. p. 123 : Mun. Cat., p. 134. 

aeneipennis (Lionyehus), Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., 1846, p. 37 : Fairta. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6s.) viii, 1888, p. 335. 
Hab, Burma, Tonkin. 



76 E. T. Atkinson — Catalogue of the Carabidae. [Supplt- 

aeneomicans, Chaudoir, Bull. Mcsc. xxiii (i), IP 50, p. 66. 

Hab. N. India, Simla; 
subtransparens, Motseh., Bull. Mosc. xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 104: Bates, Ann. Mag. N.H., 
(5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 206. 

Hab. Ceylon, Nuwara Eliya, Hadley, Dikoya (Bates). 

Genus APRISTOMORPHUS. 

Motschulsky, Bull. Mosc, xxxiv (i), 1861, p. 104. 
sexpunctatus, Motschulsky, I.e., p. 105, t. 9, f. 2. 
Hab. Ceylon, Nuwara Eliya. 

Genus LIONYCHUS. 

Wissmann, Stettin Ent. Zeit., vii, 1846, p- 25 ; Lacord., Gen. Col., i, p. 122 : Mun. 

Cat., p., 133 : Schmidt Goebel, Faun. Col. Birm., p. 36. 
albivittis, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 207. 
Hab. Ceylon, Peradeniya. 

marglnellus, Schmidt Goebel, Faun, Col. Birm., 1846, p. 37, t. 3, f. 3. 
Hab. Burma. 

Genus TETRAGONICA- 

Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p. 26 ; Mun. Cat., p. 136 ; Bates Ann, Mag. N. H., (5s.) 

xvii, 1886, p. 207. 

catenata, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H,, (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 208. 
Hab. Ceylon, Bogawantalawa. 

euproctoides, Bates, I.e., p. 209. 
Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

fusca, Motschulsky, Et. Ent., 1859, p, 28, t. 1, f. 2. 

Hab. Ceylon, Nuwara Eliya, Dikoya, Bogawantalawa (Bates). 

intermedia, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p. 208. 
Hab. Ceylon, Horton Plains. 

mellea, Bates, I.e., p. 208. 

Hab. Ceylon, Colombo. 

repandens, Walker, Ann. Mag. N. H., (3s.) iii, 1859, p. 51 : Bates, I.e.. supra, p, 210. 
Hab. Ceylon. 

Genus BRACHICHILA. 

Chaudoir, M&moire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1868, p. 123. 

hypocrita, Chaudoir, Mem., I.e., p. 123. 
Hab. Hongkong. 

Genus TANTILLUS. 

Chaudoir, Memoire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg , 1868, p. 126. 

torunneus, Chaudoir, Mem., I.e., p. 126. 
Hab. Ceylon, Dikoya (Bates). 

vittatus, Bates, Ann. Mag. N. H., (5s.) xvii, 1886, p, 202. 
Hab. Ceylon, Bogawantalawa. 



1890.] E. T. Atkinson— Catalogue of the Carabulse. 77 

Genus SINUEUS- 
Chaudoir, Memoire, Am. Soc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 129. 
opacus, Chaudoir, Memoire, p. 130. 
Hab. Borneo, Sarawak. 

Genus SERRIMARGO 

Chaudoir, Memoire, Ann. £oc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p, 134. 
Thyreopterus, pfc. Schaum, Chaudoir ohm. 

guttiger, Schaum, Berlin. Ent. Zeits.. iv, 1860, p. 189, t. 3. f. 5 : Chaudoir, Mem, p, 
p. 135. 

Hab. Borneo, Sarawak, Malacca. 

verrucifer, Chaudoir, Rev. Mag. Zool, (2s.) xxi, 1869, p. 171 ; Mem., p. 135. 
Hab. Malacca. 

Genus PERIPRISTUS- 

Chaudoir, Memoire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xii, 1868, p. 135. 

ater (Thyreopterus), Lap. de Casteln., Et. Ent., 1834, p. 149 : Schmidt Goebel 

Faun. Col. Birm., p. 79 : Chaudoii, M&m., p. 136 : Bates, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., 

(2s.) vii, 1889, p. 110. 

Hab. Burma, Malacca, Bhamo, Tenasserim. 

Genus THYREOPTERUS- 

Dejean, Spec, v, 1831, p, 445 : Lacord., Gen. Col, i, p. 143 : Schaum, Berlin. Ent. 
Zeits., iv, 1860, p 186 : Mun. Cat, p. 151 : Chaudoir, Memoire, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., xii, 1868, p. 141. 

Thysanotus, Chaudoir, Bull. Mosc, xxi (i), 1848, p. 123.